#### Περιγραφή Προγράμματος

**Σκοπός**

Το προπτυχιακό πρόγραμμα σπουδών του Τμήματος Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών προετοιμάζει τους φοιτητές για την άμεση ένταξή τους στη βιομηχανία, με σκοπό την ανάληψη ευθύνης για ανάπτυξη, σχεδιασμό, κατασκευή, λειτουργία και συντήρηση ηλεκτρικών συστημάτων, ή τη συνέχιση των σπουδών τους σε μεταπτυχιακό επίπεδο. Στα πλαίσια του προπτυχιακού προγράμματος προσφέρεται η δυνατότητα επιλογής κατεύθυνσης σε «Ανανεώσιμες Πηγές Ενέργειας και Αειφόρα Ενεργειακά Συστήματα».

Το διαρκώς αναβαθμιζόμενο και ενημερωμένο με τις πιο πρόσφατες εξελίξεις πρόγραμμα σπουδών, προσφέρει ευρεία εκπαίδευση στο αντικείμενο του Ηλεκτρολόγου Μηχανικού με πληθώρα μαθημάτων του κλάδου της Ηλεκτρολογίας, η διδασκαλία των οποίων συνοδεύεται από τη διεξαγωγή εργαστηριακών ασκήσεων, στα εργαστήρια διδασκαλίας, α) ηλεκτρικών και ηλεκτρονικών συστημάτων, β) επικοινωνιών και αυτόματου ελέγχου, και γ) ηλεκτρικών μηχανών και συστημάτων ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας. Ο συνδυασμός θεωρητικών γνώσεων και πρακτικών δεξιοτήτων, παρέχει στους αποφοίτους τις απαιτούμενες γνώσεις για την κατανόηση και επίλυση προβλημάτων , και την κατάρτιση για την παροχή εξειδικευμένων συμβουλευτικών υπηρεσιών, στα πλαίσια των αρμοδιοτήτων του Ηλεκτρολόγου Μηχανικού, όπως καθορίζονται από το ΕΤΕΚ. Για τους φοιτητές που επιλέγουν να συνεχίσουν τις σπουδές τους σε μεταπτυχιακό επίπεδο, το προσφερόμενο πρόγραμμα μαθημάτων παρέχει μια στερεή και ευρεία βάση για την εξειδίκευση σε αντικείμενα του ίδιου αλλά και παρεμφερών κλάδων σπουδών.

Το πρόγραμμα έχει δύο κατευθύνσεις. Ο φοιτητής μπορεί να επιλέξει οποιαδήποτε κατεύθυνση ανάλογα με τα ενδιαφέροντά του. Οι δυο κατευθύνσεις είναι:

- Γενική κατεύθυνση Ηλεκτρολόγου Μηχανικού
- Κατεύθυνση Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας και Αειφόρων Ενεργειακών Συστημάτων

**Εργαστήρια**

Το Τμήμα διαθέτει εργαστήρια για υποστήριξη των μαθημάτων τα οποία περιλαμβάνουν εργαστηριακά πειράματα. Τα εργαστήρια είναι άρτια εξοπλισμένα με εκπαιδευτικό και άλλο εξοπλισμό τελευταίας τεχνολογίας για εκπλήρωση των στόχων του Προγράμματος.

Το Τμήμα Ηλεκτρολόγων Μηχανικών υποστηρίζεται από τα παρακάτω εκπαιδευτικά εργαστήρια:

- Αναλογικών Κυκλωμάτων
- Ψηφιακών Κυκλωμάτων
- Ηλεκτρονικής
- Αναλογικών και Ψηφιακών Επικοινωνιών
- Ηλεκτρικών Μηχανών και Συστημάτων Ισχύος.
- Συστημάτων Ελέγχου
- Μηχανικής Η/Υ

**Πρακτική Άσκηση**

Οι φοιτητές του Τμήματος έχουν τη δυνατότητα πρακτικής εξάσκησής κατά τους καλοκαιρινούς μήνες μέσω συμφωνιών του ιδρύματος με τοπικές βιομηχανίες του κλάδου.

Οι Υποψήφιοι στο τέλος του προγράμματος θα έχουν αποκτήσει:

- Κατανόηση βασικών νόμων και εννοιών της μηχανικής με αποτέλεσμα την ανάπτυξη ικανοτήτων ερμηνείας και αξιολόγησης προβλημάτων μηχανικής και ιδιαίτερα της Ηλεκτρολογίας.
- Προσφορά ευρείας εκπαίδευσης στον κλάδο με μαθήματα Ηλεκτρολογίας σε συνδυασμό με σχετικά μαθηματικά και άλλα υποστηρικτικά θέματα.
- Ενίσχυση της κατανόησης της θεωρίας, μέσα από εργαστηριακές ασκήσεις εφαρμογής ηλεκτρικών, ηλεκτρονικών και ψηφιακών κυκλωμάτων, γραμμών εκπομπής και ηλεκτρονικών επικοινωνίας, ηλεκτρικών μηχανών και μετατροπέων.
- Απόκτηση απαραίτητης γνώσης για παροχή συμβουλευτικών υπηρεσιών στον κλάδο.
- Απόκτηση γνώσης σε εξειδικευμένα θέματα βασισμένα στον τομέα ενδιαφέροντος του κάθε φοιτητή.
- Απόκτηση γνώσης σε θέματα σχεδιασμού, εφαρμογής και συντήρησης συστημάτων Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας και Αειφόρων Ενεργειακών Συστημάτων για τους φοιτητές που επιλέγουν την κατεύθυνση ΑΠΕ&ΑΕΣ.
- Προετοιμασία των φοιτητών για συνέχιση της εκπαίδευσής τους μέσα από μεταπτυχιακά προγράμματα.

Οι Ηλεκτρολόγοι Μηχανικοί μπορούν να απασχοληθούν σε διάφορες επιχειρήσεις, οργανισμούς και βιομηχανίες του κλάδου, αλλά και ως ελεύθεροι επαγγελματίες. Οι διάφοροι τομείς του κλάδου σχετίζονται με τις κτιριακές και βιομηχανικές εγκαταστάσεις, την παραγωγή και μεταφορά ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας, τις τηλεπικοινωνίες, την ηλεκτρονική, τους αυτοματισμούς και τα συστήματα ελέγχου. Μεγάλος αριθμός αποφοίτων του Τμήματος απασχολούνται στους διάφορους τομείς που αναφέρθηκαν πιο πάνω. Ορισμένοι απόφοιτοι επιλέγουν τη συνέχιση των σπουδών τους σε διάφορα συναφή μεταπτυχιακά προγράμματα του κλάδου. Οι απόφοιτοι με κατεύθυνση στις ‘Ανανεώσιμες Πηγές Ενέργειας και Αειφόρα Ενεργειακά Συστήματα’ έχουν τη δυνατότητα απασχόλησης στο τομέα των συστημάτων ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας και το σχεδιασμό και εφαρμογή καινοτόμων αειφόρων ενεργειακών συστημάτων σε κτιριακές και άλλες εγκαταστάσεις.

Το πρόγραμμα στηρίζεται στο σύστημα συσσώρευσης ευρωπαϊκών πιστωτικών μονάδων ECTS. Στους φοιτητές απονέμεται το Πτυχίο Ηλεκτρολόγου Μηχανικού με τη συμπλήρωση 240 πιστωτικών μονάδων. Οι μονάδες αυτές κατανείμονται σε υποχρεωτικά και επιλεγόμενα μαθήματα. Στους πιο κάτω πίνακες φαίνονται οι διάφορες κατηγορίες μαθημάτων και οι λίστες με τα μαθήματα της κάθε κατηγορίας.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων | ECTS |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα | 203 |

Επιλεγόμενα Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης | 30 |

Ελεύθερης Επιλογής | 7 |

ΣΥΝΟΛΟ |
240 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα **

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 203 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | AEEE161 | Ηθική και Επαγγελματισμός στη Μηχανική | 3 | 2 |

2 | AEEE170 | Εισαγωγή στην Ηλεκτρολογική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

3 | AEEE191 | Ψηφιακά Κυκλώματα Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

4 | AEEE192 | Ψηφιακά Κυκλώματα ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

5 | AEEE195 | Αρχές Προγραμματισμού | 5 | 1 + 2 |

6 | AEEE222 | Ανάλυση Κυκλωμάτων Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

7 | AEEE223 | Ανάλυση Κυκλωμάτων ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

8 | AEEE225 | Όργανα και Μετρήσεις | 5 | 3 + 2 |

9 | AEEE238 | Ηλεκτρονικά Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

10 | AEEE239 | Ηλεκτρονικά ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

11 | AEEE294 | Αρχιτεκτονική Υπολογιστών | 5 | 3 |

12 | AEEE298 | Εργαστήριο Ηλεκτρολογίας | 6 | 3 + 2 |

13 | AEEE299 | Συγγραφή Τεχνικής Έκθεσης | 3 | 2 |

14 | AEEE309 | Υπολογιστικές Μέθοδοι και Αλγόριθμοι για Ηλεκτρολόγους Μηχανικούς | 5 | 3 |

15 | AEEE310 | Σήματα, Συστήματα και Μετασχηματισμοί | 5 | 3 |

16 | AEEE312 | Εισαγωγή στον Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμό | 5 | 3 |

17 | AEEE313 | Γραμμές Μεταφοράς και Κυματική | 6 | 3 + 2 |

18 | AEEE321 | Συστήματα Τηλεπικοινωνιών Ι | 7 | 3 + 2 |

19 | AEEE323 | Επίλυση Προβλημάτων Ηλεκτρολογίας με Χρήση Matlab και Simulink | 5 | 3 + 2 |

20 | AEEE345 | Συστήματα Ελέγχου | 6 | 3 + 2 |

21 | AEEE350 | Εισαγωγή στα Συστήματα Ισχύος | 5 | 3 |

22 | AEEE351 | Ανάλυση Συστημάτων Ισχύος | 5 | 3 + 1 |

23 | AEEE352 | Ηλεκτρικές Μηχανές | 6 | 3 + 1 |

24 | AEEE396 | Ενσωματωμένα Συστήματα | 5 | 3 |

25 | AEEE414 | Αυτοματισμοί και Ρομποτική | 5 | 3 |

26 | AEEE415 | Συστήματα Αυτοματισμών Πραγματικού Χρόνου | 5 | 3 + 2 |

27 | AEEE422 | Συστήματα Τηλεπικοινωνιών ΙΙ | 7 | 3 + 2 |

28 | AEEE424 | Επεξεργασία Ψηφιακών Σημάτων | 5 | 3 |

29 | AEEE438 | Ψηφιακά Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα Ι | 5 | 3 |

30 | AEEE498 | Εισαγωγή στην Πτυχιακή Εργασία | 1 | 1 |

31 | AEEE499 | Πτυχιακή Εργασία | 7 | 1 |

32 | AMAT111 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία Ι | 5 | 3 |

33 | AMAT122 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία ΙI | 5 | 3 |

34 | AMAT181 | Γραμμική Άλγεβρα με τη Χρήση «MATLAB» | 5 | 3 |

35 | AMAT204 | Διαφορικές Εξισώσεις | 5 | 3 |

36 | AMAT223 | Λογισμός ΙΙΙ | 5 | 3 |

37 | AMAT300 | Πιθανότητες και Στατιστική | 5 | 3 |

38 | APHY111 | Μηχανική, Θερμότητα και Κύματα με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

39 | APHY112 | Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμός και Οπτική με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

**Επιλεγόμενα Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης **

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 30 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ACES103 | Στατική | 5 | 3 |

2 | ACOE243 | Διασύνδεση Υπολογιστών | 5 | 3 + 1 |

3 | ACOE347 | Συλλογή Δεδομένων και Συστήματα Αυτοματισμών | 5 | 2 + 2 |

4 | AEEE295 | Αρχιτεκτονική Μικροεπεξεργαστών | 6 | 3 + 1 |

5 | AEEE419 | Ψηφιακή Επεξεργασία Εικόνας | 5 | 3 |

6 | AEEE423 | Μηχανική Ραδιοσυχνοτήτων | 5 | 3 |

7 | AEEE425 | Κεραίες και Ραντάρ | 5 | 3 |

8 | AEEE426 | Εργαστήριο Κεραίων | 5 | 0 + 3 |

9 | AEEE431 | Ανάλυση Μοντέρνων Συστημάτων Ελέγχου | 5 | 3 |

10 | AEEE432 | Εργαστήριο Συστημάτων Δυναμικού Ελέγχου | 5 | 0 + 3 |

11 | AEEE433 | Συστήματα Διακριτού Ελέγχου | 5 | 3 |

12 | AEEE434 | Εισαγωγή στις μεθόδους Βελτιστοποίησης και Εφαρμογές | 5 | 3 |

13 | AEEE435 | Προγραμματιζόμενοι Λογικοί Ελεγκτές και Βιομηχανικές Εφαρμογές | 5 | 3 |

14 | AEEE439 | Ψηφιακά Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα ΙΙ | 5 | 3 |

15 | AEEE444 | Ασύρματες Επικοινωνίες | 5 | 3 |

16 | AEEE450 | Κανονισμοί Ηλεκτρικών Εγκαταστάσεων Ι | 5 | 3 |

17 | AEEE451 | Κανονισμοί Ηλεκτρικών Εγκαταστάσεων ΙΙ | 5 | 3 |

18 | AEEE452 | Σχεδιασμός Ηλεκτρικών Εγκαταστάσεων και Εφαρμογές | 5 | 3 |

19 | AEEE453 | Ανάλυση Προηγμένων Συστημάτων Ισχύος | 5 | 3 |

20 | AEEE454 | Βασική Προστασία Συστημάτων Ισχύος | 5 | 3 |

21 | AEEE455 | Έλεγχος Συστημάτων Ισχύος και Σταθερότητα | 5 | 3 |

22 | AEEE456 | Ηλεκτρονικά Ισχύος | 5 | 3 |

23 | AEEE457 | Ανανεώσιμες Πηγές Ενέργειας | 5 | 3 |

24 | AEEE493 | Επικοινωνίες με Οπτικές Ίνες | 5 | 3 |

25 | AMEM417 | Διαχείριση Έργου για Μηχανικούς | 5 | 3 |

#### Course Contents

**Introduction and Overview**

Definition of “engineering ethics”

Presentation of three scenarios concerning “ethical issues”

**Engineering Code of Ethics**

Introduction to engineering code of ethics

ETEK Code of Ethics (students will need to obtain a copy)

NSPE Code of Ethics (students will need to obtain a copy)

The use of cases as being central in the teaching of engineering ethics

**Professional responsibility and trust**

Professional responsibility and trust

Conception and Philosophical issues

Definition of a “Professional” Engineer

**Responsibility of Engineers:**

Responsibilities of Engineers as employees and Managers

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize and handle effectively moral problems and issues in engineering.
- Comprehend, clarify and assess arguments on opposing sides of moral issues.
- Define what is a profession.
- Form consistent and comprehensive view points based upon a consideration of relevant facts.
- Understand ethical commitment and professional responsibility of mechanical engineers

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Electrical Principles: **Basic electrical units, Electrical symbols, multiplication factors.

**Basic Electrical Quantities:** Resistance, charge, current, voltage, power and energy.

**DC circuit analysis:** Series – parallel circuits, Ohm’s Law, Kirchoff’s Law, Voltage and current Divider Rule.

**Alternating voltages and currents: **Sinusoidal signals, frequency, amplitude, period, peak, average and RMS values. Express AC quantities in rectangular and polar forms.

**Capacitive and inductive circuits: **Types of capacitors, capacitance, inductance, types of inductors, Analysis of RLC circuits.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Distinguish the principal circuit components. Perform multiplication factor conversions.
- Identify and calculate electrical quantities and units of charge, resistance, current and voltage. Implement Ohm’s Law.
- Make power consumption and energy dissipation calculations. Compute energy costs of electrical appliances.
- Recognize simple resistor topologies. Analyzing series and parallel circuits. Use of voltage and current divider rule. Analyze resistor topologies circuits using Kirchhoff’s Law.
- Identify sinusoidal signals, frequency, amplitude, period, peak, average and RMS values.
- Use different types of energy storing components (L, C) in simple topologies. Analyze R L C circuits when they are excited with alternating current or voltage sources.

#### Course Contents

**Introductory Digital Concepts**: Analogue/Digital systems, definitions, advantages of Digital systems.

**Number Systems:** Decimal, binary, Sign Magnitude, Hexadecimal, 1’s and 2’s complement calculations.

**Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification**: Rules of Boolean Algebra, De Morgan’s theorem, Simplification guidelines and examples.

**Logic Gates**: OR, AND, NOR, NAND, NOT, XNOR, XOR, Truth table and Boolean expression corresponding to each gate.

**Combinational Logic**: design of circuits, simplification with the use of K-Maps, SOP, POS design.

**Combinational Logic building blocks:** Adders, Encoders, Decoders, Comparators.

**Sequential logic circuits**: Flip-flops.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognise the advantages of digital over analog systems.
- Manipulate numbers and arithmetic between commonly used number systems.
- Implement basic circuits using Binary Logic and Gates.
- Apply Boolean Algebra and simplify Boolean expressions.
- Analyse, design and simplify Combinational logic Circuits.
- Analyse simple sequential circuits.

#### Course Contents

**Synchronous sequential circuits.** Flip-Flops, flip-flop triggering, state diagrams and equations, excitation tables, state reduction and assignment. Design of circuits such as synchronous counters, sequence detectors, parity generators etc.

**Algorithmic** ** State ** ** Machines.** ASM charts and timing considerations. Data processors. Control implementation using decoders, multiplexers and PLAs. Design of circuits to perform arithmetic operations.

**Asynchronous sequential circuits . **Analysis of asynchronous circuits, transition tables, flow tables. Design procedure of asynchronous circuits** **

**Hardware description languages (VHDL).** Levels of description: Behavioral, register transfer, and gate level. Signals, variables, processes and control structures. Simulation and examples using VHDL.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse latches and flip flops and describe their characteristic and excitation tables.
- Analyse synchronous sequential circuit operation using different flip-flop types.
- Design, synchronous sequential circuits (FSM) using different flip-flop types.
- Identify and convert FSM to different implementations (Mealy-Moore).
- Analyse and design different register and counter implementations
- Describe the concept of ASM and interpret ASM charts and their basic building blocks.

#### Course Contents

Basic concepts of imperative programming.

Program development through data representation and construction of algorithms using selection, iteration, and sequence.

Information representation in programs (types and variables).

Statements, assignments and operations.

Conditional and repetitive statements.

Principles of algorithmic design.

Composite data type (arrays, structures),

Data input/output.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify and differentiate data types, variables and constants. Recognise and interpret precedence rules.
- Analyse and decompose a problem into parts. Translate problem into flow-charts and pseudo-code design methods.
- Develop and apply correct syntax in programs.
- Identify syntax and logic errors in a program.
- Identify when decision and repetition structures have to be used and choose the appropriate one for each case.
- Apply standard search algorithms.
- Demonstrate user-friendliness in program development and determine test procedures.

#### Course Contents

Systems of units, scientific notation. Current, voltage, resistance and their units. Voltage and current sources.

Ohms Law. Series and parallel combinations of resistors.

Kirchoff's voltage and current laws. Voltage and current divider rules.

Circuit analysis methods. Mesh Analysis, Node Voltage, source transformations.

Thevenin's and Norton's theorem, maximum power transfer, Superposition theorem.

Introduction to the concept of impedance. Introduction to ac circuit analysis. Simple R-L, R-C, and RLC circuits. Bridges.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Develop competence in the use of Kirchoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchoff's current law (KVL) in simple resistive circuits.
- Use KVL and KCL to determine currents voltages and power. Value the difficulty of these tasks for large circuits and the need of structured methods.
- Appraise the importance of voltage and current divider rules in circuit analysis.
- Develop an understanding of systematic analysis of linear resistive circuits using Mesh, Node Voltage method, Source Transformations and the principle of Superposition.
- Comparison of the various methods and development of competence in choosing the most appropriate and efficient method to analyze a specific circuit.
- Appraise the importance of Thevenin’s Theorem. Develop competence in deriving the Thevenin equivalent circuit and calculate maximum power transfer to the load.
- Understand the concept of impedance. Ac circuit analysis of simple R-L, R-C, and RLC circuits.

#### Course Contents

**Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits: **The Natural Response of an RL Circuit. The Natural Response of an RC Circuit. The Step Response of RL and RL Circuits.** **

**Natural and Step Responses of RLC circuits: **Natural Response of a parallel RLC Circuit.** **Forms of the Natural Response of a parallel RLC Circuit.** **Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit.** **Natural Response of a series RLC Circuit.** **Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit.** **

**Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis: **The Sinusoidal Source. The Sinusoidal Response. The Phasor. The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain. Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain. Series, Parallel and Delta-to-Wye Simplifications. Source Transformations and Thevenin-Norton Equivalent Circuits. The Node-Voltage Method. The Mesh Current Method.** **

**Introduction to the Laplace Transform: **Definition of the Laplace Transform.** **The Step Function. The Impulse Function. Functional Transforms. Operational Transforms. Applying the Laplace Transform. Inverse Transforms. Poles and Zeros of F(s). Initial and Final Value Theorems.** **

**Laplace** ** Transform in Circuit Analysis: **Circuit Elements in the s-Domain. Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain. Transfer Function. Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions. Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral. Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response. The Impulse function in Circuit Analysis.** **

**Two Port Networks: **Representation of circuits as Two Port Networks in the s-domain. Calculation of z- parameters, Study of Π, series, parallel, and T-networks, Open circuit tests, Closed circuit tests.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basics of series and parallel combinations of inductors and capacitors and understand, analyze and derive the natural and step responses of RL and RC circuits.
- Describe phasors and the phasor domain, analyze sinusoidal steady state analysis of RLC circuits, explain passive circuit elements and sources in the phasor domain, explain Kirchhoff’s laws in the phasor domain, use source transformations to derive Thevenin-Norton equivalent circuits and use the node voltage method and the mesh-current method in the phasor domain.
- Define the Laplace Transform and its properties, explain the step and impulse functions, poles and zeros, analyze circuit elements in the s-domain, describe Laplace transform in circuit analysis, analyze the impulse function in circuit analysis and the impulse response and transfer function of RLC circuits.
- Explain resonance, analyze series and parallel resonant circuits, derive the quality factor, resonance frequency and bandwidth and plot the amplitude of the output versus frequency and relate these circuits to passive filtering.
- Explain the representation of circuits as Two Port Networks, calculate z-parameters, study series, parallel, T networks and symmetrical networks, calculate parameters using open-circuit and closed-circuit tests, formulate the parameters in matrix form.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements: **Principle of Instrumentation and Measurements, Error in Measurement,Measurement Standard,Uncertainties.

**DC and AC meters : **Introduction to DC Meters, d’Arsonval Meter Movement,DC Ammeter,DC Voltmeter,DC Ohmmeter,Introduction to AC Meter,d’Arsonval Meter Movement (half-wave rectification),d’Arsonval Meter Movement (full-wave rectification),Loading Effects of AC Meter.

**Oscilloscopes and Signal Generators :**Introduction to Oscilloscope,Architecture of Oscilloscope,Introduction to Signal Generator,Architecture of Signal Generator.

**Measuring Devices (Sensors and Transducers): I**ntroduction to Sensors and Transducers,Basic Electrical Sensing Elements,Strain Measurement,Introduction to Calibration,Calibration Techniques.

**Signal Conditioning**: Introduction to signal conditioning, bridge circuits, amplifiers, protection, filters.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic mechanical and electrical measurement and instrumentation concepts.
- Explain in detail the working principle of DC/AC meters.
- Apply independent judgment in performing instrument measurements calibration and linearization.
- Analyze the working principles, operation and applications of various sensors and transducers.
- Explain the mechanism and the characteristics analogue signal conditioning.
- Use boards to assemble and test various sensors in the laboratory.

#### Course Contents

**Basic Semiconductor: **Introduction to semiconductors materials, N-type and P-type semiconductors, diode model and voltage current characteristics, diode biasing.

**Diode Applications: **Half-wave and full-wave rectification, power supply filter and regulators, clippers and clampers, voltage multipliers, diode datasheets.

**Special Purposes Diodes: **Zener diodes, varactor diodes, optical diodes, other types of diodes.

**Bipolar Junction Transistors: **Transistor structure and operation, transistor characteristics and parameters, transistor as an amplifier, transistor as a switch, transistor packages and terminal identification.

**Transistor Bias Circuit: **Q-point, voltage divider bias, other bias methods.

**Field Effect Transistors**: Transistor structure and operation, transistor characteristics and parameters, biasing circuits.

**BJT amplifiers: **Amplifier operation, ac equivalent circuit, common-emitter Amplifier, common-base Amplifier, common-collector amplifier, multistage amplifiers.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the mechanism and the characteristics of the basic semiconductor devices.
- Explain the diode characteristics and applications.
- Examine the operation and biasing configurations of the Bipolar Junction Transistor.
- Explain the optimum component values for the design of the BJT amplifier under DC and AC conditions.
- Describe the operation and biasing configurations of the Field Effect Transistor.
- Use software packages and boards to design, simulate, implement and test various circuits with semiconductor devices.

#### Course Contents

**Operational Amplifiers:** The differential Amplifier, Op-Amp characteristics and parameters. Voltage gain, input-output impedance, input offset, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio, Effects of Negative feedback.

**Op-Amp Applications:** Non-inverting, inverting and summing Amplifiers. Differentiator and integrator. Comparators and Analogue to Digital Flash Converter. Digital to analogue converter using summing amplifiers.

**Frequency Response: **Open- and closed loop configuration gain and phase response, cut-off frequency, bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product.

**Active Filters**: Basics of low pass, high pass and band pass, first and second order active filters. Higher-order Active Filter design (Butterworth, Chebychev and Bessel).

**Oscillators:** Principle of operation of oscillators. Voltage controlled (VCO) oscillators. Operation and applications of the 555 timer in monostable and astable mode. Phase lock loops (PLL). Analogue to digital conversion and Sampling.

**Laboratory work:** Individual and small group experiments performed with the use of Electronic boards, components, measuring instruments and simulation packages. Experiments include the design, construction on Electronic boards and analysis of the circuits and devices taught in theory. Testing is performed using signal measuring equipment such as digital multimeters, oscilloscopes and spectrum analysers. The performance of the designed circuits is also simulated and the results are evaluated and compared with the experimental analysis.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define the input and output characteristics of the operational amplifier (op-amp) and identify the basic op-amp parameters. Estimate the 741 Op-amp Voltage gain, input-output impedance, input offset, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio. Review the negative feedback principle and appraise the effect of Negative feedback on the voltage gain and frequency response of the op-amp.
- Derive the voltage gain of op-amp applications, such as the non-inverting, inverting, summing, integrator and differentiator amplifier. Estimate the voltage gain of the various op-amp applications and select the appropriate components to achieve the desired signal conditioning of the input signals. Design Analogue to Digital Converter and Digital to Analogue converters, using op-amps.
- Identify the open- and closed-loop gain and phase response parameters of the op-amp, such as cut-off frequency, bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product. Deduce the gain and phase response of a first-order low pass filter. Construct the overall gain and phase frequency response of cascaded op-amps.
- Classify the frequency responses of low-, high- and band-pass filters. Deduce the gain and phase response of first order and second order op-amp based active filters and select appropriate resistor and capacitor values to construct the required gain and phase response. Integrate first and second order active filters in the design of higher order active filters such as Butterworth, Chebychev and Bessel filters. Use the relevant table and propose suitable component values for the design of higher order active filters.
- Describe the principle of operation of oscillators. Examine the operation of voltage controlled (VCO) oscillators and calculate the condition for oscillation. Explain the operation of the 555 timer and distinguish the monostable and astable mode of operation. Perform analogue to digital conversion and sampling using oscillators.

#### Course Contents

**CPU Performance:** Overview of the history of computer architecture development. Emerging trends and technology drivers. Assessing computer performance based on different metrics (execution time, CPI and other performance parameters).Amdahl’s law.

**Introduction to computer organization and architecture:** Instruction cycle and flow of information at the register level. Instruction Set Architectures, instruction formats and instruction decoding. Relation between machine language, assembly language and high level languages.

**CPU design basics:** Datapaths, register files, ALU, shift and rotate circuits. Control unit implementation, hardwired control. Single-cycle and multi-cycle non-pipelined CPU design.

**Computer Arithmetic:** Implementation of a basic 32-bit ALU. Control signals for the ALU. Multiplication and Division algorithms. Introduction to floating-point numbers. IEEE double precision floating point format.

**Memory Hierarchy:** The memory locality principle. Cache memory organization and mapping. Cache replacement and write policies. Cache performance metrics. Virtual memory.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the metrics and benchmarks based on which evaluations between different systems can be made.
- Describe the instruction execution cycle with reference to the flow of information at the register level, and analyse typical Instruction Set Architectures with respect to the number of operands, addressing modes and branch types.
- Describe the internal structure and operation of a CPU datapath and design a simple single-cycle and a multi-cycle non-pipelined CPU.
- Explain how memory organisation affects the performance of a computer and how cache memory exploits locality to reduce the memory wall problem.
- Describe the operation and evaluate the performance of the common cache memory mapping methods.
- Explain the operation of a pipelined CPU and the advantages gained from such an approach. Analyse the problems that arise with respect to hazards and practical ways to detect and overcome these hazards.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to electrical workshop facilities and necessity for risk assessment, categories of electric shock, understanding electric shock risk (direct and indirect) and ES protection methods, concepts in electrical safety and regulations, earthing concept and systems.

-Practical skills in soldering techniques, mounting and soldering of components; and visual inspection of work, manufacturing techniques and technologies, packaging (through-hole and surface mount), component identification for interpretation of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layout diagrams, interpretation of circuit schematic diagrams, component tolerances, component stability and preferred values.

- Use of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design software, Design and fabrication of PCBs for fundamental electronic and digital devices, PCB testing, electronic component fault diagnosis

- Applications of transformers, operation principle, analysis under load/no-load, ideal transformer, transformer losses, efficiency, open / short circuit tests, isolating transformers, autotransformers, single/three phase transformers, power supplies.

-Workmanship in electrical installations, familiarization with electrical installation accessories such as protective devices, circuit breakers, switches, isolators, time switches, distribution boards, electrical panels, wiring, identification and installation methods of cables, uninterruptible power supplies, battery technologies, battery testing.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand and appreciate the risk of electric shock and protection methods in electrical installations.
- Develop skills and good workmanship in relation to the erection of electrical installations and accessories.
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of transformers and power supplies.
- Familiarize and experiment with printed circuit boards and identify common electronic PCB applications.
- Design and fabricate PCBs in the laboratory for a specific application.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Technical Communication: **The need of Technical Writing. Development of concepts and skills of Technical Writing. Development of semantic information and structure. The ethics behind technical writing. Using sources and understanding plagiarism in all of its forms.

**Technical Report Writing: **The different types of academic papers and their application. Building a strategy of organising ideas, processing them and presenting them to a targeted group. Report readability. How the structure, format and contents of a report should be organised. Report writing. Organisation of the report structure. Chapters. Contents of each chapter. References

**Basic Principles in Technical Writing: **Correct use of grammar. Use of passive and active tense, Past and Present tense. Common Errors/Problems. Homonyms words, misused words, punctuation. Representation of numbers/numerals, fractions, decimals, units of measure and equations in a report.

**Oral Presentation: **Purpose and applications. Organisation and structure. Chapters and their contents. The use of bullet points, figures and graphs. Timing, speed, attention span, personal approach, good visual aids (PowerPoint), logical sequence, practice, answering questions.

**Writing an email: **Email types, Structure, recipient sender information, subject line. Links and attachments. Contents of an email, salutation, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling, grammar, electronic signature. Format. Rules and things to avoid.

**Writing a Letter: **Types of letters. Strategy. Letter components, recipient sender information, addresses, dates, salutation, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling, grammar, signature. Basic letter formats.** **

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Develop concepts and skills of Technical Writing. Expand existing knowledge of writing. Construct a framework to begin the writing process. Identify different frameworks depending on the type of academic manuscript.
- Clarify the ethics behind technical writing. Acknowledge presented work, sources and understand plagiarism in all of its forms.
- Categorise the different types of academic manuscripts. Clarify the different purposes they serve and develop capacity to write one.
- Expand knowledge on the structure of an academic manuscript. Determine the function and the information conveyed in each part of the manuscript.
- Compare the vast amount of information available. Evaluate useful information. Illustrate good organisational skills for sorting and using information.
- Analyse the purpose of a style guide and how it helps to write a report in a professional manner. Apply the Departmental Style Guide and the information it conveys. Use the Style Guide effectively.
- Identify property rights in computer software and ethical issues of software piracy. Develop own ethical frameworks for Computer/Information Professionals. Familiarise with project proposals and project reports. Develop capacity to write a project proposal and reports. Analyse the work carried out in an academic manuscript.
- Explain the concepts of oral presentations and how information is conveyed. Summarise information to only necessary and important statements.

#### Course Contents

Application of interpolation methods for curve fitting.

Use of numerical approaches for integration and differentiation.

Review of Ritz and Galerkin methods for formulating variational problems. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis for Electromagnetic field problems. Discretisation of variational formulations generated using Maxwell’s equations. Development of discretised variational formulation with the use of shape functions. Assembly of finite element matrices and standard eigenvalue problem formulation.

Understanding of explicit time-dependent partial differential equations solution methods. Introduction of basic finite difference techniques for the solution of Electromagnetic field problems in the time domain. Finite Difference Approximation of the Transmission Line Equations. Application of the Yee-algorithm for the solution of time dependent Maxwell equations for vector electromagnetic fields

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the concepts of interpolation for curve fitting and apply this techniques to obtain the interpolation polynomials for given data sets and various functions
- Apply numerical integration techniques for the solutions of integral functions and calculate the approximate solutions of first and second order differential equations.
- Describe the electromagnetic field evolution in terms of Maxwell’s equation and the various approaches used for its numerical analysis.
- Comprehend the principles of the Finite Element Method and apply the above techniques to formulate engineering problems
- Apply Finite Difference approach to formulate Engineering problems in the frequency and time domain.

#### Course Contents

**Signals:** Classifications. Operations on signals: amplitude and time scaling, addition. Special signals: Unit step, Unit impulse, sinusoidal, exponential, complex exponential.

**Systems:** Classification of continuous-time systems and their properties. Linearity, time invariance, causality and stability. Description of continuous-time systems using differential equations. General forms. Impulse response. Input output description and the convolution integral. Graphical interpretation of convolution.

**Fourier series:** Derivation of the trigonometric Fourier series. Calculation of the Fourier coefficients. Combined trigonometric and exponential forms of the Fourier series. Harmonics and frequency spectra. Average value, RMS value, instantaneous and average power of periodic signals.

**Laplace** ** Transform:** Definition. Laplace transform of functions. Properties. Inverse Laplace transform using partial fraction expansion. Application of the Laplace transform to continuous-time linear systems analysis. Transfer function, poles and zeros, BIBO stability.

**Fourier Transform:** Definition. Properties. Fourier transform of functions. Frequency spectra of signals. Frequency response of LTI systems. Magnitude and phase responses.

**Analog filters**: Ideal filters. Specification of filters in terms of their frequency response. Magnitude and phase responses of filters. Group delay.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Categorize the various types of signals. Recognize and manipulate special signals. Understand and calculate quantities such as average value, RMS value, instantaneous power and average power of signals. Perform mathematical operations on signals such as amplitude scaling, time scaling, addition and subtraction.
- Classify continuous time systems based on linearity, time invariance and causality. Derive the convolution integral. Use convolution to calculate the output of a system, graphically and analytically, given its impulse response and the input. Compute the impulse response of cascaded systems.
- Compute the Fourier series of periodic waveforms and the Fourier transform of non-periodic waveforms. Employ the Fourier series and the Fourier transform to obtain the frequency spectra of signals.
- Compute the Laplace Transform of signals. Analyze LTI systems using the Laplace transform and the Fourier transform. Obtain the transfer function, frequency response and test their stability. Derive the impulse response of LTI systems from the transfer function using partial fraction expansion.
- Integrate the knowledge attained to compute the impulse response, the transfer function and the frequency response of simple electrical systems. Derive the impulse response of ideal filters. Specify, design and analyze simple analog filters. Classify filters in terms of their frequency response.

#### Course Contents

**Vector analysis:** Definition of Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates system. Vector calculations, use of gradient, divergence, rotation and laplacian operators.

**Electrostatics:** Gauss’ law, Coulomb’s law, integral and differential form of Maxwell’s equation for electrostatics. Derivation of Ohm’s law using Maxwell’s equations. Calculation of E field caused by discrete and continuous charge distribution. Calculation of capacitance for parallel plate and cylindrical capacitors. Comparison between boundary conditions between two dielectric media and between a metal and a dielectric.

**Magnetostatics:** Use of Ampere’s law, Biot – Savart’s law, calculation of inductance and self-inductance using the concept of magnetic flux. Magnetic boundary conditions, forces between current carrying conductors and moments on current currying loops in the presence of magnetic fields.

**Time harmonic electrodynamics: **Use of Maxwell’s time dependent equations for the operation explanation of AC voltage generator and of an electric motor. Forces and torques on loops or linear conductors in the presence of time-varying B field.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Examine the use of vector and scalar operators in Maxwell’s equations
- Apply Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems to calculate vector integrals.
- Associate the use of boundary conditions between dielectric media with metal dielectric interface
- Apply Gauss’ law to calculate E field from discrete and continuous charge distributions.
- Analyze the capacitance from planar and cylindrical structures, calculate electrostatic forces and torques on charge distributions.
- Explain the development of magnetic forces on current currying conductors using Biot-Savart’s law.
- Calculate self and mutual inductance for coaxial cables and random shape circuits in the presence of magnetic fields.
- Analyze the operation principles for AC generators and electric motors using time harmonic EM fields.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Waves**.:Electric and Magnetic Fields. Traveling Waves.

**Transmission Lines:** Wavelength. Propagation modes. Modeling of transmission lines. Line parameters. Lossless and lossy lines. Reflection. Standing waves. VSWR. Input Impedance.

**Smith chart**: Line stub matching and quarter wave transformer.

**Waveguides:**Applications. Propagation modes. Governing equations. Cutoff frequency and wavelength.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the fundamentals concepts of electromagnetic wave transmission.
- Explain the various transmission media and their applications
- Apply the theory of waves in transmission lines using Smith chart, line stub matching and quarter wave transformer.
- Analyze theoretically and experimentally the propagation of electromagnetic waves in waveguides with emphasis on rectangular waveguides.
- Use boards to gain practical experience through related lab experiments in the transmission and propagation of electromagnetic waves.

#### Course Contents

**Amplitude Modulation**

Study and analyze Amplitude Modulation (AM) systems, DSB-AM, Modulation index and efficiency, carrier frequency, side-frequencies, spectrum and spectrum plots. Single tone and multi-tone modulation. Over-modulation and distortion. Spectrum. Other forms of AM, DSB-SC-AM, SSB-AM and Vestigial Sideband. Spectra. AM transmitters. Demodulation schemes of AM signals. Study the super-heterodyne receiver and the Costas Loop. Operation of the mixer, the envelope detector and the product detector. Costas Loop. SSB-AM demodulation. Phasing and filtering method.

**Angle Modulation**

Phase Modulation, PM. Phase function and complex envelope. Phase deviation, modulation index, spectrum and bandwidth. Tone modulation. Carson ’s rule. Plots.

Frequency Modulation, FM. Instantaneous frequency and frequency deviation. Sensitivity and modulation index. Bandwidth and Carson ’s rule. Spectrum of single tone modulation using Bessel functions.

Narrowband and wideband FM. Generation and demodulation. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis systems. Frequency Division Multiplexing transmitter, receiver and spectra.

** **

**Noise in Communication Systems**

Noise. Signal-to-Noise ratio. Noise figure. Cascaded devices. Friis’ theorem. Link budget evaluation.

** **

**Laboratory Experiments**

Introduction to Communications

Information, information sources, analog and digital. Deterministic and random signals. Channels. Communication systems. Frequency allocation. Instantaneous power and average power, rms value, Decibel. Signal to Noise ratio. Spectrum. Overview of Fourier series, Fourier Transform and spectrum of signals.

**Amplitude Modulation (AM) **

General form of bandpass signals. Complex envelope. Amplitude Modulation. DSB-AM, SSB-AM and DSB-SC-AM. Modulation index and efficiency, carrier frequency, side-frequencies, spectrum and spectrum plots. Over-modulation and distortion. Average power and peak envelope power. Envelope detector. Multi-tone modulation. Power of AM signals. Generation and demodulation of AM. Costas Loop. Super-heterodyne receiver.

**Angle Modulation **

Phase Modulation, PM. Phase function and complex envelope. Phase deviation, modulation index, spectrum and bandwidth. Tone modulation. Carson ’s rule. Frequency Modulation, FM. Instantaneous frequency and frequency deviation. Sensitivity and modulation index.. Bandwidth and Carson ’s rule. Spectrum of single tone modulation using Bessel functions. Narrowband and Wideband FM. Generation and demodulation. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. Frequency division multiplexing.

Noise in Communication Systems

Noise. Signal-to-Noise ratio. Noise factor and noise figure. Cascaded devices. Friis’ theorem. Link budget evaluation.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyze continues systems and signals in time and frequency domain and determine the concepts of instantaneous and time-averaged values
- Construct AM communication systems and combine system units to assembly DSB-AM, SSB-AM and DSB-SC-AM modulation, transceivers.
- Determine the structural units of angle modulation systems and modify proposed communication systems to accommodate the need for PM, FM and NBFM modulation considering the frequency domain limitations.
- Compare and argue the performance of AM and PM communication systems and assess the effect of noise in the transceiver’s complexity and modulation’s effectiveness.
- Experiment with the taught communication units using the available simulation packages at the laboratory and justify the selection of a communication system upon the application.

#### Course Contents

Matlab fundamentals, Input Output, Program Flow, built in and user defined functions, Graphics manipulation, working with matrices and vectors, exporting Matlab data to Excel. Direct current and transient analysis, Alternating current analysis, C/AC circuits, Laplace Transform and inverse Laplace transform, convolution, Fourier transform and signal processing, Fourier Series, Complex exponential Fourier series, discrete time representation of continuous-time signals. Optimization, Method of steepest descent, Langrange multipliers. Simulink, creating and running a model, typical building blocks, constructing subsystem, using built in blocks.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Represent mathematically described signals into a set of data that can be effectively used by Matlab software, using sampling and descritization theorems.
- Apply Matlab software to analyze large scale electric circuits with direct current and alternating current excitations.
- Create and modify Matlab graphics to visualize vector or scalar quantities effectively.
- Use Matlab for Laplace transform calculations in order to convert functions is their s domain transformation, for which analytical solution is not possible or just to difficult to apply.
- Use Fourier transform in Matlab to calculate a systems’ transfer function or to do power and energy calculations in frequency domain.
- Use Simulink to build a new model and customize it accordingly to meet the provided specifications.

#### Course Contents

Introduction: Control Objective, Main Components a Control System, Open loop Systems, Closed Loop Systems, Control Design Procedure..

Derivation of Differential Equations for Electrical and Mechanical systems.

Laplace Transforms, Transfer Functions, Step Responses, Impulse Responses, Solution of Differential Equations.

Input-Output Stability, Poles, Zeros, Complex Numbers, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion.

Transient Response Characteristics, Percentage-Overshoot, Rise-Time, Steady State Response, Final Value Theorem.

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, Nyquist Stability Criterion, Phase Margins, Gain Margins.

Proportional Control Action, Phase Lead, Phase Lag Compensators, Integral Control Action.

Closed Loop Control Design using the Root Locus method.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review Laplace Transform theory and define the block diagram representation of the open and closed-loop transfer function concept in engineering control systems. Appreciate the advantages of closed loop systems relative to open loop systems.
- Derive the mathematical model of basic electrical, mechanical and hydraulic control systems. Introduce MATLAB and SIMULINK software tools.
- Analyse the basic parameters of the closed-loop transfer function and the static characteristics of a control system. Determine experimentally and simulate the basic parameters of a DC Servo Motor Control System.
- Examine the action of aperiodic signals in the transient-response analysis of first-, second- and higher-order control systems. Implement transient response analysis of first-order and second order control systems using MATLAB and SIMULINK.
- Examine the action of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative Controllers on the static and transient characteristics of control systems. Model and simulate the effects of basic controllers on a DC Servo Motor Control using MATLAB and SIMULINK.
- Interpret the meaning of stability of control systems in terms of the transfer function. Judge the stability of a closed-loop control system from the Routh-Hurwitch Criteria.
- Draw Bode and Nyquist Plots. Judge the stability of a control system using the Phase and Gain margin criteria in frequency domain plots.
- Interpret Root-locus design concepts and draw Root-Locus plots. Examine the effect of open-loop zeros and poles in Root-Locus Plots.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to electrical systems**: generation, transmission, distribution system characteristics in Cyprus . Principle of power generation using oil fuelled generator.

**Introduction to transmission system:** transmission system consideration, cable parameters, series impedance of a line, short transmission line model, polar and rectangular formation of impedances.

**Introduction to distribution systems:** distribution system considerations. Types of load, power quality, voltage sags, distribution network planning.

**Transformer operation:** basic magnetic principles, transformer circuit diagram, operation of transformer in power systems.

**Motor loads:** characteristics of motors, general circuit diagram of an induction motor, effect on power quality.

**Power in 3-phase systems:** definition of active, reactive, apparent power, power factor, mathematical formulation relating to the identification of power at a system. Circuit analysis to obtain power and power factor.

**System analysis**: delta to star and star to delta transformation used in the analysis of interconnected impedance circuits.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain basic principles of electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Describe the principle of operation of a generator.
- Explain basic transmission system considerations: transmission line cable parameters, series impedance, ideal transformer operation and basic magnetic principles.
- Explain distribution system considerations: types of load (static, dynamic loads), introduction to general characteristics of motor loads.
- Describe power in 3-phase ac systems: definition and calculations of active, reactive and apparent power. Calculation of power with circuit analysis.
- Describe mathematically the analysis of radial and mesh power networks (d-y transformation) as well as calculation of multilevel voltage system currents.

#### Course Contents

**Per unit Analysis**: Parameter calculation for transformers, loads and transmission lines and mathematical identification of per unit voltage and current quantities at various points of a radial system.

**Symmetrical components:** theory for three phase system analysis, Development and application of the ‘A’ operator matrix and inverse matrix for system analysis. Calculation of the various current and voltage symmetrical components.

**Delta and Star connected loads:** Effect of load connection on the voltage and current calculations of the system, phasor diagrams and power for each connection.

**Power factor correction:** Calculation of the power factor of a loaded system, consisting of Resistors, inductors and capacitors. Precision improvement of the power factor through sizing the reactive compensation with the use of capacitor banks.

**Transmission Line representation:** Development of mathematical description of the ABCD parameters of medium transmission lines, calculation of Voltages , currents and power through two port network analysis.

**Protection:** Introduction of Protection Devices, CB, Relays, Operation of Fuses, protection of Line with the use of Differential scheme, calculation of CT ratio.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe mathematically how the ‘A’ operator matrix is derived as well as the inverse matrix, and calculate the symmetrical phasors of the currents or voltages of an unbalanced system with the use of symmetrical components
- Describe the various currents and voltages involved in Star connected load analysis.
- Describe the various currents and voltages involved in Delta/Mesh connected load analysis.
- Describe how the insertion of reactive power compensation devices leads to the improvement of the power factor in a system, evaluate the amount of Capacitance required for power factor correction under heavily inductive loading cases.
- Explain how the per unit system analysis method is used to analyze a multy node multy voltage level system, and evaluate the per-unit and actual voltages and currents at the various system buses.
- Describe the operation and evaluate the performance of medium transmission lines through ABCD parameter analysis.
- Explain the function of circuit breakers and relays in the differential protection scheme, and evaluate the characteristics of current transformers.

#### Course Contents

**Magnetic circuits: **magnetic fields, magneto-motive force, magnetic flux density, magnetic flux, magnetic field strength, permeability, reluctance, magnetic circuit by analysis techniques, variation of B with H

**Transformer steady-state description, theory and analysis: **application of transformers, operation principle, equivalent model, analysis under load/no-load, voltage regulation, inductance, ideal transformer, transformer losses, EMF equation of a transformer, leakage flux, efficiency, open / short circuit tests, current transformers, auto transformers

**Asynchronous Machines - Induction Motors:** terminology, applications of IM, elements, of IM, rotor construction types, operation principles, synchronous speed, rotor speed, concept of slip, effect of number of poles, equivalent circuit, powers in IM, torque, starting of IM

**Synchronous Machines - Generators****:** terminology, applications and elements of SM, rotor construction types, operation principles, synchronous speed, rotor speed, effect of number of poles, equivalent circuit, powers in SM, torque, voltage regulation, synchronous impedance, power angle

**DC Machines – DC Motor:** terminology, advantages/disadvantages, DC machines as generators and motors, applications and elements of DC machines, compound/series/shunt would rotor construction, operation principles, speed of motor, torque of motor, speed and torque characteristics, speed control, equivalent circuit.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Examine and analyse magnetic circuits and air-gap effects
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of Power Transformers
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of D.C. motor and generator machines
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of A.C. motor and generator machines
- Investigate in laboratory environment the characteristics of AC/DC machines and star/delta loads

#### Course Contents

· **Introduction to Embedded Systems Design:** Introduction to embedded processor/ microcontroller systems. Design considerations. Microcontroller and microprocessor differences. Microcontroller families.

· **Embedded System Architecture:** Architecture of CPU, I/O interface, system memory, busses and timer. Harvard and Princeton Architectures. Complex instruction set computing and reduced instruction set computing architectures.

· **8051-Based Microcontrollers:** The 8051 microcontroller system, real-time input and output applications. CPU timing and the instruction cycle. The quartz crystal oscillator. Pin allocation of the 8051 IC. Analysis of the special function registers and flags.

· **Assembly Programming:** Manipulation of register banks and stacks memory. Loop and call instructions. Creating time delays and calling subroutines. I/O programming, bit manipulation. Arithmetic and Logic functions, signed and unsigned addition and multiplication..

· **Applications:** Serial Communication programming. Real world interfacing. Interfacing LCD. Control of stepper motor.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the differences between a microcontroller and a general-purpose processor.
- Identify embedded system real-time constraints.
- Describe the architecture and ISA of the 8051 microcontroller.
- Analyze the 8051 microcontroller system, its characteristics, real-time input and output applications.
- Recognize the I/O interface, system memory, busses and timer operations.
- Use assembly compiler extensions to develop efficient applications on the 8051 microcontroller
- Employ the Assembly language for programming the 8051 microcontroller. Perform manipulation of register banks and stack. Use loop instructions. Perform I/O programming. Develop arithmetic and logic functions.
- Develop serial communication applications. Interface LCD display. Control stepper motor.

#### Course Contents

**Robot classification**: Classification by coordinate system and by Control Method, Robotic Applications (Welding, spray painting, grinding, parts handing and transfer, assembly operations, parts sorting, parts inspection etc.)

**Kinematics and Dynamics:** Coordinate transformations, Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Link-Joint Parameters, DH Transformation Matrices

**Programming:** AL programming language, Computer model and CAD simulation packages for Robotics applications.

**Robot Drives:** Types of drive systems: Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electric (brushed and brushless DC motors, stepper motors),.Mechanical components (springs, gears, belts, chains, joints, clutches, brakes, bearings).

**Sensors:** Potentiometers, synchros, resolvers, linear variable differential transformers, opto-interrupters, optical encoders, velocity sensors, accelerometers, proximity sensors, force and torque sensors.

**Control of Robot Arm Manipulators**: Feedback control System of a robot arm manipulator joint, Industrial Automation Systems

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review matrix transformation techniques in terms of reference and body attached coordinate frames. Classify by coordinate system and by Control Method, Robotic Applications (Welding, spray, parts handing and transfer, assembly operations, parts sorting, parts inspection etc.)
- Understand the kinematics and dynamics of a robot arm manipulator. Familiarise with coordinate matrix transformation, link-joint parameters and Lagrange Polynomial theory to estimate the kinematics and dynamics of a robot arm manipulator. Apply Coordinate transformations, Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Link-Joint Parameters, DH Transformation Matrices to analyse Robot Arm kinematics of practical robot arm manipulators. Apply Lagrange Polynomial theory to estimate the dynamics of a robot arm manipulator.
- Judge the different robot drivers, sensors and controllers for use in particular applications of robot arm manipulators. Classify robot drives and sensors and explain the operation of the various sensors and actuators together with various control techniques used in industrial robots.
- Familiarise with Robot Programming languages and CAD simulations packages for Robotic Applications. Design a four link robot arm manipulator by utilizing the kinematics principles, develop its computer model and simulate it using CAD simulation packages for Robotics applications.
- Appraise the integration of the robot arm manipulator in industrial automation systems

#### Course Contents

- Review and Implementation of Sensors, Transducers and Actuators. Amplification, linearization, filtering.

- Conversion to digital signals, Sampling Rate, Quantization and Aliasing.

- Discrete time approximation of continuous time control design: First Order Hold, Zero Order Hold, Z-Transforms.

- PID Control: Controller Implementation using Analog Electronic Circuits, Differentiators, integrators, summing amplifier, Discretization.

- Real Time Systems. Controller Implementation using microcontrollers and microprocessors. Microcontroller/ microprocessor programming. Synchronization, Scheduling, Periodic Controller Tasks.

- Introduction to Programmable Controllers: PLC operation, programming blocks, I/O modules, arithmetic and advanced instructions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Develop the necessary skills to implement a real time automation system using microcontrollers and programmable logic controllers.
- Identify the main components of open loop and closed loop automation systems, highlight their real-time nature and appreciate the main challenges in their design and implementation.
- Review the main characteristics of input/output devices such as sensors, transducers and actuators. Realize I/O interfacing via D/A and A/D conversion and appreciate the importance of sampling rate, quantization and aliasing.
- Develop skills for implementation of controller design via microcontroller programming. Introduction to I/O synchronization.
- Develop competence for Programmable Logic Controller operation, programming blocks, I/O modules, arithmetic and advanced instructions.

#### Course Contents

Introduction to digital communications. Applications.

Conversion of analog signals to digital signals. Nyquist theorem. Aliasing. Low pass filtering. PAM demodulation.

Uniform and Non-uniform quantization. Quantization error.

Pulse Code Modulation. Encoding.

Baseband transmission. Baseband line codes. Unipolar, Polar, RZ, NRZ, Bipolar, Manchester. Rates. Bandwidth. Signal to Noise ratio. Power Spectral Density of line codes. Differential coding. Multilevel signaling and baud rate.

Effects of Noise and eye patterns. Intersymbol interference.

Regenerate Repeaters and bit synchonization. Delta modulation.

Bandpass Communications, bandpass modulation and demodulation techniques, ASK, BPSK, DPSK, FSK. Generation and detection.

Multiuser communications. Multiplexing. Synchronization. FDMA, TDMA, CDMA.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain of the concepts of information, information measure and digital information sources. Describe the components of digital communication systems. Define the capacity of a channel and discuss its associated limitations.
- Define the sampling theorem and describe the steps of quantization and encoding to obtain PAM and PCM baseband signals. Relate baseband transmission and baseband line codes and explain the incentive of multilevel signaling.
- Evaluate performance of digital communication systems and calculate quantization error, bit and baud rates, transmission bandwidth, Signal to Noise ratio and Power Spectral Density of line codes.
- Explain basic transmission impediments such as effects of noise, eye patterns, intersymbol interference and bit synchronization issues. Suggest possible solutions.
- Differentiate and describe bandpass modulation and demodulation techniques such as ASK, BPSK, DPSK and FSK. Examine generation and detection techniques.
- State the principles of multiplexing and compare approaches of multiuser communication systems, i.e. FDMA, TDMA and CDMA.

#### Course Contents

**Discrete time signals and systems in the time domain **

Introduction to signals, systems and signal processing applications. Classification of signals. Continuous time vs. discrete time signals. Continuous valued vs. discrete valued signals.

Frequency in continuous time vs. discrete time. Analog-to-digital conversion. Sampling process and sampling theorem.

Discrete-time systems. Input-output description of systems. Block diagram representation of systems. Properties of linearity, time invariance, causality and stability.

Discrete-time Linear Time-Invariant systems. Impulse response. Convolution.

**Evaluation and use the z-transform **

Definitions and evaluation of the z-transform. Properties. Z-plane.

Rational z-transforms. Zeros and poles, zero-pole diagrams and the unit circle. Stability and causality.

Inverse z-transform. Partial fraction expansion.

Discrete-time system analysis using the z-transform. Calculation of the system impulse response from the transfer function.

**Frequency domain analysis of discrete-time signals and systems **

Frequency analysis of discrete-time signals using the Fourier transform. Properties of the Fourier transform.

Relationship of the Fourier transform to the z-transform.

Frequency domain analysis of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems. Input-Output Relations in the frequency domain. Frequency response of LTI systems. Magnitude and phase of the frequency response. Linear phase systems. Group delay.

Definition and calculation of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Examination of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and classification of FFT algorithms.

**Digital Filters **

Introduction to digital filters. Frequency response and impulse response of ideal digital filers.

Frequency selective filters. Low-pass, Band-pass, and high-pass digital filters. Implementation of FIR vs IIR filters.

Design methods of digital filters. Linear phase FIR filters. Use of the MATLAB DSP toolbox.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify the various types of signals. State the sampling theorem and show how discrete time signals are obtained. Manipulate discrete time signals utilizing the unit sample and the unit step signals.
- Define discrete time systems. Examine and classify systems based on linearity, time invariance (LTI) and causality. Express discrete time systems using difference equations. Derive the impulse response of FIR and IIR systems from their difference equations and vice versa. Describe and appraise the differences between FIR and IIR systems. Derive and draw system flow diagrams. Evaluate the output of LTI systems by convolution and by the difference equation.
- Analyze LTI discrete-time signals and systems using the z-transform. Obtain the transfer function, the poles and zeros of the system. Examine the BIBO stability of the system. Analyze LTI discrete-time signals and systems using the Fourier transform. Obtain the frequency response of the system. Utilize the properties of the transforms in the analysis of signals and systems. Determine the phase and group delay of linear phase FIR filters.
- Define the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Relate these transforms to the z-transform. Calculate the DFT of discrete time signals.
- Classify digital filters according to being ideal or non-ideal, FIR or IIR, causal or non-causal and their frequency selectivity. Define the problem formulation of digital filter design. Design and analyze linear phase FIR filters using MATLAB.

#### Course Contents

**Characteristics of logic circuits**: Definition of digital logic design, noise margins, voltage and current characteristics, transient characteristics, rise time and fall time, noise immunity and loading, speed, power dissipation and levels of a logic inverter gate, propagation delay, power-delay product.

**Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL), Complimentary and Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL): **Prototype and standard TTL Inverter, Internal Structure,** **Voltage and current logic operating levels, noise immunity, speed, power dissipation and levels of integration. Interconnecting logic families. ECL NOR –OR gate.

**Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS):** Review of MOS transistor (nmos / pmos), current-voltage characteristics, capacitance. CMOS Inverter voltage transfer characteristics, noise margins, CMOS gate sizing, W/L aspect ratio. CMOS NOR and NAND gates.

**VLSI Design:** basic layout, subsystem layout, and mask layout, CAD/CAE tools.

**VLSI fabrication techniques**: Silicon Technology, Crystal growth through diffusion, ion implementation, oxidation, photolithography, metalization and packaging.

**VLSI design examples**: CMOS Inverter.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse the various issues involved during the design of Digital Integrated Circuit such as the static power, dynamic power, propagation delay, noise margin, chip size.
- Explain the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the CMOS inverter and CMOS NAND and NOR gates.
- Compare and argue the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the ECL inverter and ECL OR and NOR gates.
- Compare and argue the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the TTL inverter and TTL NAND gates.
- Design more advanced logic functions based on the knowledge of the basic inverter and NAND and NOR gates.

#### Course Contents

**Research topics: **The various research topics of the electrical engineering department.

**Report Elements:** Plagiarism, referencing, writing style, literature reviewing, content structure, figures and tables and numbering systems

**Report structure:** Components of a report. Te Departmental Style Guide.

**Literature survey:** Disciplines in electrical engineering. Literature survey on a topic, the foundations of a senior project.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Distinguish the research areas and topics of the department
- Choose a project topic.
- Clarify the overall requirements of a successful project.
- Collect information on a topic which will most probably form the foundation of the senior project.
- Apply the Departmental Style Guide and the information it conveys. Use the Style Guide effectively.
- Construct a preliminary report based on the literature survey conducted and on the methodology evaluated.

#### Course Contents

**Project Report: **Organisation of the report structure. The structure, format and contents of a report. Report writing. Chapters. Contents of each chapter. References.

**Data presentation: **Graphs, figures, schematics, equations.

**Presentation:** Organisation and structure. Chapters and their contents. The use of bullet points, figures and graphs. Timing, speed, attention span, personal approach, good visual aids (PowerPoint), logical sequence, practice, answering questions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate practical experience on the design, possibly of experimental or numerical nature, of electric or electronic systems
- Analyse experimental results.
- Construct a project report based on the experimental or computational work conducted.
- Use the Departmental Style Guide effectively.
- Present work to the project committee for evaluation

#### Course Contents

Linear and other Inequalities in one Variable. Absolute Values and their Properties.

Exponents, roots and their properties. The concept of the logarithm and its properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Basic trigonometric functions and their graphs (sinx, cosx, tanx, cotx, secx, cscx) and basic identities of trigonometric functions including trigonometric functions of sums and differences of two angles.

Real valued functions of one variable: functions**, **operations of functions, inverse functions, logarithmic and exponential functions and their properties, parametric equations. Graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limits and continuity: introduction to calculus, limits, and continuity.

Differentiation: The derivative as a function, the derivative as a rate of change and as the slope of a graph, techniques of differentiation, chain rule, derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, and differentials.

Applications of differentiation: related rates, increase, decrease, and concavity, relative extrema, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching, absolute minimum and maximum values of functions, applied maximum and minimum value problems.

Introduction to the concept of integration.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a function of a real variable, define the absolute value function, state and use its properties and sketch the graph of linear, quadratic, and absolute value functions.
- Solve inequalities with absolute values, quadratic inequalities by factorizing and considering the two linear terms, rational inequalities and illustrate a geometric interpretation of the above inequalities by sketching the graph of the corresponding function.
- Define, sketch the graph, and describe the properties of the exponential function, the logarithmic function and the basic trigonometric functions.
- Explain the notion of limits and continuity of functions, identify and verify limits and points of discontinuity from a graph.
- Describe the derivative as a limit of finite differences, find the derivative of specific categories of functions, state and apply the general rules of differentiation to calculate derivatives, use the first and second derivative of a function to find its local extrema , points of inflection, and regions in which it is increasing, decreasing, concaving upwards or downwards.
- Apply the knowledge of derivatives in the field of engineering and in optimization problems.
- Explain in broad terms the concept of the integral of a function of a real variable.

#### Course Contents

**Definite and Indefinite integrals: **The notions of definite and indefinite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

**Applications of the Definite Integral:** Areas between two curves, volumes by the methods of slices and cylindrical shells, and areas of surfaces of revolution.

**Techniques of Integration:** Method of u-substitution, Integration by Parts, partial fraction decomposition. Trigonometric integrals, inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions: their derivatives and integrals, integrals of powers of sines, cosines, tangents and secants by using reduction formulae, trigonometric substitutions.

**Introduction to Partial Derivatives and Double Integrals.**

**Series:** Infinite series, Power Series, Taylor and MacLaurin Series, tests of convergence.

**Polar Coordinates:** Polar coordinates and conversion of Cartesian to Polar coordinates. Areas in polar coordinates.

**An introduction to complex numbers:** Geometric interpretation, Polar form, Exponential form, powers and roots.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of definite and indefinite integrals, state and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
- Solve simple definite and indefinite integrals of polynomials, functions involving rational powers of the variable, exponential, trigonometric, and rational functions.
- Solve more complicated integrals by using the methods of integration by parts, u-substitution, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric substitution.
- Explain the concept of functions of two variables, find partial derivatives,
- Explain the concept of infinite series, state Taylor’s and MacLaurin’s Theorems, and expand simple functions in such series.
- Explain the notion of complex numbers, evaluate simple expressions involving complex numbers, and express complex numbers in polar form.
- Apply definite integration in order to compute areas between curves, and volumes of solids of revolution by using the methods of slices and cylindrical shells.

#### Course Contents

**Vectors and Linear spaces.** Vector concept, operations with vectors, generalization to higher dimensions, Euclidean space, basis, orthogonal basis: linear dependence, Cartesian products, vector products, vector transformations, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, vector spaces and subspaces. Geometric examples.

**Matrices and Determinants.** Matrix concept, operations with matrices, Special matrices, definition of a determinant and its properties, determinant of a product, inverse matrix, properties and computation.

**Linear Transformations.** Definition of linear transformations, properties, elementary transformations, rank and determinants.

**Simultaneous Linear Equations.** Cramer’s rule, Gaussian elimination, Gauss-Jordan elimination, homogeneous linear equations, geometric interpretation.

**Quadratic forms and Eigenvalue Problem.** Quadratic forms, definitions, Normal form, eigenvalue problem, characteristic equation, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition.

**MATLAB Applications.** Basic matrix algebra, the determinant of a matrix of n-order, solving simultaneous equations with n unknowns with a number of techniques, finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Elementary vector manipulation, finding linear dependence. Linear Transformations, plotting transforms on the x-y plane.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a matrix, including its transpose, identify the properties of special types of matrices and perform different matrix operations.
- Generate determinants of any order using minors, compute 2x2, 3x3 determinants directly and find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors.
- Use Cramer’s Rule for solving square linear systems with the aid of determinants, employ Gaussian Elimination for solving systems of linear equations, perform elementary row matrix reduction to echelon form and back substitution to obtain the solution of the system, apply Gaussian Elimination to find the inverse of a square matrix using augmentation, execute Gauss-Jordan elimination and implement a readily available inverse of the matrix of coefficients to solve a square linear system.
- Explain the notion of multiplicity of roots of the characteristic equation, employ these concepts to various applications and compute eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of square matrices.
- Defend the notion of vectors in two, three and higher dimensions, perform operations with vectors including dot/Cartesian and vector products, outline the concept of an orthogonal basis of the Euclidean space as well as the geometric structure of linearly independent vectors, show vector linear transformations in concrete geometric examples and exploit the properties of vector spaces and subspaces.
- Define linear transformations, perform elementary transformations available, rank and determinants and apply these concepts to real-life examples identifying their geometric implications.
- Employ the computer programming language Matlab to solve different matrix operations and systems of linear equations, to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors, to execute elementary vector manipulation, to exhibit linear transformations and to construct plots.

#### Course Contents

**First Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification of differential equations. Separable, linear with integrating factor, exact, and homogeneous ordinary differential equations, Applications of First-Order Differential Equations.

**Second and nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Linear homogeneous with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous with constant coefficients. The method of reduction of order, the method of undetermined coefficients, and the method of variation of parameters. Initial value problems and applications of second order linear ordinary differential equations.

**Series of Solutions: **Definition and properties, convergence, and solution of linear differential equations with constant and non constant coefficients.

**Laplace Transform:** Definition and properties, partial fractions, Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification. Introduction to separation of variables.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB: **Calculation of solutions with readily available codes and analysis of results.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and explain the concept of an ordinary differential equation, employ the appropriate method to solve Separable, Linear, Homogeneous, and Exact first-order differential.
- Define the concept of second order linear ordinary differential equations, describe the general method of their solution, and calculate the general solution of second-order homogeneous differential equations with constants coefficients.
- Describe the method of Reduction of Order in the solution of second order homogeneous differential equations, and employ the method to obtain the second linearly independent solution.
- Describe the Methods of Undetermined Coefficients, and Variation of Parameters, use these methods to find the general solution of second-order non-homogeneous differential equations, and compare the two methods identifying their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the concept of Power Series expansions as solutions of linear differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of non-homogeneous differential equations that arise in applied engineering problems, and compare the method with the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.
- Identify the importance of the method of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of important differential equations, and compare the results with the ones given by previous methods wherever this is possible.
- Define partial differential equations, and apply the method of Separation of Variables on partial differential equations to deduce a system of ordinary differential equations.
- Use readily available Matlab codes to calculate solutions of differential equations that arise in Applied Engineering Problems, and compare the results with the analytic solutions obtained with the techniques learned in the course.

#### Course Contents

**Three Dimensional Space, Vectors:** Rectangular coordinates & 3-D vectors, the vector (cross) and dot products of two vectors, lines and planes in space, quadric and more general surfaces.

**Vector Valued Functions:** Vector valued functions, curves and motion in space.

**Functions of several variables and optimization:** Functions of several variables and the chain rule, directional derivatives and the gradient vector, tangent planes, maximum and minimum values of functions of several variables, the 2nd derivative test for functions of two variables, Lagrange Multipliers and constrained max-min problems.

**Double Integrals:** Double integrals over general regions, area and volume by double integration, change of variables in double integrals, double integrals in polar coordinates.

**Vector Fields and Line Integrals:** The del operator (div, grad, and curl in rectangular coordinates), vector fields, line integrals, the fundamental theorem and independence of path, Green’s theorem.

**Triple Integrals:** Triple integrals, volume by triple integration, change of variables in triple integrals, triple integrals in cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

**Surface area and Surface integrals.**

**Divergence and Stoke’s theorems.**

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concepts of rectangular coordinates, 3-D vectors, and vector-valued functions, calculate 3-D vectors, the vector (cross) and dot products of two vectors and explain their geometric meaning, and find the equation of a plane containing three points.
- Recall and employ the standard graphs of straight lines, the circle, the parabola, the ellipse, and the hyperbola, in order to solve problems in space involving general cylinders, quadric, and more general surfaces.
- Explain the concept of real-valued functions of several variables, employ partial differentiation including implicit and the multivariable chain rule to find the gradient vector and the equation of tangent planes.
- Find and classify the critical points of functions of several variables, and solve constrained maximum-minimum problems by using the Method of Lagrange Multipliers
- Evaluate double and triple integrals over general regions, including surface integrals, by changing the order of integration or converting to polar, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.
- Explain the notion of vector fields, calculate their divergence and curl, determine conservative vector fields, and state the Fundamental theorem of independence of path for conservative vector fields.
- Explain the concept of line integrals, and evaluate them by employing several methods, including the Fundamental theorem for conservative vector fields.
- State Green’s, Divergence, and Stoke’s theorems, and choose the most appropriate technique, according to the specific problem, to solve the integrals involved.

#### Course Contents

**Descriptive Statistics:** Introduction to Statistics, Data Collection, Describing and Summarizing Data, Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Skewness, Tables, Charts, Exploratory Data Analysis.

**Probability:** Sample Spaces and Events. Introduction to set theory and relations in set theory. Definitions of Probability and properties. Conditional probability.

**Discrete Random Variables:** Probability Distribution Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson.

**Continuous Random Variables:** Probability density Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Uniform, Normal Distribution. Approximations for Discrete Distributions.

**Sampling distributions:** Properties of sample distributions: Unbiasedness and minimum variance. The central limit theorem.

**Estimation: **Confidence Internal Estimation for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions. Sample size determination.

**Hypothesis** **Testing:** Hypothesis Testing for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions.

**Introduction to regression: **Simple Linear Regression and Correlation

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Use descriptive statistics to present data by constructing Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Histograms and Box Plots.
- Explain and apply measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode, measures of Dispersion such as Range, IQR, Variance and standard deviation and the coefficients of Variation and Skewness to different types of data.
- Describe the notion of sample space for an experiment, describe events as subsets of the sample space and construct events by using set theoretic operations and with the use of Venn diagrams.
- Construct the probability function on the space of events with its properties, define conditional probability and calculate probabilities of events in simple problems.
- Describe the concepts of discrete and continuous random variables as functions from the sample space to the set of real numbers and explain and use the probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function to calculate simple probabilities.
- Calculate the expected number, variance and standard deviation of a random variable and use discrete and continuous distributions in examples to calculate probabilities in real life problems.
- Calculate point estimators and construct confidence intervals for means and proportions of one and two populations.
- Test hypothesis for means, proportions and difference of means, apply hypothesis testing to real life problems and construct linear models for a given set of data using linear regression.

#### Course Contents

**Kinematics in one dimension:** Motion along a straight line, motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, graphical representations, motion with constant deceleration, motions due to gravity (Free Fall, Fall with initial velocity, objects thrown upward).

**Dynamics:** Newton ’s Laws of motion, type of forces, free-body diagrams, adding forces graphically, static and kinetic friction, inclines.

**Work and energy:** Work done by a constant force, kinetic energy, work-energy principle, potential energy due to position and due to a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, dissipative forces.

**Linear Momentum:** Momentum and forces, conservation of linear momentum in one and two dimensions, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse, energy and momentum in collisions.

**Oscillations:** Simple harmonic motion, conservation of mechanical energy, simple pendulum.

**Rigid Body:** Moments, equilibrium of a rigid body, kinematics of a rigid body (motion and rotation about a fixed axis), dynamics of a rigid body (torque, work, energy and power in rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum).

**Waves:** Wave motion, superposition, sound waves, speed of sound, Doppler effect).

**Ideal gas:** density, ideal gas law, temperature scales.

**Laboratory Work:** General Laboratory Instructions and Error Analysis-Error bars are initially covered. Small group experiments on: Measurement of the Acceleration of Gravity, Force of Equilibrium, Newton 's Second Law, Kinetic Friction, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Conservation of Linear Momentum, Collision – Impulse, and Simple Pendulum.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe with equations and graphically the motion along a straight line, the motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, and the motion due to gravity, distinguish and analyse motions to solve problems.
- Explain and apply the Newton’s Laws of motion to write the equations of motions, draw forces, solve problems by adding forces using free-body diagrams, and experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity, investigate the Newton’s Second Law, the factors effecting kinetic friction and force equilibrium.
- Define and apply the concepts of work by a constant force, the kinetic energy, the potential energy due to the position and a spring, the work-energy principle, to solve problems with conservation of mechanical energy with/out dissipative forces, and experimentally determine the spring constant and investigate the conservation of mechanical energy.
- Identify the concept of linear momentum and its relation to forces, define the concept of impulse, explain the circumstances under which momentum is a conserved quantity, distinguish elastic and inelastic collisions, solve problems that involve elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions using the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and experimentally investigate the impulse and the conservation of linear momentum in elastic collisions.
- Describe simple harmonic motion, apply conservation of mechanical energy on problems with simple harmonic oscillators, determine under what circumstances a simple pendulum resembles simple harmonic motion, calculate and experimentally investigate its period and frequency.
- Define the concept of moments and the circumstances that a rigid body is in equilibrium, determine the rotation of a body about a fixed axis, calculate its torque, work, energy and power, and solve problems involving the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
- Describe with equations and graphically the wave motion, define the types of waves and the concept of superposition (overlapping waves), describe the characteristics of sound waves, define Doppler effect, use the abovementioned terms and concepts to solve associated problems.
- Describe the characteristics of ideal gas, determine under what circumstances the ideal gas law is valid, and solve associated problems using different temperature scales.

#### Course Contents

**Review: **Basic concepts of electricity, atomic structure.** **

**Electrostatics: **Coulomb’s Law, electric field intensity due to one or more point charges, electric potential, motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field.

**Further electrostatics: **Gauss Law and applications, capacitors and combination of capacitors, electrostatic energy of charged capacitors, dielectrics.

**Dynamic electricity: **Electric current, resistance and Ohm's Law, resistivity of conductors, combination of resistances.** **

**Direct Current Circuits: **Electromotive force (EMF), Kirchhoff’s rules, power, potential across resistors, RC circuits.

**Magnetism: **Definition of magnetic field, magnetic field at a point due to current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Ampere’s Law), magnetic forces on current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field.

**Optics: **The nature of light, measurement of the speed light, Huygen's principle, reflection, refraction, and polarization.

**Geometrical Optics: **Convex and concave** **mirrors, thin lenses, optical instruments.

**Laboratory Work: **Small group experiments on: Electrostatic Charge, Ohm’s Law, Exploratory Study of Resistance, Resistances in Circuits, EMF, Kirchhoff's Rules, Resistor – Capacitor Network, Wheatstone Bridge, Law of Reflection, Law of Refraction.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate graphically and calculate the forces experienced on a charged particle by other charged particles, the electric field intensity and the electric potential due to several point charges at a particular point, describe and solve problems of charged particles motion in a uniform electric field.
- Explain and apply the Gauss law to evaluate the electric field intensity in problems where spherical or cylindrical or translational symmetry exists
- Define the electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor with/out dielectrics, describe and experimentally investigate the resistance’s and the Ohm’s Law variables, explain and experimentally measure the electromotive force.
- Develop skills to solve problems with circuits including several capacitors, several resistors, and resistors-capacitors, experimentally investigate the equations in Wheatstone Bridge and RC circuits, and experimentally demonstrate the Kirchhoff's Rules in electrical circuits.
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic field at a point due to one or more current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Amperes Law),
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic forces on two current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, and the path of a charged particle motion in a constant magnetic field.
- Describe and experimentally demonstrate the laws of reflection and refraction, show with appropriate drawings how these laws apply to light rays at plane and spherical surfaces (mirrors, thin lenses), and solve associated problems.

#### Course Contents

**Forces:** Forces as vectors their properties and use. Introduction of the different support types.

**Particles:** Definition of a particle. Equilibrium of particles.

**Rigid body:** Definition of a rigid body. Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies. Model simple real structures in terms of particles and rigid bodies.

**Beams:** Definition of a beam and its characteristics, Differentiation between the point (concentrated) loads and the distributed loads. Application of loads on statically determinate beams.

**Trusses: **Definition of a truss and its characteristics. Application of loads on simple statically determinate trusses and analysis of them using the method of joints. Application of the loads on simple statically determinate trusses and analysis of them using the method of sections.

**Centroid of regular and irregular shapes:** Calculation of the centroid of regular shapes and sections. Calculation of the centroid of irregular shapes and sections.

**Moment of inertia:** Definition of the concept of moment of inertia. Calculation of the moment of inertia of various sections.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Relate forces to vectors and explain their properties and use. Introduce the different support types. Explain how they develop reactions and what type of forces they restrain.
- Define a particle and how it can be used in engineering mechanics. Explain the equilibrium of particles.
- Define a rigid body and how it can be used in engineering mechanics.
- Define a beam and its characteristics.
- Differentiate between the point (concentrated) loads and the distributed loads. Apply the loads on statically determinate beams and analyze them to get the reactions.
- Define a truss and its characteristics. Discuss the point loads that can be applied on a truss. Apply the loads on simple statically determinate trusses and analyze them using the method of joints. Apply the loads on simple statically determinate trusses and analyze them using the method of sections.
- Calculate the centroid of regular shapes and sections. Calculate the centroid of irregular shapes and sections.
- Define the concept of moment of inertia. Calculate the moment of inertia of various sections.

#### Course Contents

**Computer Interfacing:** Switching electronics and common TTL devices. Microprocessor bus interfacing, interfacing standards (ISA, PCI) as well as interfacing through the parallel port (LPT) and serial ports (COM, USB and SPI). Digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. Programmed controlled, interrupt, and DMA modes of data transfer.

**Laboratory Work: **Individual or small group experiments performed with the use of special hardware attached on the computer's ports. Experiments include serial and parallel data transfer, interfacing with 2-state devices, interfacing with analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters.

**Project Work:**** **Students are expected to built and test a board to be interfaced on a computer through a standard port such as the LPT or the USB port, and develop the necessary software that will enable the use of a computer as the control unit of a process. Typical applications to be developed include home and industrial automation systems.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the operation of transistors circuits that implant the function of the basic logic gates, and distinguish between the types of outputs in logic gates (open collector, totem pole, and three-state).
- Outline the characteristics of the standard ports and slots of a personal computer such as the COM, LPT, USB and PCI and select the most suitable port for a given application.
- Design hardware to be interfaced on the standard ports and slots of a personal computer such as COM, LPT, USB and PCI.
- Describe the basic characteristics of common Input/Output devices, and how these devices can be interfaced with a computer.
- Develop programs to control the operation of I/O devices such as displays, motors and analogue data converters.
- Built and test the operation of typical circuits interfaced on the standard ports of a computer.

#### Course Contents

**Instrumentation Technology: **Elements of measurement systems: transducers, signal conditioners, display/recorder measurement systems. Operation and use of transducers such as strain gauges, thermistors, lvdt’s, piezo-electric transducers. Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Converters, accuracy and resolution of data converters..

**Automation Systems: **Types of controllers used in automation systems: microprocessors based controllers, computer based controllers, microcontrollers and Programmable Logic Controllers. Characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. Overview of present technology. Types of sensors and actuators used in automation systems.** **

**Programmable Logic Controllers:** Hardware components of PLCs: CPU, Memory, I/O Interfacing. Programming of PLCs: Use of instruction sets, ladder diagrams and combination logic design techniques. Applications using timers, set/reset, shift, registers, sequential control techniques and analogy input/output. PLC communications (RS 232 - RS 422/ER3)

**Laboratory Work:** Individual or small group experiments performed on microcomputers, equipped with data acquisition cards and software such as Labview, as well as programmable logic controllers related to real world applications.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- List and describe the function of the main components of an automation system.
- Describe and explain the operation and characteristics of two-state sensors and actuators found in automation and process control systems.
- Program the PLC using ladder diagrams to control the operation of systems such as a conveyor belt, assembly system, traffic lights etc.
- Explain what data acquisition is, and distinguish and select between the various systems available for data acquisition applications.
- Describe the operation and characteristics of various sensors and transducers used in data acquisition systems.
- Describe the basics of electronic measurements and instrumentation theory with respect to signals, amplification, grounding, noise, conditioning, accuracy and resolution.
- Explain how analogue signal can be encoded into digital code, and employ sampling theory in data acquisition applications.
- Design, build, program and test data acquisition and automation systems using industry standard software such as Labview and hardware such as data acquisition cards.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to microprocessors:** Overview of microprocessor technologies.

**Introduction to the x86 family: **Pin and signal descriptions, loading and timing of the 80x86 microprocessors. Bus drivers, clock and reset circuits.

**Memory interfacing, and synchronization:** Interfacing with EPROMs, Static and Dynamic RAMs. Address decoding, memory maps and memory mirroring. Static and dynamic bus contention. Memory timing analysis, synchronization using asynchronous buses and wait states.

**Input/Output interfacing:** Isolated and memory mapped I/O. Interfacing with two state devices such as LEDs, 7-segment displays, switches, keyboards relays and ac loads. I/O synchronization using interrupts and the polling technique. Software and hardware aspects of interrupts. Use of programmable I/O devices.

**Analog interfacing:** Digital to analog and analog to digital converters, operation, characteristics and interfacing. Synchronization between data converters and a microprocessor. Applications of data converters.

**Microcomputer Architecture:** Interfacing and programming of typical devices found in microcomputers such as Programmable Interface Adaptors (PIA, PIO),

**Interrupts and DMA:** Programmable Interval Timers (PIT), Programmable Interrupt Controllers (PIC) and Direct Memory Access Controllers (DMAC), and USART. Computer bus standards.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Evaluate VLSI technology performance/cost/power consumption tradeoffs.
- Describe the function of the pins and signals of the x86 family of processors and the loading and timing of the x86 microprocessors.
- Design memory maps and Implement Address decoding circuits using NAND gates, comparators, decoder and NAND gate and programmable logic.
- Perform memory timing analysis and synchronization using asynchronous buses and wait states and describe Isolated and memory mapped I/O.
- Design Interfaces with two state devices such as LEDs, 7-segment displays, switches, keyboards relays and ac loads using buffers, latches and programmable I/O devices.
- Write programs performing I/O synchronization using the polling technique.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction and Basics: **Light and visual phenomena. Fields using image processing based on the EM spectrum. Fundamental steps in image processing. Components of image processing (IP) systems. Applications of IP.

**Signals and Processing Systems:** Image sensing and acquisition. Sampling, quantization, encoding and gray level resolution. Representation of digital images. Basic relationships between pixels.

**Image Enhancement:** Gray scale modification, high pass and low pass filtering of image signals, homomorphic processing, noise reduction and smoothing. Edge detection techniques and image interpolation.

**Image Restoration:** Reduction of noise, Wiener filtering and additive image processing. Reduction of image blurring, inverse filtering and blind deconvolution. Reduction of signal-dependent noise and frame averaging.

**Image Coding and Compression:** Coding and coding redundancy. Source encoders and decoders. Channel encoder and decoder. Information measures. Information channels. Fundamental coding theorems. Image compression.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Discuss the historical development of image processing and identify the various areas of image processing. Explain the basics of light and describe simple visual phenomena. Define the basic components of a general-purpose image processing system and the fundamental steps in digital image processing. Explain the characteristics of the various types of image sensors. Relate image acquisition, sampling, quantization and encoding to the two-dimensional representation of a gray scale image.
- Compare and contrast the various image enhancement techniques in the spatial domain. Use gray level transformation functions for contrast enhancement and stretching such as negative, logarithmic and power functions and their related applications. Generate histogram equalization and histogram matching and perform image subtraction. Appraise the resulting images.
- Define mask filtering and identify the need for it. Apply mask filtering. Evaluate an image and determine the appropriate mask for a specific enhancement requirement. Describe the benefits of smoothing filters, Laplacian filters and high boost filters and discuss where they are used. Describe the use of order statistics filtering, median filtering, and max-min filtering. Define edge detection techniques and image interpolation.
- Distinguish among the various image restoration techniques such as reduction of noise and Wiener filtering. Discuss reduction of signal dependent noise and frame averaging. Evaluate the results of the various image enhancement and image restoration techniques.
- List the benefits of image coding and compression and differentiate between the various types of redundancy and describe the general compression system model. Calculate data redundancy and compression ratio.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction: **

R L C in high frequencies. Digital / Analogue modulation schemes S parameters.Series and parallel connection of networks. Chain scattering matrix. ABCD network representations. Conversion between Z and S matrixes

** **

**Noise and distortion**

Multistage noisy circuits. Noise temperature. Thermal noise. Noise figure

** **

**Matching networks**

Two component matching network. Quality factor. T and Pi matching networks. BJT matching networks. FET matching networks

** **

**Filters**

Filter types and parameters. Butterworth – Type filters. Chebyshev – Type filters. Microstrip filters. Coupled filters

** **

**PAs/LNAs**

Stability considerations. Stability circles. Constant gain. Noise figure circles. Constant VSWR circles. Class A and B Pas. Class C Pas.

** **

**Mixes/ Oscillators**

Feedback oscillator. Negative resistance oscillator. Single ended mixer. Single balanced mixer. Double balanced mixer

** **

**Transceiver Architectures **

Receiver architectures. Heterodyne receivers. Homodyne receivers. Transmitter architectures. Direct conversion transmitters. Two step transmitters.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Compare and assess different transceiver architectures
- Match passive and active components using RLC networks and distributed elements.
- Develop the optimum LNA topologies considering the design parameters
- Appraise the advantages and/or disadvantages of various PA topologies
- Implement the use of oscillators and mixers in transceiver architectures.
- Design and implement filters meeting given specifications

#### Course Contents

**Fundamentals of antennas: **Understand the principal antenna parameters and make simple calculations. Model an antenna in simple transmitter and receiver circuits.

**Linear antennas: **Calculate antenna performance with time harmonic excitation. Compute and plot power density and far field radiation patterns.

**Linear antenna arrays:** Use the different types of excitation and phase difference techniques to meet different specifications. Plot power density and radiation patterns of broadside and endfire linear arrays

**Types of antennas for different applications: **Get an idea of Loop antennas. Horn antennas. Helical antennas. Low frequency antennas, High frequency antennas. VHF and UHF Communication antennas. TV and FM transmission antennas.** **Solve problems related with microstrip patch antenna design.

**Basic radar principles: **Get introduced to basic radar principles. Solve problems related to target detection and range estimation. Active and passive systems. Range, target velocity, incident power density. Range equation. Radar system description. Frequency bands. Radar antennas. Tracking antennas

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Manage fundamental antenna parameters problems.
- Combine the radiation pattern of an individual radiator into a linear array, and plot such radiation patterns in Cartesian and polar diagrams
- Assemble linear arrays considering the calculated mutual and self impedances for antenna arrays.
- Assess the primary conditions that dictate the selection of a specific antenna type depending on the application.
- Appraise the basic radar characteristics and recommend the appropriate type depending on the implementation requirements.

#### Course Contents

Experiment 1: RADIATION PATTERN OF A λ/2 DIPOLE AT 1 GHz

The dipole antenna is a simple type of antenna consisting of two rods or wires connected at the center to the transmitter through a transmission line. This experiment familiarizes the students with the radiation pattern of the half-wavelength dipole antenna in the E and H planes.

Experiment 2: GAIN OF PYRAMIDAL HORN ANTENNAS

Horn antennas provide a smooth transition for electromagnetic waves between the waveguide and free space. Horn antennas are made in a variety of shapes depending on the gain, radiation pattern, and impedance desired. This experiment studies the characteristics of pyramidal horn antennas and the techniques used to calculate and measure their gain.

Experiment 3: EXPERIMENTS WITH λ/2, λ, AND 3λ/2 DIPOLES

The three dipoles presented in this experiment are center-fed dipoles. Students are called to understand that the electromagnetic fields are a result of the RF current behavior on the wire. The experiment examines the notions of input impedance, resistive and reactive impedance, inductive and capacitive reactance and current in phase or out of phase with the objective to give students a clear understanding of these dipoles.

Experiment 4: HALF-WAVE FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNAS

The folded dipole antenna consists of two parallel dipoles connected into a narrow loop. The experiments get the students familiar with the characteristics of the half-wave folded dipole antenna and with the use of baluns for impedance transformation.

**Experiment 5: MONOPOLE ANTENNAS **

The objective of this exercise is to familiarize students with the characteristics of both standard monopole antennas and drooping monopole antennas. Students are asked to plot the radiation patterns over a conducting ground plane and observe the behavior of a monopole used without a ground plane. They will compare the directive gain of both a λ/2 dipole and a λ/4 monopole.

Experiment 6: LOOP ANTENNAS

Loop antennas with a loop length of λ (full-wave loop antennas) are useful because they offer reasonable gain and convenient input impedance. The experiment familiarizes the students with the characteristics of small loop antennas.

Experiment 7: PARASITIC ARRAY (YAGI-UDA) ANTENNAS

The Yagi antennas are used in several applications. When the students complete this experiment they will be familiar with parasitic array antennas of the Yagi-Uda type. They will construct such antennas in different configurations and measure their characteristics.

Experiment 8: RECTANGULAR PATCH ANTENNA (MICROSTRIP TECHNOLOGY)

A microstrip antenna consists of a patch of conductive material separated from the ground plane by a thin layer of substrate dielectric material. The microstip is well suited for low profile and conformal antennas. The experiment aims to get students familiar with the patch antenna and with the microstip technology used to implement patch antennas.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Compare the radiation pattern characteristics of various types of antennas both planar and linear with emphasis on the half-wavelength dipole antenna in the E and H planes.
- Identify the patterns of various types of antennas using actual antennas and interactive computer software
- Develop skills to operate experiments with λ/2, λ, and 3λ/2 dipoles in order to acquire a clear understanding of these dipoles.
- Appreciate the technical challenges related to making quantitative measurements on antennas.
- Design small linear arrays using planar microstrip patch antenna elements.
- Develop teamwork spirit in investigating the construction and characteristics of various types of antennas.

#### Course Contents

**State space models of dynamic control systems**: Review of matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. State variables. State-space equations. Linearization of non-linear systems. State space realisation of transfer functions. Canonical forms. Transformation of system models.

**Linear time-invariant systems**: Solution of linear time-invariant state equations. state-transition matrix. Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Controllability and Observability. Liapunov Stability.

**Feedback Controller Design and Optimal Control**: Pole placement with state feedback. State Observers. Optimal Control Design. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) design.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, state variables, state-space equations.
- Realise state space transfer functions, canonical forms, and transformation of system models.
- Understand state space models, feedback controller design and optimal control of dynamic control systems.
- Solve the linear time-invariant state equations.
- Compute the state-transition matrix of linear time-invariant control systems.
- Appraise linearization of non-linear systems.
- Analyse feedback controller design in dynamic control systems using state observer design, optimal control and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) concepts.
- Appraise the notion of Cotrollability, Observability, and Liapunov stability in modern control systems.
- Familiarise with robot programming languages and CAD simulations packages for robotic applications
- Develop the state space models of dynamic control systems and apply pole placement via state feedback techniques.

#### Course Contents

**Tortional Control System Identification (Model 205a)**: Identifies plant parameters. Uses fundamental properties of lightly damped 2nd order systems to indirectly measure inertia, spring and damping constants in classical mass spring configurations.

**Rectilinear Control System Identification (Model 210a)**: Identifies plant parameters such as, mass, spring and damping parameters in a classical two spring-mass configurations.

**Industrial Emulator / Servo Trainer System Identification (Model 220)**: The inertia, gain and damping of the various system components are found by measuring their effect on the system response. This is implemented by a Proportiona plus rate feedback loop about the drive feedback encoder.

**Magnetic Levitation System Identification (Model 730)**: Plant parameters such as input/ output characteristics of the laser sensor, magnet/coil actuators and magnet/magnet interactions as they vary with relative position are measured. Strong magnetic field non-linearities via SISO System with non linear elements are also investigated.

**Inverted Pendulum Accessory (A51) Identification (Model: 205a, 210a or 220):** Numerical Plant Models for inverted and non-inverted configuration. Self-erecting LQR Design. Pole Placement Design. Non-inverted LQR Design. Control Robustness of the inverted LQR based control System.

**Rigid Body PD and PID Control (Models: 205a, 210a, 220 or 730)**: Demonstrates key concepts associated with proportional plus derivative (PD) control and the effects of adding integral action (PID).

**Collocated PD Control with 2 DOF Plant (Model: 205a, 210a, 220 or 730)**: PD control of a 2 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) system, where the controlled output is rigidly coupled to the actuator input (referred as collocated scheme). The increase of the order of the system (from 1 DOF to 2) can be effectively considered as dynamic disturbance to the plant.

**Successive Loop Closure / Pole Placement Design for 2 DOF Plant (Model: 205a, 210a, 220 or 730)**: A position loop is initially closed about the collocated position with a relatively high bandwidth (close tracking) PD Control. Then a low pass filter is implemented to attenuate high PD gains. Pole placement Control methodology is finally applied via outer loop.

**LQR Control (Model: 205a, 210a, 220 or 730)**: A linear Quadratic regulator is implemented using full state feedback.

**Practical Control Implementation (Model: 205a, 210a, 220 or 730)**: Non-ideal behaviours that affect many control applications, such as drive saturation, sensor quantisation, and discrete time sampling, drive flexibility and various forms of disturbances that affect many control applications are demonstrated and guidelines to mitigate their effects are given.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Tortional Control System Identification (Model 205a): Identify plant parameters. Use fundamental properties of lightly damped 2nd order systems to indirectly measure inertia, spring and damping constants in classical mass spring configurations.
- Rectilinear Control System Identification (Model 210a): Identify plant parameters such as, mass, spring and damping parameters in a classical two spring-mass configurations.
- Industrial Emulator / Servo Trainer System Identification (Model 220): Estimate the inertia, gain and damping of the various system components by measuring their effect on the system response.
- Magnetic Levitation System Identification (Model 730): Identify Plant parameters such as input/ output characteristics of the laser sensor, magnet/coil actuators.
- Inverted Pendulum Accessory (A51) Identification (Model: 205a, 210a or 220): Perform Numerical Plant Models for inverted and non-inverted configuration. Self-erecting LQR Design. Pole Placement Design. Non-inverted LQR
- Demonstrate key concepts associated with proportional plus derivative (PD) control and the effects of adding integral action (PID).
- Apply the techniques of Successive Loop Closure / Pole Placement to design controllers for a 2 Degrees of Freedom Plant.
- Implement a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) using full state feedback.

#### Course Contents

Introduction to Discrete-time Control Systems: Digital Control Systems. Quantization and Data Acquisition.

The Z-transform: Definition. Properties. Solution of difference equations.

z-plane Analysis: Impulse Sampling and Data Hold. Convolution Integral Method. Reconstruction from sampled data. Digital Controllers and Digital filters.

State-space Analysis: State-space representation. Solution of the discrete-time state space equations. Stability analysis.

Design of discrete time control systems: Controllability, Observability, Canonical forms of state-space equations. Design via pole placement.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review the Z-transform definition, its properties, and use in solution of difference equations.
- Understand the concept of Discrete-Time control systems, Digital Control Systems, Quantization and Data Acquisition.
- Perform z-plane analysis in discrete-time control systems via Impulse Sampling and Data Hold, Convolution Integral Method, Reconstruction from sampled data.
- Apply State-space analysis; state-space representation, and solution of the discrete-time state space equations.
- Appraise the use of digital controllers and digital filters in discrete-time control systems.
- Rate the performance of Digital Controllers and Digital filters in discrete-time control systems.
- Design of discrete time control systems.
- Improve the performance of discrete-time control systems by applying Controllability, Observability concepts.
- Derive the Canonical forms of the state-space equations of discrete-time control systems.
- Judge the use of pole placement techniques in improving the stability of discrete-time control systems.

#### Course Contents

· Linear Programming: The standard form of the linear programming problem, slack variables, the manufacturing problem, the transportation problem, the routing problem, the scheduling problem, revision on linear algebra, linear dependence, Gaussian elimination, existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions, extreme points, vertices, basic solutions, basic feasible solutions and degeneracy, the fundamental theorem of linear programming.

· The Simplex Method: The full tableau implementation of the simplex method.

· Duality: Transformation of primal linear programming problems into the dual problems. The duality theorem, simplex multipliers, sensitivity and complementary slackness. The dual simplex method.

· Practical Optimization Problems: The assignment problem, the transportation problem, the minimum-cost flow problem and the maximal flow problem.

· Unconstrained Non-Linear Programming: The standard form of the nonlinear programming problem, convexity, existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions, necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality, gradient methods, steepest descent method, Newton’s method, least squares problem, curve fitting, adaptive control, neural networks.

· Constrained Non-Linear Programming: Existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions, necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality, Conditional gradient methods.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Transform practical engineering problems into standard form linear programming problems. Introduce the concept of slack variables. Formulate linear programming problems such as the manufacturing problem, the transportation problem, the routing problem, the scheduling problem etc.
- Introduce the concepts of extreme points, vertices, basic solutions, basic feasible solutions and degeneracy and state the fundamental theorem of linear programming.
- Solve linear programming problems in standard form using the simplex method. Describe the full tableau implementation of the simplex method. Implement the simplex method on Matlab.
- Transform the primal linear programming problem into the dual problem. State the duality theorem and introduce the concepts of simplex multipliers, sensitivity and complementary slackness.
- Describe the dual simplex method and implement it on Matlab.
- Formulate and solve instances of the following problems: the assignment problem, the transportation problem, the minimum-cost flow problem and the maximal flow problem.
- Introduce the standard form of the unconstrained non-linear programming problem. Comment on the existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions and state necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality.
- Introduce the gradient methods with particular emphasis on the steepest descent method and the Newton’s method.
- Introduce the least squares problem through examples: curve fitting, dynamic system identification, neural networks, pattern recognition, adaptive control. Describe Iterative methods to solve the least squares problem.
- Introduce the standard form of the constrained non-linear programming problem. Comment on the existence and uniqueness of optimal solutions, state the optimality conditions and present the conditional gradient method.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to Electrical Principles: Basic electrical units, Electrical symbols, multiplication factors.

- Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers: An Overview to Programmable Logic Controllers. Fundamentals.

- PLC Architecture: The central processing unit, the input/ output section, the power supply, memory design. Principals of operation.

- PLC programming: Methods of programming.

-Program Development in Function Block Diagram: Design and draw simple electrical machine control diagram.

- Program Development in Ladder Logic: Implement logic functions, latches and counters in ladder logic. Logic diagram symbols and terminology. Data manipulation, math operations.

- I/O connections: Interfacing the PLC with sensors and control devices, types and technical characteristics of sensors and control devices.

- Applications: Introduction to automated machine control. Example programs for controlling single cycle operation, start up and shut down safety sequences.

- PLC installation practices: PLC wiring and troubleshooting. Safety. Monitoring and maintenance.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Distinguish the various modules and the different types of peripheral support devices.
- Identify the components of a PLC and describe their functions.
- Construct programming functions in both Ladder logic and Function Block Diagram. Describe and analyze the actions in a program.
- Convert relay ladder schematics to ladder logic programs.
- Utilize a PLC to interpret sensor and process variable data. Configure programmable logic controllers to perform various functions and tasks.
- Perform installation practices. Interface inputs and outputs. Identify and troubleshoot problems in hardware and in program structure.

#### Course Contents

**CMOS Logic Gates**. Clocked Logic. Registers, Shift registers. MOS Transistor - Detailed Operation. CMOS Circuit Design CMOS NWell Fabrication Process. Design Rules. Parasitics. Latchup. Buffer Stages.

**Static, Dynamic sequential circuits**: Timing and clock synchronization, pipelining, Wires; Coping with Interconnects

**Circuit Simulation. **CMOS system design, Floor plan, Placement and routing, Project design, Deep sub-micron designs; design for performance.

**VLSI design examples**: CMOS based adders, multipliers, flip flops, Memory structures and RAM devices.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review of the basic characteristics of CMOS Logic gates. Understand the operation Clocked Logic. Examine in detail the operation of the MOS Transistor and Shift registers. Familiarise with CMOS Circuit Design and CMOS n-Well Fabrication Process and design rules. Examine the concepts of Parasitics, Latchup and Buffer Stages.
- Study the static and dynamic performance of sequential circuit. Apply timing and clock synchronisation techniques.
- Apply CAD/ CAE software to design and simulate various digital integrated circuits.
- Familiarise with the operation of complicated CMOS based adders, multipliers, flip flops, and RAM devices. Design and simulate using CAD simulation package complicated CMOS based devices

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to wireless communications**:

Review of fundamental concepts of wireless communication systems.

Definition of the wave propagation and noise for wireless communications systems.

**Wireless Channel**

Large scale propagation fading. Free space model, Okumoura model, Hata model

Small scale fading. Power delay profile. Flat and frequency selective fading. Slow and fast fading.

**Wireless techniques:**

Examination of modulation and frequency concepts in wireless communication systems. Examination of coding and time-division multiple access techniques.

Evaluation of digital and adaptive modulation techniques. Analysis of diversity, capacity and space-division multiple access.

**Wireless Networks**

Estimation of the entropy and capacity of wireless channels. Evaluation of spread spectrum, CDMA and multi-user wireless systems.

**Propagation and Noise**.

Effect of noise for multiple access schemes:

Modulation and Frequency-Division Multiple Access.

Coding and Time-Division Multiple Access.

Spread Spectrum and Code-Division Multiple Access.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Argue for the conditions under which a transmitter should operate to provide adequate coverage for a given sensitivity receiver.
- Determine the conditions for frequency selective and flat fading wireless channel.
- Determine the conditions for a slow or fast fading wireless channel.
- Compare the available digital communication schemes considering the bandwidth limitations, and the regulations applied to wireless communications.
- Break down the wireless coverage area into cells.
- 6. Appraise the GSM system and compare it with 3G and 4G cellular communication systems.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to IEE Wiring regulations****:** Background Theory: circuit analysis fundamentals, Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s laws, Complex Impedance, Three phase power, Electric Shock, Electrical Installation Earthing, Introduction to types of earthing systems, definition of terms and concepts used in BS 7671

**Fundamental requirements for Safety:** Realization of dangers associated with low voltage electrical installations, use of approved and suitable materials and equipment, provision for protection, fundamental requirements for safety

**Earthing:** Protective Earthing, the means of earthing, The earthing conductor, System types and earthing arrangements, main equipotential bonding

**Protection:** What is Protection, Protection against electric Shock, Protection against direct contact, protection against indirect contact, Protection against over loads / over voltage / under voltage / short circuit currents / earth fault currents, position of protection devices

**Selection and Erection of Equipment:** General, selection and erection of equipment, operational conditions and external influences, installation of cables, sizing of cables, external influences consequences, categories installation of equipment.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Evaluate the theory and application of the current Wiring Regulations
- Appraise the importance of safety in electrical installations
- Identify Earthing requirements in electrical installations
- Compare and contrast the various types of protection associated with electrical installations
- Analyse the selection and erection requirements of equipment associated with electrical installations

#### Course Contents

**Introduction / AEEE450 Revision****:** earthing systems, earthing conductors, direct and indirect contact, electric shock, earth fault currents and short circuit currents, overloads, voltage, design of electric circuits for domestic installations.

**Special Locations (Bathrooms, caravans and caravan parks, photovoltaic installations, swimming pools):** risks and dangers associated with special locations, design of circuits part of special locations, special considerations.

**Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems:** azimuth and inclination, weather characteristics, NOCT, PV efficiency and energy output, characteristics of photovoltaic modules, grid-connected and off-grid system design.

**Socket Outlet Ring Circuits:** radial and ring socket outlet circuits, voltage drop in socket outlet ring circuits.

**Inspection and Testing:** protection against direct and indirect contact, insulation resistance, ring circuits, earth fault loop impedance, RCD test, external impedance, proving units.

**Electrical Installation Design Preliminaries:** analysis and interpretation of architectural drawings, determination of supply/installation characteristics, division of installation into circuits and distribution boards, circuit information (length, ratings, voltage drop).

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Interpret and apply the IEE wiring regulations related to special locations in an electrical installation such as bathrooms, caravans, photovoltaic systems, UPS systems etc.
- Design grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic systems.
- Relate the wiring regulations with the standard practices of inspection and testing of an electrical installation
- Identify and examine the procedure for the study and design of an electrical installation

#### Course Contents

· **Electrical installation design**** basics: **Fundamental principles for the study and design of an electrical installation, gathering necessary Information, responsibilities and obligations of the designer, the formalities and cooperation with the electrical contractor or with other authorities, electrical installation design forms

· **Electrical installation design**** fundamentals:** electrical symbols, indication of electrical equipment on architectural drawings, selection of electrical devices based on particular characteristics and environmental conditions, single line diagrams, load calculations, diversity and maximum demand, assessment of nominal currents, short-circuit current capacity / capability and type of protective devices, discrimination of protective devices, cable sizing of current currying, sizing of protective conductor sizing based on earth fault currents, sizing of supplementary bonding conductors, calculation of maximum earthing conductor resistance, calculation of prospective earth fault current at every distribution board (DS) in the electrical installation, calculation of earth fault loop impedance at every DS, voltage drop calculation on distribution board feeder cables, back-up / auxiliary supplies (generators and UPS)

· **Electrical Installation Design Procedure:** analysis and interpretation of architectural drawings, determination of supply/installation characteristics, division of installation into circuits and distribution boards, circuit information (length, ratings, voltage drop), load balancing, diversity and maximum demand, single line diagrams, distribution board diagrams

· **Employment of software tool for the study and design of electrical installation: **use of electrical installation design software tool

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review the legislation governing the occupation in electrical installation services design and commissioning in Cyprus
- Design installations for domestic, commercial and Industrial cases
- Employ software tools for the design and analysis of electrical installations
- Analyse discrimination characteristics of protective devices used in electrical installations
- Predict justified diversity factors for estimating the maximum demand of an electrical installation

#### Course Contents

**Overview of power system analysis**: general operational characteristics of power systems. Introduction to the concepts to follow.

**Representation of power transmission lines:** mathematical development of the formulation of short, medium and long transmission lines. Application of formulas for voltage, current or power factor identification purposes.

**Fault analysis:** mathematical analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. The use of bus impedance matrix method for asymmetrical fault analysis.

**'A' operator**, symmetrical component transformation, sequence impedances and sequence networks, construction of sequence networks

**N****etwork**** model formulation:** y-bus matrix, gauss-seidel method for analysis of interconnected systems (mesh).

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the structure of power systems, source of electrical energy, the one line impedance diagram, per unit systems revision, representation of loads and complex power.
- Analyse short, medium and long transmission lines, interpretation of the line equations, power flow through a transmission line, equivalent circuit representation
- Calculate Network model formulation, ybus matrix, gauss-seidel method. Calculate the output of load flow methods.
- Describe the 'a' operator, symmetrical component transformation, sequence impedances and sequence networks, explain construction of sequence networks.
- Calculate Symmetrical fault, unsymmetrical fault, analyse bus impedance matrix method for analysis of unsymmetrical fault.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to switchgear**: general operational characteristics of circuit breakers, isolators, fuses, arc principles, contact erosion.

**The fuse****:** operating characteristics of a fuse, rupture time, energy let through, use of fuses for protection of radial feeders.

**Types of circuit breaker:** oil, air, vacuum, sf6. Construction of various types, operational limitations of each model.

**The protection overlay**: unit protection, current differential scheme, non-unit protection, zones of operation of protection device, relay parameter setting.

**Backup protection:** primary and secondary protection, dual/main protection schemes.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe what is switchgear, isolators, circuit breakers. Explain circuit breaker operation.
- Describe operating characteristics, explain the principle of protecting radial feeder circuits with fuses
- Analyse the operation of the various types of oil, air, sf6, vacuum circuit breakers, and explain their construction electrical principles.
- Describe unit-non unit protection, Analyse characteristics of zones of protection.
- Explain primary and secondary protection schemes, describe dual main protection schemes.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Power System Stability:** Requirements of a reliable electrical power service, Consequences to system stability after a disturbance on the system, Methods of simulation

**Control of Power and Frequency: **power and frequency control, The turbine governor, division of load between generators, Power-frequency characteristic of an interconnected system, small capacity systems

**Control of Voltage and Reactive Power: **voltage control, reactive power control, Generation and absorption of reactive power, Relationship between voltage, power and reactive power, tap-changing transformers, reactive power injection, Voltage collapse and consequences, Voltage control in distribution networks, long transmission lines

**Power System stability: **The stability problem, Rotor dynamics, swing equation, power angle equation, Synchronizing power coefficients, Equal area criterion of stability, Multi-machine stability studies, Step by step procedure of the swing curve

**Transient and Small Signal Analysis**: rotor angle, Consideration of time, Computer calculation methods for transient stability analysis, Factors affecting transient stability

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the importance of power system control and stability
- Associate the physical aspects of different categories of power system stability phenomena
- Identify factors causing different stability problems and analyse techniques used to deal with stability problems
- Investigate methods for power system stability control
- Analyse synchronous generator characteristics and investigate simulation models in relation to power system stability studies
- Investigate transients and small signal analysis problems

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Power Electronics:**** **Applications of Power Electronics, History of Power Electronics, Power Semiconductor Devices- Power Diodes, Thyristors, Power Transistors.

** Control Characteristics of Power Devices ****:**** **Characteristics and Specifications of Switches- Ideal Characteristics, Characteristics of Practical Devices, Switch Specifications, Types of Power Electronic Circuits.

** Design of Power Electronics Equipment ****:**** **Square Values of Waveforms, Peripheral Effects, Power Modules, Intelligent Modules.

** Power Diodes ****: **Diode characteristics and its models, Types of diodes, Series and parallel operation of diodes, Unidirectional device like a diode on RLC circuits, Freewheeling and stored-energy recovery.

** Power Thyristors ****: **Introduction, Basic Structure and Operation, Static Characteristics, Switching Characteristics, Thyristor Parameters, Types of Thyristors, Gate Drive Requirements, Applications.

** Power Transistors ****: **Introduction, Basic Structure and Operation, Static Characteristics, Dynamic Switching Characteristics, Transistor Base Drive Applications, BJT Applications.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the fundamental theory and application of Power Electronics.
- Explain the operation of fundamental power electronic devices.
- Describe the different power electronic devices’ range of operation.
- Clarify the ideal characteristics of power electronic devices and limitations.
- Analyze basic power electronic circuits that include power diodes, thyristors and transistors.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Renewable Energy Sources:**** **Renewable Energy Sources, impact on the environment and the economy markets.

** Solar Energy ****:**** **Various Photovoltaic technologies, such as silicon or non-silicon based, the existing generations of PV, as well as the emerging technologies of thin film and concentrate Various Photovoltaic technologies, such as silicon or non-silicon based. Three existing generations of PV, various categories of silicon-based PVs, which are monocrystalline, polycrystalline, ribbon and sheet, and amorphous silicon, as well as the emerging technology of thin film and concentrated PVs, market analysis of the aforesaid past and present technologies, including price evolution, factory capacity evolution at different countries, installation facilities, and external factors affecting the PV industry, such as the silicon crisis, oil prices, and exchange rates, comparison between current and future technologies, future prospects of going beyond silicon, using non-silicon thin film solar cells of type CIGS.

** Wind Energy: **** **Basic systems of wind turbines such as mechanical and aerodynamics systems, connection possibilities of Grid Connected Wind Farms to High Voltage, Medium Voltage and Low Voltage networks, aerodynamic control (Stall) and step control (pitch), constant and variable speed operation, inverters, existing wind turbine technologies investigated in terms of cost, reliability and practicality.

** Biomass energy: **Energy from plants and plant derived materials such as wood, food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes.

** Fusion Energy: **General principles of fusion reaction, Electromagnetic and Inertia Confinement, Tokamaks (ITER, JET, JT-60, EAST, MAST, ALCATOR C-Mod), Lawson criterion, Incentives for Developing Fusion, Advantages and Disadvantages of Fusion Energy.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the basic concepts behind available renewable energy sources, and their impact on the environment and economy markets.
- Describe the different existing silicon and non-silicon based photovoltaic technologies, and identify future disruptive technologies.
- Explain wind turbine operational principles and the various existing technologies.
- Analyze biomass energy sources and various techniques used for fuel production.
- Examine fusion principles and fundamentals, as well as current and future fusion experiments worldwide.

#### Course Contents

**Optical Fibre Communication Technology: **Lightwave Technology, Optical line transmission, guided electromagnetic waves in optical waveguides (modes, material dispersion and attenuation).

**The Optical Fibre**: Single-mode/ Multimode Fibres, Step index/ Grade Index Fibres, Geometrical-optics and the wave propagation approach, Refractive Index, Total Internal Reflection, Losses, Bandwidth.

**Coupling of Optical Fibres: **Optical coupling in optical fibres and optical waveguides. optical devices in optical communication systems (LED’s, optical sensors, optical polarisers, Couplers, Connectors, Repeaters)

**The optical waveguide:**** **Optical waveguide structures, TE/ TM modes, Cut-off frequency, Optical Bends.

**Optical Communication Systems****: **Modulation, signal routing and timing in typical optical communication systems

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review the concepts of Lightwave Technology and Optical line transmission. Identify the characteristics of guided electromagnetic waves in optical waveguides such as modes, material dispersion and attenuation.
- Define the fundamentals of optical waveguides and fibres as key components in optical communication. Distinguish between Single-mode/ Multimode Fibres, Step index/ Grade Index Fibres. Apply the Geometrical-optics and the wave propagation approach to illustrate the basic parameters of the optical waveguide such as Refractive Index, Total Internal Reflection, Losses, Bandwidth.
- Introduce the concept of optical coupling in optical fibres and optical waveguides. Appraise the use integrated optical devices, such as, LED’s, optical sensors, optical polarisers, Couplers, Connectors, Repeaters in optical communication systems.
- Familiarise with the Optical waveguide structures, TE/ TM modes, Cut-off frequency, Optical Bends. Analyse the fundamental waveguide condition and explain the waveguide optical modes for a slab dielectric waveguide.
- Propose suitable techniques for modulation, signal routing and timing in typical optical communication systems

#### Course Contents

·

**Part 1: Project Management Overview:**

o Meaning and scope of projects and project management

o Key roles and responsibilities: The project manager, the Sponsor and the User

o Forms of contracts and project structure

o Alternative project organizations

·**Part 2: Project planning and scheduling **

o Sponsor’s & Project’s Requirements Definition

o Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)

o Gantt charts and project network logic diagrams

o Critical Path Method (CPM)

o Project time-cost trade-offs

o Project planning under uncertainty and risk analysis

o Resource allocation and scheduling

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Provide students with a sound understanding and knowledge of the basic concepts and analytical skills underpinning the effective management of projects in any industry sector.
- Write a sponsor and project requirements definition.
- Construct a comprehensive project schedule.
- Evaluate a project plan subject to time, cost and resource constraints.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction and Overview**

Definition of “engineering ethics”

Presentation of three scenarios concerning “ethical issues”

**Engineering Code of Ethics**

Introduction to engineering code of ethics

ETEK Code of Ethics (students will need to obtain a copy)

NSPE Code of Ethics (students will need to obtain a copy)

The use of cases as being central in the teaching of engineering ethics

**Professional responsibility and trust**

Professional responsibility and trust

Conception and Philosophical issues

Definition of a “Professional” Engineer

**Responsibility of Engineers:**

Responsibilities of Engineers as employees and Managers

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize and handle effectively moral problems and issues in engineering.
- Comprehend, clarify and assess arguments on opposing sides of moral issues.
- Define what is a profession.
- Form consistent and comprehensive view points based upon a consideration of relevant facts.
- Understand ethical commitment and professional responsibility of mechanical engineers

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Electrical Principles: **Basic electrical units, Electrical symbols, multiplication factors.

**Basic Electrical Quantities:** Resistance, charge, current, voltage, power and energy.

**DC circuit analysis:** Series – parallel circuits, Ohm’s Law, Kirchoff’s Law, Voltage and current Divider Rule.

**Alternating voltages and currents: **Sinusoidal signals, frequency, amplitude, period, peak, average and RMS values. Express AC quantities in rectangular and polar forms.

**Capacitive and inductive circuits: **Types of capacitors, capacitance, inductance, types of inductors, Analysis of RLC circuits.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Distinguish the principal circuit components. Perform multiplication factor conversions.
- Identify and calculate electrical quantities and units of charge, resistance, current and voltage. Implement Ohm’s Law.
- Make power consumption and energy dissipation calculations. Compute energy costs of electrical appliances.
- Recognize simple resistor topologies. Analyzing series and parallel circuits. Use of voltage and current divider rule. Analyze resistor topologies circuits using Kirchhoff’s Law.
- Identify sinusoidal signals, frequency, amplitude, period, peak, average and RMS values.
- Use different types of energy storing components (L, C) in simple topologies. Analyze R L C circuits when they are excited with alternating current or voltage sources.

#### Course Contents

**Introductory Digital Concepts**: Analogue/Digital systems, definitions, advantages of Digital systems.

**Number Systems:** Decimal, binary, Sign Magnitude, Hexadecimal, 1’s and 2’s complement calculations.

**Boolean Algebra and Logic Simplification**: Rules of Boolean Algebra, De Morgan’s theorem, Simplification guidelines and examples.

**Logic Gates**: OR, AND, NOR, NAND, NOT, XNOR, XOR, Truth table and Boolean expression corresponding to each gate.

**Combinational Logic**: design of circuits, simplification with the use of K-Maps, SOP, POS design.

**Combinational Logic building blocks:** Adders, Encoders, Decoders, Comparators.

**Sequential logic circuits**: Flip-flops.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognise the advantages of digital over analog systems.
- Manipulate numbers and arithmetic between commonly used number systems.
- Implement basic circuits using Binary Logic and Gates.
- Apply Boolean Algebra and simplify Boolean expressions.
- Analyse, design and simplify Combinational logic Circuits.
- Analyse simple sequential circuits.

#### Course Contents

**Synchronous sequential circuits.** Flip-Flops, flip-flop triggering, state diagrams and equations, excitation tables, state reduction and assignment. Design of circuits such as synchronous counters, sequence detectors, parity generators etc.

**Algorithmic** ** State ** ** Machines.** ASM charts and timing considerations. Data processors. Control implementation using decoders, multiplexers and PLAs. Design of circuits to perform arithmetic operations.

**Asynchronous sequential circuits . **Analysis of asynchronous circuits, transition tables, flow tables. Design procedure of asynchronous circuits** **

**Hardware description languages (VHDL).** Levels of description: Behavioral, register transfer, and gate level. Signals, variables, processes and control structures. Simulation and examples using VHDL.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse latches and flip flops and describe their characteristic and excitation tables.
- Analyse synchronous sequential circuit operation using different flip-flop types.
- Design, synchronous sequential circuits (FSM) using different flip-flop types.
- Identify and convert FSM to different implementations (Mealy-Moore).
- Analyse and design different register and counter implementations
- Describe the concept of ASM and interpret ASM charts and their basic building blocks.

#### Course Contents

Basic concepts of imperative programming.

Program development through data representation and construction of algorithms using selection, iteration, and sequence.

Information representation in programs (types and variables).

Statements, assignments and operations.

Conditional and repetitive statements.

Principles of algorithmic design.

Composite data type (arrays, structures),

Data input/output.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify and differentiate data types, variables and constants. Recognise and interpret precedence rules.
- Analyse and decompose a problem into parts. Translate problem into flow-charts and pseudo-code design methods.
- Develop and apply correct syntax in programs.
- Identify syntax and logic errors in a program.
- Identify when decision and repetition structures have to be used and choose the appropriate one for each case.
- Apply standard search algorithms.
- Demonstrate user-friendliness in program development and determine test procedures.

#### Course Contents

Systems of units, scientific notation. Current, voltage, resistance and their units. Voltage and current sources.

Ohms Law. Series and parallel combinations of resistors.

Kirchoff's voltage and current laws. Voltage and current divider rules.

Circuit analysis methods. Mesh Analysis, Node Voltage, source transformations.

Thevenin's and Norton's theorem, maximum power transfer, Superposition theorem.

Introduction to the concept of impedance. Introduction to ac circuit analysis. Simple R-L, R-C, and RLC circuits. Bridges.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Develop competence in the use of Kirchoff's voltage law (KVL) and Kirchoff's current law (KVL) in simple resistive circuits.
- Use KVL and KCL to determine currents voltages and power. Value the difficulty of these tasks for large circuits and the need of structured methods.
- Appraise the importance of voltage and current divider rules in circuit analysis.
- Develop an understanding of systematic analysis of linear resistive circuits using Mesh, Node Voltage method, Source Transformations and the principle of Superposition.
- Comparison of the various methods and development of competence in choosing the most appropriate and efficient method to analyze a specific circuit.
- Appraise the importance of Thevenin’s Theorem. Develop competence in deriving the Thevenin equivalent circuit and calculate maximum power transfer to the load.
- Understand the concept of impedance. Ac circuit analysis of simple R-L, R-C, and RLC circuits.

#### Course Contents

**Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits: **The Natural Response of an RL Circuit. The Natural Response of an RC Circuit. The Step Response of RL and RL Circuits.** **

**Natural and Step Responses of RLC circuits: **Natural Response of a parallel RLC Circuit.** **Forms of the Natural Response of a parallel RLC Circuit.** **Step Response of a Parallel RLC Circuit.** **Natural Response of a series RLC Circuit.** **Step Response of a Series RLC Circuit.** **

**Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis: **The Sinusoidal Source. The Sinusoidal Response. The Phasor. The Passive Circuit Elements in the Frequency Domain. Kirchhoff’s Laws in the Frequency Domain. Series, Parallel and Delta-to-Wye Simplifications. Source Transformations and Thevenin-Norton Equivalent Circuits. The Node-Voltage Method. The Mesh Current Method.** **

**Introduction to the Laplace Transform: **Definition of the Laplace Transform.** **The Step Function. The Impulse Function. Functional Transforms. Operational Transforms. Applying the Laplace Transform. Inverse Transforms. Poles and Zeros of F(s). Initial and Final Value Theorems.** **

**Laplace** ** Transform in Circuit Analysis: **Circuit Elements in the s-Domain. Circuit Analysis in the s-Domain. Transfer Function. Transfer Function in Partial Fraction Expansions. Transfer Function and the Convolution Integral. Transfer Function and the Steady State Sinusoidal Response. The Impulse function in Circuit Analysis.** **

**Two Port Networks: **Representation of circuits as Two Port Networks in the s-domain. Calculation of z- parameters, Study of Π, series, parallel, and T-networks, Open circuit tests, Closed circuit tests.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basics of series and parallel combinations of inductors and capacitors and understand, analyze and derive the natural and step responses of RL and RC circuits.
- Describe phasors and the phasor domain, analyze sinusoidal steady state analysis of RLC circuits, explain passive circuit elements and sources in the phasor domain, explain Kirchhoff’s laws in the phasor domain, use source transformations to derive Thevenin-Norton equivalent circuits and use the node voltage method and the mesh-current method in the phasor domain.
- Define the Laplace Transform and its properties, explain the step and impulse functions, poles and zeros, analyze circuit elements in the s-domain, describe Laplace transform in circuit analysis, analyze the impulse function in circuit analysis and the impulse response and transfer function of RLC circuits.
- Explain resonance, analyze series and parallel resonant circuits, derive the quality factor, resonance frequency and bandwidth and plot the amplitude of the output versus frequency and relate these circuits to passive filtering.
- Explain the representation of circuits as Two Port Networks, calculate z-parameters, study series, parallel, T networks and symmetrical networks, calculate parameters using open-circuit and closed-circuit tests, formulate the parameters in matrix form.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements: **Principle of Instrumentation and Measurements, Error in Measurement,Measurement Standard,Uncertainties.

**DC and AC meters : **Introduction to DC Meters, d’Arsonval Meter Movement,DC Ammeter,DC Voltmeter,DC Ohmmeter,Introduction to AC Meter,d’Arsonval Meter Movement (half-wave rectification),d’Arsonval Meter Movement (full-wave rectification),Loading Effects of AC Meter.

**Oscilloscopes and Signal Generators :**Introduction to Oscilloscope,Architecture of Oscilloscope,Introduction to Signal Generator,Architecture of Signal Generator.

**Measuring Devices (Sensors and Transducers): I**ntroduction to Sensors and Transducers,Basic Electrical Sensing Elements,Strain Measurement,Introduction to Calibration,Calibration Techniques.

**Signal Conditioning**: Introduction to signal conditioning, bridge circuits, amplifiers, protection, filters.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic mechanical and electrical measurement and instrumentation concepts.
- Explain in detail the working principle of DC/AC meters.
- Apply independent judgment in performing instrument measurements calibration and linearization.
- Analyze the working principles, operation and applications of various sensors and transducers.
- Explain the mechanism and the characteristics analogue signal conditioning.
- Use boards to assemble and test various sensors in the laboratory.

#### Course Contents

**Basic Semiconductor: **Introduction to semiconductors materials, N-type and P-type semiconductors, diode model and voltage current characteristics, diode biasing.

**Diode Applications: **Half-wave and full-wave rectification, power supply filter and regulators, clippers and clampers, voltage multipliers, diode datasheets.

**Special Purposes Diodes: **Zener diodes, varactor diodes, optical diodes, other types of diodes.

**Bipolar Junction Transistors: **Transistor structure and operation, transistor characteristics and parameters, transistor as an amplifier, transistor as a switch, transistor packages and terminal identification.

**Transistor Bias Circuit: **Q-point, voltage divider bias, other bias methods.

**Field Effect Transistors**: Transistor structure and operation, transistor characteristics and parameters, biasing circuits.

**BJT amplifiers: **Amplifier operation, ac equivalent circuit, common-emitter Amplifier, common-base Amplifier, common-collector amplifier, multistage amplifiers.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the mechanism and the characteristics of the basic semiconductor devices.
- Explain the diode characteristics and applications.
- Examine the operation and biasing configurations of the Bipolar Junction Transistor.
- Explain the optimum component values for the design of the BJT amplifier under DC and AC conditions.
- Describe the operation and biasing configurations of the Field Effect Transistor.
- Use software packages and boards to design, simulate, implement and test various circuits with semiconductor devices.

#### Course Contents

**Operational Amplifiers:** The differential Amplifier, Op-Amp characteristics and parameters. Voltage gain, input-output impedance, input offset, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio, Effects of Negative feedback.

**Op-Amp Applications:** Non-inverting, inverting and summing Amplifiers. Differentiator and integrator. Comparators and Analogue to Digital Flash Converter. Digital to analogue converter using summing amplifiers.

**Frequency Response: **Open- and closed loop configuration gain and phase response, cut-off frequency, bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product.

**Active Filters**: Basics of low pass, high pass and band pass, first and second order active filters. Higher-order Active Filter design (Butterworth, Chebychev and Bessel).

**Oscillators:** Principle of operation of oscillators. Voltage controlled (VCO) oscillators. Operation and applications of the 555 timer in monostable and astable mode. Phase lock loops (PLL). Analogue to digital conversion and Sampling.

**Laboratory work:** Individual and small group experiments performed with the use of Electronic boards, components, measuring instruments and simulation packages. Experiments include the design, construction on Electronic boards and analysis of the circuits and devices taught in theory. Testing is performed using signal measuring equipment such as digital multimeters, oscilloscopes and spectrum analysers. The performance of the designed circuits is also simulated and the results are evaluated and compared with the experimental analysis.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define the input and output characteristics of the operational amplifier (op-amp) and identify the basic op-amp parameters. Estimate the 741 Op-amp Voltage gain, input-output impedance, input offset, slew rate, common mode rejection ratio. Review the negative feedback principle and appraise the effect of Negative feedback on the voltage gain and frequency response of the op-amp.
- Derive the voltage gain of op-amp applications, such as the non-inverting, inverting, summing, integrator and differentiator amplifier. Estimate the voltage gain of the various op-amp applications and select the appropriate components to achieve the desired signal conditioning of the input signals. Design Analogue to Digital Converter and Digital to Analogue converters, using op-amps.
- Identify the open- and closed-loop gain and phase response parameters of the op-amp, such as cut-off frequency, bandwidth, gain-bandwidth product. Deduce the gain and phase response of a first-order low pass filter. Construct the overall gain and phase frequency response of cascaded op-amps.
- Classify the frequency responses of low-, high- and band-pass filters. Deduce the gain and phase response of first order and second order op-amp based active filters and select appropriate resistor and capacitor values to construct the required gain and phase response. Integrate first and second order active filters in the design of higher order active filters such as Butterworth, Chebychev and Bessel filters. Use the relevant table and propose suitable component values for the design of higher order active filters.
- Describe the principle of operation of oscillators. Examine the operation of voltage controlled (VCO) oscillators and calculate the condition for oscillation. Explain the operation of the 555 timer and distinguish the monostable and astable mode of operation. Perform analogue to digital conversion and sampling using oscillators.

#### Course Contents

**CPU Performance:** Overview of the history of computer architecture development. Emerging trends and technology drivers. Assessing computer performance based on different metrics (execution time, CPI and other performance parameters).Amdahl’s law.

**Introduction to computer organization and architecture:** Instruction cycle and flow of information at the register level. Instruction Set Architectures, instruction formats and instruction decoding. Relation between machine language, assembly language and high level languages.

**CPU design basics:** Datapaths, register files, ALU, shift and rotate circuits. Control unit implementation, hardwired control. Single-cycle and multi-cycle non-pipelined CPU design.

**Computer Arithmetic:** Implementation of a basic 32-bit ALU. Control signals for the ALU. Multiplication and Division algorithms. Introduction to floating-point numbers. IEEE double precision floating point format.

**Memory Hierarchy:** The memory locality principle. Cache memory organization and mapping. Cache replacement and write policies. Cache performance metrics. Virtual memory.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the metrics and benchmarks based on which evaluations between different systems can be made.
- Describe the instruction execution cycle with reference to the flow of information at the register level, and analyse typical Instruction Set Architectures with respect to the number of operands, addressing modes and branch types.
- Describe the internal structure and operation of a CPU datapath and design a simple single-cycle and a multi-cycle non-pipelined CPU.
- Explain how memory organisation affects the performance of a computer and how cache memory exploits locality to reduce the memory wall problem.
- Describe the operation and evaluate the performance of the common cache memory mapping methods.
- Explain the operation of a pipelined CPU and the advantages gained from such an approach. Analyse the problems that arise with respect to hazards and practical ways to detect and overcome these hazards.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to electrical workshop facilities and necessity for risk assessment, categories of electric shock, understanding electric shock risk (direct and indirect) and ES protection methods, concepts in electrical safety and regulations, earthing concept and systems.

-Practical skills in soldering techniques, mounting and soldering of components; and visual inspection of work, manufacturing techniques and technologies, packaging (through-hole and surface mount), component identification for interpretation of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) layout diagrams, interpretation of circuit schematic diagrams, component tolerances, component stability and preferred values.

- Use of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design software, Design and fabrication of PCBs for fundamental electronic and digital devices, PCB testing, electronic component fault diagnosis

- Applications of transformers, operation principle, analysis under load/no-load, ideal transformer, transformer losses, efficiency, open / short circuit tests, isolating transformers, autotransformers, single/three phase transformers, power supplies.

-Workmanship in electrical installations, familiarization with electrical installation accessories such as protective devices, circuit breakers, switches, isolators, time switches, distribution boards, electrical panels, wiring, identification and installation methods of cables, uninterruptible power supplies, battery technologies, battery testing.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand and appreciate the risk of electric shock and protection methods in electrical installations.
- Develop skills and good workmanship in relation to the erection of electrical installations and accessories.
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of transformers and power supplies.
- Familiarize and experiment with printed circuit boards and identify common electronic PCB applications.
- Design and fabricate PCBs in the laboratory for a specific application.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Technical Communication: **The need of Technical Writing. Development of concepts and skills of Technical Writing. Development of semantic information and structure. The ethics behind technical writing. Using sources and understanding plagiarism in all of its forms.

**Technical Report Writing: **The different types of academic papers and their application. Building a strategy of organising ideas, processing them and presenting them to a targeted group. Report readability. How the structure, format and contents of a report should be organised. Report writing. Organisation of the report structure. Chapters. Contents of each chapter. References

**Basic Principles in Technical Writing: **Correct use of grammar. Use of passive and active tense, Past and Present tense. Common Errors/Problems. Homonyms words, misused words, punctuation. Representation of numbers/numerals, fractions, decimals, units of measure and equations in a report.

**Oral Presentation: **Purpose and applications. Organisation and structure. Chapters and their contents. The use of bullet points, figures and graphs. Timing, speed, attention span, personal approach, good visual aids (PowerPoint), logical sequence, practice, answering questions.

**Writing an email: **Email types, Structure, recipient sender information, subject line. Links and attachments. Contents of an email, salutation, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling, grammar, electronic signature. Format. Rules and things to avoid.

**Writing a Letter: **Types of letters. Strategy. Letter components, recipient sender information, addresses, dates, salutation, paragraphs, vocabulary, spelling, grammar, signature. Basic letter formats.** **

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Develop concepts and skills of Technical Writing. Expand existing knowledge of writing. Construct a framework to begin the writing process. Identify different frameworks depending on the type of academic manuscript.
- Clarify the ethics behind technical writing. Acknowledge presented work, sources and understand plagiarism in all of its forms.
- Categorise the different types of academic manuscripts. Clarify the different purposes they serve and develop capacity to write one.
- Expand knowledge on the structure of an academic manuscript. Determine the function and the information conveyed in each part of the manuscript.
- Compare the vast amount of information available. Evaluate useful information. Illustrate good organisational skills for sorting and using information.
- Analyse the purpose of a style guide and how it helps to write a report in a professional manner. Apply the Departmental Style Guide and the information it conveys. Use the Style Guide effectively.
- Identify property rights in computer software and ethical issues of software piracy. Develop own ethical frameworks for Computer/Information Professionals. Familiarise with project proposals and project reports. Develop capacity to write a project proposal and reports. Analyse the work carried out in an academic manuscript.
- Explain the concepts of oral presentations and how information is conveyed. Summarise information to only necessary and important statements.

#### Course Contents

**Signals:** Classifications. Operations on signals: amplitude and time scaling, addition. Special signals: Unit step, Unit impulse, sinusoidal, exponential, complex exponential.

**Systems:** Classification of continuous-time systems and their properties. Linearity, time invariance, causality and stability. Description of continuous-time systems using differential equations. General forms. Impulse response. Input output description and the convolution integral. Graphical interpretation of convolution.

**Fourier series:** Derivation of the trigonometric Fourier series. Calculation of the Fourier coefficients. Combined trigonometric and exponential forms of the Fourier series. Harmonics and frequency spectra. Average value, RMS value, instantaneous and average power of periodic signals.

**Laplace** ** Transform:** Definition. Laplace transform of functions. Properties. Inverse Laplace transform using partial fraction expansion. Application of the Laplace transform to continuous-time linear systems analysis. Transfer function, poles and zeros, BIBO stability.

**Fourier Transform:** Definition. Properties. Fourier transform of functions. Frequency spectra of signals. Frequency response of LTI systems. Magnitude and phase responses.

**Analog filters**: Ideal filters. Specification of filters in terms of their frequency response. Magnitude and phase responses of filters. Group delay.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Categorize the various types of signals. Recognize and manipulate special signals. Understand and calculate quantities such as average value, RMS value, instantaneous power and average power of signals. Perform mathematical operations on signals such as amplitude scaling, time scaling, addition and subtraction.
- Classify continuous time systems based on linearity, time invariance and causality. Derive the convolution integral. Use convolution to calculate the output of a system, graphically and analytically, given its impulse response and the input. Compute the impulse response of cascaded systems.
- Compute the Fourier series of periodic waveforms and the Fourier transform of non-periodic waveforms. Employ the Fourier series and the Fourier transform to obtain the frequency spectra of signals.
- Compute the Laplace Transform of signals. Analyze LTI systems using the Laplace transform and the Fourier transform. Obtain the transfer function, frequency response and test their stability. Derive the impulse response of LTI systems from the transfer function using partial fraction expansion.
- Integrate the knowledge attained to compute the impulse response, the transfer function and the frequency response of simple electrical systems. Derive the impulse response of ideal filters. Specify, design and analyze simple analog filters. Classify filters in terms of their frequency response.

#### Course Contents

**Vector analysis:** Definition of Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates system. Vector calculations, use of gradient, divergence, rotation and laplacian operators.

**Electrostatics:** Gauss’ law, Coulomb’s law, integral and differential form of Maxwell’s equation for electrostatics. Derivation of Ohm’s law using Maxwell’s equations. Calculation of E field caused by discrete and continuous charge distribution. Calculation of capacitance for parallel plate and cylindrical capacitors. Comparison between boundary conditions between two dielectric media and between a metal and a dielectric.

**Magnetostatics:** Use of Ampere’s law, Biot – Savart’s law, calculation of inductance and self-inductance using the concept of magnetic flux. Magnetic boundary conditions, forces between current carrying conductors and moments on current currying loops in the presence of magnetic fields.

**Time harmonic electrodynamics: **Use of Maxwell’s time dependent equations for the operation explanation of AC voltage generator and of an electric motor. Forces and torques on loops or linear conductors in the presence of time-varying B field.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Examine the use of vector and scalar operators in Maxwell’s equations
- Apply Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems to calculate vector integrals.
- Associate the use of boundary conditions between dielectric media with metal dielectric interface
- Apply Gauss’ law to calculate E field from discrete and continuous charge distributions.
- Analyze the capacitance from planar and cylindrical structures, calculate electrostatic forces and torques on charge distributions.
- Explain the development of magnetic forces on current currying conductors using Biot-Savart’s law.
- Calculate self and mutual inductance for coaxial cables and random shape circuits in the presence of magnetic fields.
- Analyze the operation principles for AC generators and electric motors using time harmonic EM fields.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Waves**.:Electric and Magnetic Fields. Traveling Waves.

**Transmission Lines:** Wavelength. Propagation modes. Modeling of transmission lines. Line parameters. Lossless and lossy lines. Reflection. Standing waves. VSWR. Input Impedance.

**Smith chart**: Line stub matching and quarter wave transformer.

**Waveguides:**Applications. Propagation modes. Governing equations. Cutoff frequency and wavelength.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the fundamentals concepts of electromagnetic wave transmission.
- Explain the various transmission media and their applications
- Apply the theory of waves in transmission lines using Smith chart, line stub matching and quarter wave transformer.
- Analyze theoretically and experimentally the propagation of electromagnetic waves in waveguides with emphasis on rectangular waveguides.
- Use boards to gain practical experience through related lab experiments in the transmission and propagation of electromagnetic waves.

#### Course Contents

**Amplitude Modulation**

Study and analyze Amplitude Modulation (AM) systems, DSB-AM, Modulation index and efficiency, carrier frequency, side-frequencies, spectrum and spectrum plots. Single tone and multi-tone modulation. Over-modulation and distortion. Spectrum. Other forms of AM, DSB-SC-AM, SSB-AM and Vestigial Sideband. Spectra. AM transmitters. Demodulation schemes of AM signals. Study the super-heterodyne receiver and the Costas Loop. Operation of the mixer, the envelope detector and the product detector. Costas Loop. SSB-AM demodulation. Phasing and filtering method.

**Angle Modulation**

Phase Modulation, PM. Phase function and complex envelope. Phase deviation, modulation index, spectrum and bandwidth. Tone modulation. Carson ’s rule. Plots.

Frequency Modulation, FM. Instantaneous frequency and frequency deviation. Sensitivity and modulation index. Bandwidth and Carson ’s rule. Spectrum of single tone modulation using Bessel functions.

Narrowband and wideband FM. Generation and demodulation. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis systems. Frequency Division Multiplexing transmitter, receiver and spectra.

** **

**Noise in Communication Systems**

Noise. Signal-to-Noise ratio. Noise figure. Cascaded devices. Friis’ theorem. Link budget evaluation.

** **

**Laboratory Experiments**

Introduction to Communications

Information, information sources, analog and digital. Deterministic and random signals. Channels. Communication systems. Frequency allocation. Instantaneous power and average power, rms value, Decibel. Signal to Noise ratio. Spectrum. Overview of Fourier series, Fourier Transform and spectrum of signals.

**Amplitude Modulation (AM) **

General form of bandpass signals. Complex envelope. Amplitude Modulation. DSB-AM, SSB-AM and DSB-SC-AM. Modulation index and efficiency, carrier frequency, side-frequencies, spectrum and spectrum plots. Over-modulation and distortion. Average power and peak envelope power. Envelope detector. Multi-tone modulation. Power of AM signals. Generation and demodulation of AM. Costas Loop. Super-heterodyne receiver.

**Angle Modulation **

Phase Modulation, PM. Phase function and complex envelope. Phase deviation, modulation index, spectrum and bandwidth. Tone modulation. Carson ’s rule. Frequency Modulation, FM. Instantaneous frequency and frequency deviation. Sensitivity and modulation index.. Bandwidth and Carson ’s rule. Spectrum of single tone modulation using Bessel functions. Narrowband and Wideband FM. Generation and demodulation. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. Frequency division multiplexing.

Noise in Communication Systems

Noise. Signal-to-Noise ratio. Noise factor and noise figure. Cascaded devices. Friis’ theorem. Link budget evaluation.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyze continues systems and signals in time and frequency domain and determine the concepts of instantaneous and time-averaged values
- Construct AM communication systems and combine system units to assembly DSB-AM, SSB-AM and DSB-SC-AM modulation, transceivers.
- Determine the structural units of angle modulation systems and modify proposed communication systems to accommodate the need for PM, FM and NBFM modulation considering the frequency domain limitations.
- Compare and argue the performance of AM and PM communication systems and assess the effect of noise in the transceiver’s complexity and modulation’s effectiveness.
- Experiment with the taught communication units using the available simulation packages at the laboratory and justify the selection of a communication system upon the application.

#### Course Contents

· Introduction: Control Objective, Main Components a Control System, Open loop Systems, Closed Loop Systems, Control Design Procedure..

· Derivation of Differential Equations for Electrical and Mechanical systems.

· Laplace Transforms, Transfer Functions, Step Responses, Impulse Responses, Solution of Differential Equations.

· Input-Output Stability, Poles, Zeros, Complex Numbers, Routh-Hurwitz Criterion.

· Transient Response Characteristics, Percentage-Overshoot, Rise-Time, Steady State Response, Final Value Theorem.

· Frequency Response, Bode Plots, Nyquist Stability Criterion, Phase Margins, Gain Margins.

· Proportional Control Action, Phase Lead, Phase Lag Compensators, Integral Control Action.

· Closed Loop Control Design using the Root Locus method.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review Laplace Transform theory and define the block diagram representation of the open and closed-loop transfer function concept in engineering control systems. Appreciate the advantages of closed loop systems relative to open loop systems.
- Derive the mathematical model of basic electrical, mechanical and hydraulic control systems. Introduce MATLAB and SIMULINK software tools.
- Analyse the basic parameters of the closed-loop transfer function and the static characteristics of a control system.
- Examine the action of aperiodic signals in the transient-response analysis of first-, second- and higher-order control systems. Implement transient response analysis of first-order and second order control systems using MATLAB and SIMULINK.
- Examine the action of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative Controllers on the static and transient characteristics of control systems.
- Interpret the meaning of stability of control systems in terms of the transfer function. Judge the stability of a closed-loop control system from the Routh-Hurwitch Criteria.
- Draw Bode and Nyquist Plots. Judge the stability of a control system using the Phase and Gain margin criteria in frequency domain plots.
- Interpret Root-locus design concepts and draw Root-Locus plots. Examine the effect of open-loop zeros and poles in Root-Locus Plots.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to electrical systems**: generation, transmission, distribution system characteristics in Cyprus . Principle of power generation using oil fuelled generator.

**Introduction to transmission system:** transmission system consideration, cable parameters, series impedance of a line, short transmission line model, polar and rectangular formation of impedances.

**Introduction to distribution systems:** distribution system considerations. Types of load, power quality, voltage sags, distribution network planning.

**Transformer operation:** basic magnetic principles, transformer circuit diagram, operation of transformer in power systems.

**Motor loads:** characteristics of motors, general circuit diagram of an induction motor, effect on power quality.

**Power in 3-phase systems:** definition of active, reactive, apparent power, power factor, mathematical formulation relating to the identification of power at a system. Circuit analysis to obtain power and power factor.

**System analysis**: delta to star and star to delta transformation used in the analysis of interconnected impedance circuits.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain basic principles of electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Describe the principle of operation of a generator.
- Explain basic transmission system considerations: transmission line cable parameters, series impedance, ideal transformer operation and basic magnetic principles.
- Explain distribution system considerations: types of load (static, dynamic loads), introduction to general characteristics of motor loads.
- Describe power in 3-phase ac systems: definition and calculations of active, reactive and apparent power. Calculation of power with circuit analysis.
- Describe mathematically the analysis of radial and mesh power networks (d-y transformation) as well as calculation of multilevel voltage system currents.

#### Course Contents

**Per unit Analysis**: Parameter calculation for transformers, loads and transmission lines and mathematical identification of per unit voltage and current quantities at various points of a radial system.

**Symmetrical components:** theory for three phase system analysis, Development and application of the ‘A’ operator matrix and inverse matrix for system analysis. Calculation of the various current and voltage symmetrical components.

**Delta and Star connected loads:** Effect of load connection on the voltage and current calculations of the system, phasor diagrams and power for each connection.

**Power factor correction:** Calculation of the power factor of a loaded system, consisting of Resistors, inductors and capacitors. Precision improvement of the power factor through sizing the reactive compensation with the use of capacitor banks.

**Transmission Line representation:** Development of mathematical description of the ABCD parameters of medium transmission lines, calculation of Voltages , currents and power through two port network analysis.

**Protection:** Introduction of Protection Devices, CB, Relays, Operation of Fuses, protection of Line with the use of Differential scheme, calculation of CT ratio.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe mathematically how the ‘A’ operator matrix is derived as well as the inverse matrix, and calculate the symmetrical phasors of the currents or voltages of an unbalanced system with the use of symmetrical components
- Describe the various currents and voltages involved in Star connected load analysis.
- Describe the various currents and voltages involved in Delta/Mesh connected load analysis.
- Describe how the insertion of reactive power compensation devices leads to the improvement of the power factor in a system, evaluate the amount of Capacitance required for power factor correction under heavily inductive loading cases.
- Explain how the per unit system analysis method is used to analyze a multy node multy voltage level system, and evaluate the per-unit and actual voltages and currents at the various system buses.
- Describe the operation and evaluate the performance of medium transmission lines through ABCD parameter analysis.
- Explain the function of circuit breakers and relays in the differential protection scheme, and evaluate the characteristics of current transformers.

#### Course Contents

**Magnetic circuits: **magnetic fields, magneto-motive force, magnetic flux density, magnetic flux, magnetic field strength, permeability, reluctance, magnetic circuit by analysis techniques, variation of B with H

**Transformer steady-state description, theory and analysis: **application of transformers, operation principle, equivalent model, analysis under load/no-load, voltage regulation, inductance, ideal transformer, transformer losses, EMF equation of a transformer, leakage flux, efficiency, open / short circuit tests, current transformers, auto transformers

**Asynchronous Machines - Induction Motors:** terminology, applications of IM, elements, of IM, rotor construction types, operation principles, synchronous speed, rotor speed, concept of slip, effect of number of poles, equivalent circuit, powers in IM, torque, starting of IM

**Synchronous Machines - Generators****:** terminology, applications and elements of SM, rotor construction types, operation principles, synchronous speed, rotor speed, effect of number of poles, equivalent circuit, powers in SM, torque, voltage regulation, synchronous impedance, power angle

**DC Machines – DC Motor:** terminology, advantages/disadvantages, DC machines as generators and motors, applications and elements of DC machines, compound/series/shunt would rotor construction, operation principles, speed of motor, torque of motor, speed and torque characteristics, speed control, equivalent circuit.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Examine and analyse magnetic circuits and air-gap effects
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of Power Transformers
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of D.C. motor and generator machines
- Examine and analyse the elements and operation of A.C. motor and generator machines
- Investigate in laboratory environment the characteristics of AC/DC machines and star/delta loads

#### Course Contents

**Robot classification**: Classification by coordinate system and by Control Method, Robotic Applications (Welding, spray painting, grinding, parts handing and transfer, assembly operations, parts sorting, parts inspection etc.)

**Kinematics and Dynamics:** Coordinate transformations, Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Link-Joint Parameters, DH Transformation Matrices

**Programming:** AL programming language, Computer model and CAD simulation packages for Robotics applications.

**Robot Drives:** Types of drive systems: Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electric (brushed and brushless DC motors, stepper motors),.Mechanical components (springs, gears, belts, chains, joints, clutches, brakes, bearings).

**Sensors:** Potentiometers, synchros, resolvers, linear variable differential transformers, opto-interrupters, optical encoders, velocity sensors, accelerometers, proximity sensors, force and torque sensors.

**Control of Robot Arm Manipulators**: Feedback control System of a robot arm manipulator joint, Industrial Automation Systems

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Review matrix transformation techniques in terms of reference and body attached coordinate frames. Classify by coordinate system and by Control Method, Robotic Applications (Welding, spray, parts handing and transfer, assembly operations, parts sorting, parts inspection etc.)
- Understand the kinematics and dynamics of a robot arm manipulator. Familiarise with coordinate matrix transformation, link-joint parameters and Lagrange Polynomial theory to estimate the kinematics and dynamics of a robot arm manipulator. Apply Coordinate transformations, Homogeneous Transformation Matrices, Link-Joint Parameters, DH Transformation Matrices to analyse Robot Arm kinematics of practical robot arm manipulators. Apply Lagrange Polynomial theory to estimate the dynamics of a robot arm manipulator.
- Judge the different robot drivers, sensors and controllers for use in particular applications of robot arm manipulators. Classify robot drives and sensors and explain the operation of the various sensors and actuators together with various control techniques used in industrial robots.
- Familiarise with Robot Programming languages and CAD simulations packages for Robotic Applications. Design a four link robot arm manipulator by utilizing the kinematics principles, develop its computer model and simulate it using CAD simulation packages for Robotics applications.
- Appraise the integration of the robot arm manipulator in industrial automation systems

#### Course Contents

Introduction to digital communications. Applications.

Conversion of analog signals to digital signals. Nyquist theorem. Aliasing. Low pass filtering. PAM demodulation.

Uniform and Non-uniform quantization. Quantization error.

Pulse Code Modulation. Encoding.

Baseband transmission. Baseband line codes. Unipolar, Polar, RZ, NRZ, Bipolar, Manchester. Rates. Bandwidth. Signal to Noise ratio. Power Spectral Density of line codes. Differential coding. Multilevel signaling and baud rate.

Effects of Noise and eye patterns. Intersymbol interference.

Regenerate Repeaters and bit synchonization. Delta modulation.

Bandpass Communications, bandpass modulation and demodulation techniques, ASK, BPSK, DPSK, FSK. Generation and detection.

Multiuser communications. Multiplexing. Synchronization. FDMA, TDMA, CDMA.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain of the concepts of information, information measure and digital information sources. Describe the components of digital communication systems. Define the capacity of a channel and discuss its associated limitations.
- Define the sampling theorem and describe the steps of quantization and encoding to obtain PAM and PCM baseband signals. Relate baseband transmission and baseband line codes and explain the incentive of multilevel signaling.
- Evaluate performance of digital communication systems and calculate quantization error, bit and baud rates, transmission bandwidth, Signal to Noise ratio and Power Spectral Density of line codes.
- Explain basic transmission impediments such as effects of noise, eye patterns, intersymbol interference and bit synchronization issues. Suggest possible solutions.
- Differentiate and describe bandpass modulation and demodulation techniques such as ASK, BPSK, DPSK and FSK. Examine generation and detection techniques.
- State the principles of multiplexing and compare approaches of multiuser communication systems, i.e. FDMA, TDMA and CDMA.

#### Course Contents

**Discrete time signals and systems in the time domain **

Introduction to signals, systems and signal processing applications. Classification of signals. Continuous time vs. discrete time signals. Continuous valued vs. discrete valued signals.

Frequency in continuous time vs. discrete time. Analog-to-digital conversion. Sampling process and sampling theorem.

Discrete-time systems. Input-output description of systems. Block diagram representation of systems. Properties of linearity, time invariance, causality and stability.

Discrete-time Linear Time-Invariant systems. Impulse response. Convolution.

**Evaluation and use the z-transform **

Definitions and evaluation of the z-transform. Properties. Z-plane.

Rational z-transforms. Zeros and poles, zero-pole diagrams and the unit circle. Stability and causality.

Inverse z-transform. Partial fraction expansion.

Discrete-time system analysis using the z-transform. Calculation of the system impulse response from the transfer function.

**Frequency domain analysis of discrete-time signals and systems **

Frequency analysis of discrete-time signals using the Fourier transform. Properties of the Fourier transform.

Relationship of the Fourier transform to the z-transform.

Frequency domain analysis of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems. Input-Output Relations in the frequency domain. Frequency response of LTI systems. Magnitude and phase of the frequency response. Linear phase systems. Group delay.

Definition and calculation of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Examination of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and classification of FFT algorithms.

**Digital Filters **

Introduction to digital filters. Frequency response and impulse response of ideal digital filers.

Frequency selective filters. Low-pass, Band-pass, and high-pass digital filters. Implementation of FIR vs IIR filters.

Design methods of digital filters. Linear phase FIR filters. Use of the MATLAB DSP toolbox.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify the various types of signals. State the sampling theorem and show how discrete time signals are obtained. Manipulate discrete time signals utilizing the unit sample and the unit step signals.
- Define discrete time systems. Examine and classify systems based on linearity, time invariance (LTI) and causality. Express discrete time systems using difference equations. Derive the impulse response of FIR and IIR systems from their difference equations and vice versa. Describe and appraise the differences between FIR and IIR systems. Derive and draw system flow diagrams. Evaluate the output of LTI systems by convolution and by the difference equation.
- Analyze LTI discrete-time signals and systems using the z-transform. Obtain the transfer function, the poles and zeros of the system. Examine the BIBO stability of the system. Analyze LTI discrete-time signals and systems using the Fourier transform. Obtain the frequency response of the system. Utilize the properties of the transforms in the analysis of signals and systems. Determine the phase and group delay of linear phase FIR filters.
- Define the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Relate these transforms to the z-transform. Calculate the DFT of discrete time signals.
- Classify digital filters according to being ideal or non-ideal, FIR or IIR, causal or non-causal and their frequency selectivity. Define the problem formulation of digital filter design. Design and analyze linear phase FIR filters using MATLAB.

#### Course Contents

**Characteristics of logic circuits**: Definition of digital logic design, noise margins, voltage and current characteristics, transient characteristics, rise time and fall time, noise immunity and loading, speed, power dissipation and levels of a logic inverter gate, propagation delay, power-delay product.

**Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL), Complimentary and Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL): **Prototype and standard TTL Inverter, Internal Structure,** **Voltage and current logic operating levels, noise immunity, speed, power dissipation and levels of integration. Interconnecting logic families. ECL NOR –OR gate.

**Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS):** Review of MOS transistor (nmos / pmos), current-voltage characteristics, capacitance. CMOS Inverter voltage transfer characteristics, noise margins, CMOS gate sizing, W/L aspect ratio. CMOS NOR and NAND gates.

**VLSI Design:** basic layout, subsystem layout, and mask layout, CAD/CAE tools.

**VLSI fabrication techniques**: Silicon Technology, Crystal growth through diffusion, ion implementation, oxidation, photolithography, metalization and packaging.

**VLSI design examples**: CMOS Inverter.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse the various issues involved during the design of Digital Integrated Circuit such as the static power, dynamic power, propagation delay, noise margin, chip size.
- Explain the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the CMOS inverter and CMOS NAND and NOR gates.
- Compare and argue the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the ECL inverter and ECL OR and NOR gates.
- Compare and argue the internal structure (in transistor level) and operation of the TTL inverter and TTL NAND gates.
- Design more advanced logic functions based on the knowledge of the basic inverter and NAND and NOR gates.

#### Course Contents

Linear and other Inequalities in one Variable. Absolute Values and their Properties.

Exponents, roots and their properties. The concept of the logarithm and its properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Basic trigonometric functions and their graphs (sinx, cosx, tanx, cotx, secx, cscx) and basic identities of trigonometric functions including trigonometric functions of sums and differences of two angles.

Real valued functions of one variable: functions**, **operations of functions, inverse functions, logarithmic and exponential functions and their properties, parametric equations. Graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limits and continuity: introduction to calculus, limits, and continuity.

Differentiation: The derivative as a function, the derivative as a rate of change and as the slope of a graph, techniques of differentiation, chain rule, derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, and differentials.

Applications of differentiation: related rates, increase, decrease, and concavity, relative extrema, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching, absolute minimum and maximum values of functions, applied maximum and minimum value problems.

Introduction to the concept of integration.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a function of a real variable, define the absolute value function, state and use its properties and sketch the graph of linear, quadratic, and absolute value functions.
- Solve inequalities with absolute values, quadratic inequalities by factorizing and considering the two linear terms, rational inequalities and illustrate a geometric interpretation of the above inequalities by sketching the graph of the corresponding function.
- Define, sketch the graph, and describe the properties of the exponential function, the logarithmic function and the basic trigonometric functions.
- Explain the notion of limits and continuity of functions, identify and verify limits and points of discontinuity from a graph.
- Describe the derivative as a limit of finite differences, find the derivative of specific categories of functions, state and apply the general rules of differentiation to calculate derivatives, use the first and second derivative of a function to find its local extrema , points of inflection, and regions in which it is increasing, decreasing, concaving upwards or downwards.
- Apply the knowledge of derivatives in the field of engineering and in optimization problems.
- Explain in broad terms the concept of the integral of a function of a real variable.

#### Course Contents

**Definite and Indefinite integrals: **The notions of definite and indefinite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

**Applications of the Definite Integral:** Areas between two curves, volumes by the methods of slices and cylindrical shells, and areas of surfaces of revolution.

**Techniques of Integration:** Method of u-substitution, Integration by Parts, partial fraction decomposition. Trigonometric integrals, inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions: their derivatives and integrals, integrals of powers of sines, cosines, tangents and secants by using reduction formulae, trigonometric substitutions.

**Introduction to Partial Derivatives and Double Integrals.**

**Series:** Infinite series, Power Series, Taylor and MacLaurin Series, tests of convergence.

**Polar Coordinates:** Polar coordinates and conversion of Cartesian to Polar coordinates. Areas in polar coordinates.

**An introduction to complex numbers:** Geometric interpretation, Polar form, Exponential form, powers and roots.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of definite and indefinite integrals, state and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
- Solve simple definite and indefinite integrals of polynomials, functions involving rational powers of the variable, exponential, trigonometric, and rational functions.
- Solve more complicated integrals by using the methods of integration by parts, u-substitution, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric substitution.
- Explain the concept of functions of two variables, find partial derivatives,
- Explain the concept of infinite series, state Taylor’s and MacLaurin’s Theorems, and expand simple functions in such series.
- Explain the notion of complex numbers, evaluate simple expressions involving complex numbers, and express complex numbers in polar form.
- Apply definite integration in order to compute areas between curves, and volumes of solids of revolution by using the methods of slices and cylindrical shells.

#### Course Contents

**Vectors and Linear spaces.** Vector concept, operations with vectors, generalization to higher dimensions, Euclidean space, basis, orthogonal basis: linear dependence, Cartesian products, vector products, vector transformations, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, vector spaces and subspaces. Geometric examples.

**Matrices and Determinants.** Matrix concept, operations with matrices, Special matrices, definition of a determinant and its properties, determinant of a product, inverse matrix, properties and computation.

**Linear Transformations.** Definition of linear transformations, properties, elementary transformations, rank and determinants.

**Simultaneous Linear Equations.** Cramer’s rule, Gaussian elimination, Gauss-Jordan elimination, homogeneous linear equations, geometric interpretation.

**Quadratic forms and Eigenvalue Problem.** Quadratic forms, definitions, Normal form, eigenvalue problem, characteristic equation, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition.

**MATLAB Applications.** Basic matrix algebra, the determinant of a matrix of n-order, solving simultaneous equations with n unknowns with a number of techniques, finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Elementary vector manipulation, finding linear dependence. Linear Transformations, plotting transforms on the x-y plane.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a matrix, including its transpose, identify the properties of special types of matrices and perform different matrix operations.
- Generate determinants of any order using minors, compute 2x2, 3x3 determinants directly and find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors.
- Use Cramer’s Rule for solving square linear systems with the aid of determinants, employ Gaussian Elimination for solving systems of linear equations, perform elementary row matrix reduction to echelon form and back substitution to obtain the solution of the system, apply Gaussian Elimination to find the inverse of a square matrix using augmentation, execute Gauss-Jordan elimination and implement a readily available inverse of the matrix of coefficients to solve a square linear system.
- Explain the notion of multiplicity of roots of the characteristic equation, employ these concepts to various applications and compute eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of square matrices.
- Defend the notion of vectors in two, three and higher dimensions, perform operations with vectors including dot/Cartesian and vector products, outline the concept of an orthogonal basis of the Euclidean space as well as the geometric structure of linearly independent vectors, show vector linear transformations in concrete geometric examples and exploit the properties of vector spaces and subspaces.
- Define linear transformations, perform elementary transformations available, rank and determinants and apply these concepts to real-life examples identifying their geometric implications.
- Employ the computer programming language Matlab to solve different matrix operations and systems of linear equations, to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors, to execute elementary vector manipulation, to exhibit linear transformations and to construct plots.

#### Course Contents

**First Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification of differential equations. Separable, linear with integrating factor, exact, and homogeneous ordinary differential equations, Applications of First-Order Differential Equations.

**Second and nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Linear homogeneous with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous with constant coefficients. The method of reduction of order, the method of undetermined coefficients, and the method of variation of parameters. Initial value problems and applications of second order linear ordinary differential equations.

**Series of Solutions: **Definition and properties, convergence, and solution of linear differential equations with constant and non constant coefficients.

**Laplace Transform:** Definition and properties, partial fractions, Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification. Introduction to separation of variables.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB: **Calculation of solutions with readily available codes and analysis of results.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and explain the concept of an ordinary differential equation, employ the appropriate method to solve Separable, Linear, Homogeneous, and Exact first-order differential.
- Define the concept of second order linear ordinary differential equations, describe the general method of their solution, and calculate the general solution of second-order homogeneous differential equations with constants coefficients.
- Describe the method of Reduction of Order in the solution of second order homogeneous differential equations, and employ the method to obtain the second linearly independent solution.
- Describe the Methods of Undetermined Coefficients, and Variation of Parameters, use these methods to find the general solution of second-order non-homogeneous differential equations, and compare the two methods identifying their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the concept of Power Series expansions as solutions of linear differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of non-homogeneous differential equations that arise in applied engineering problems, and compare the method with the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.
- Identify the importance of the method of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of important differential equations, and compare the results with the ones given by previous methods wherever this is possible.
- Define partial differential equations, and apply the method of Separation of Variables on partial differential equations to deduce a system of ordinary differential equations.
- Use readily available Matlab codes to calculate solutions of differential equations that arise in Applied Engineering Problems, and compare the results with the analytic solutions obtained with the techniques learned in the course.

#### Course Contents

**Three Dimensional Space, Vectors:** Rectangular coordinates & 3-D vectors, the vector (cross) and dot products of two vectors, lines and planes in space, quadric and more general surfaces.

**Vector Valued Functions:** Vector valued functions, curves and motion in space.

**Functions of several variables and optimization:** Functions of several variables and the chain rule, directional derivatives and the gradient vector, tangent planes, maximum and minimum values of functions of several variables, the 2nd derivative test for functions of two variables, Lagrange Multipliers and constrained max-min problems.

**Double Integrals:** Double integrals over general regions, area and volume by double integration, change of variables in double integrals, double integrals in polar coordinates.

**Vector Fields and Line Integrals:** The del operator (div, grad, and curl in rectangular coordinates), vector fields, line integrals, the fundamental theorem and independence of path, Green’s theorem.

**Triple Integrals:** Triple integrals, volume by triple integration, change of variables in triple integrals, triple integrals in cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

**Surface area and Surface integrals.**

**Divergence and Stoke’s theorems.**

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concepts of rectangular coordinates, 3-D vectors, and vector-valued functions, calculate 3-D vectors, the vector (cross) and dot products of two vectors and explain their geometric meaning, and find the equation of a plane containing three points.
- Recall and employ the standard graphs of straight lines, the circle, the parabola, the ellipse, and the hyperbola, in order to solve problems in space involving general cylinders, quadric, and more general surfaces.
- Explain the concept of real-valued functions of several variables, employ partial differentiation including implicit and the multivariable chain rule to find the gradient vector and the equation of tangent planes.
- Find and classify the critical points of functions of several variables, and solve constrained maximum-minimum problems by using the Method of Lagrange Multipliers
- Evaluate double and triple integrals over general regions, including surface integrals, by changing the order of integration or converting to polar, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.
- Explain the notion of vector fields, calculate their divergence and curl, determine conservative vector fields, and state the Fundamental theorem of independence of path for conservative vector fields.
- Explain the concept of line integrals, and evaluate them by employing several methods, including the Fundamental theorem for conservative vector fields.
- State Green’s, Divergence, and Stoke’s theorems, and choose the most appropriate technique, according to the specific problem, to solve the integrals involved.

#### Course Contents

**Descriptive Statistics:** Introduction to Statistics, Data Collection, Describing and Summarizing Data, Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Skewness, Tables, Charts, Exploratory Data Analysis.

**Probability:** Sample Spaces and Events. Introduction to set theory and relations in set theory. Definitions of Probability and properties. Conditional probability.

**Discrete Random Variables:** Probability Distribution Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson.

**Continuous Random Variables:** Probability density Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Uniform, Normal Distribution. Approximations for Discrete Distributions.

**Sampling distributions:** Properties of sample distributions: Unbiasedness and minimum variance. The central limit theorem.

**Estimation: **Confidence Internal Estimation for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions. Sample size determination.

**Hypothesis** **Testing:** Hypothesis Testing for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions.

**Introduction to regression: **Simple Linear Regression and Correlation

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Use descriptive statistics to present data by constructing Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Histograms and Box Plots.
- Explain and apply measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode, measures of Dispersion such as Range, IQR, Variance and standard deviation and the coefficients of Variation and Skewness to different types of data.
- Describe the notion of sample space for an experiment, describe events as subsets of the sample space and construct events by using set theoretic operations and with the use of Venn diagrams.
- Construct the probability function on the space of events with its properties, define conditional probability and calculate probabilities of events in simple problems.
- Describe the concepts of discrete and continuous random variables as functions from the sample space to the set of real numbers and explain and use the probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function to calculate simple probabilities.
- Calculate the expected number, variance and standard deviation of a random variable and use discrete and continuous distributions in examples to calculate probabilities in real life problems.
- Calculate point estimators and construct confidence intervals for means and proportions of one and two populations.
- Test hypothesis for means, proportions and difference of means, apply hypothesis testing to real life problems and construct linear models for a given set of data using linear regression.

#### Course Contents

**Kinematics in one dimension:** Motion along a straight line, motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, graphical representations, motion with constant deceleration, motions due to gravity (Free Fall, Fall with initial velocity, objects thrown upward).

**Dynamics:** Newton ’s Laws of motion, type of forces, free-body diagrams, adding forces graphically, static and kinetic friction, inclines.

**Work and energy:** Work done by a constant force, kinetic energy, work-energy principle, potential energy due to position and due to a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, dissipative forces.

**Linear Momentum:** Momentum and forces, conservation of linear momentum in one and two dimensions, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse, energy and momentum in collisions.

**Oscillations:** Simple harmonic motion, conservation of mechanical energy, simple pendulum.

**Rigid Body:** Moments, equilibrium of a rigid body, kinematics of a rigid body (motion and rotation about a fixed axis), dynamics of a rigid body (torque, work, energy and power in rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum).

**Waves:** Wave motion, superposition, sound waves, speed of sound, Doppler effect).

**Ideal gas:** density, ideal gas law, temperature scales.

**Laboratory Work:** General Laboratory Instructions and Error Analysis-Error bars are initially covered. Small group experiments on: Measurement of the Acceleration of Gravity, Force of Equilibrium, Newton 's Second Law, Kinetic Friction, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Conservation of Linear Momentum, Collision – Impulse, and Simple Pendulum.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe with equations and graphically the motion along a straight line, the motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, and the motion due to gravity, distinguish and analyse motions to solve problems.
- Explain and apply the Newton’s Laws of motion to write the equations of motions, draw forces, solve problems by adding forces using free-body diagrams, and experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity, investigate the Newton’s Second Law, the factors effecting kinetic friction and force equilibrium.
- Define and apply the concepts of work by a constant force, the kinetic energy, the potential energy due to the position and a spring, the work-energy principle, to solve problems with conservation of mechanical energy with/out dissipative forces, and experimentally determine the spring constant and investigate the conservation of mechanical energy.
- Identify the concept of linear momentum and its relation to forces, define the concept of impulse, explain the circumstances under which momentum is a conserved quantity, distinguish elastic and inelastic collisions, solve problems that involve elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions using the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and experimentally investigate the impulse and the conservation of linear momentum in elastic collisions.
- Describe simple harmonic motion, apply conservation of mechanical energy on problems with simple harmonic oscillators, determine under what circumstances a simple pendulum resembles simple harmonic motion, calculate and experimentally investigate its period and frequency.
- Define the concept of moments and the circumstances that a rigid body is in equilibrium, determine the rotation of a body about a fixed axis, calculate its torque, work, energy and power, and solve problems involving the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
- Describe with equations and graphically the wave motion, define the types of waves and the concept of superposition (overlapping waves), describe the characteristics of sound waves, define Doppler effect, use the abovementioned terms and concepts to solve associated problems.
- Describe the characteristics of ideal gas, determine under what circumstances the ideal gas law is valid, and solve associated problems using different temperature scales.

#### Course Contents

**Review: **Basic concepts of electricity, atomic structure.** **

**Electrostatics: **Coulomb’s Law, electric field intensity due to one or more point charges, electric potential, motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field.

**Further electrostatics: **Gauss Law and applications, capacitors and combination of capacitors, electrostatic energy of charged capacitors, dielectrics.

**Dynamic electricity: **Electric current, resistance and Ohm's Law, resistivity of conductors, combination of resistances.** **

**Direct Current Circuits: **Electromotive force (EMF), Kirchhoff’s rules, power, potential across resistors, RC circuits.

**Magnetism: **Definition of magnetic field, magnetic field at a point due to current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Ampere’s Law), magnetic forces on current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field.

**Optics: **The nature of light, measurement of the speed light, Huygen's principle, reflection, refraction, and polarization.

**Geometrical Optics: **Convex and concave** **mirrors, thin lenses, optical instruments.

**Laboratory Work: **Small group experiments on: Electrostatic Charge, Ohm’s Law, Exploratory Study of Resistance, Resistances in Circuits, EMF, Kirchhoff's Rules, Resistor – Capacitor Network, Wheatstone Bridge, Law of Reflection, Law of Refraction.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate graphically and calculate the forces experienced on a charged particle by other charged particles, the electric field intensity and the electric potential due to several point charges at a particular point, describe and solve problems of charged particles motion in a uniform electric field.
- Explain and apply the Gauss law to evaluate the electric field intensity in problems where spherical or cylindrical or translational symmetry exists
- Define the electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor with/out dielectrics, describe and experimentally investigate the resistance’s and the Ohm’s Law variables, explain and experimentally measure the electromotive force.
- Develop skills to solve problems with circuits including several capacitors, several resistors, and resistors-capacitors, experimentally investigate the equations in Wheatstone Bridge and RC circuits, and experimentally demonstrate the Kirchhoff's Rules in electrical circuits.
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic field at a point due to one or more current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Amperes Law),
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic forces on two current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, and the path of a charged particle motion in a constant magnetic field.
- Describe and experimentally demonstrate the laws of reflection and refraction, show with appropriate drawings how these laws apply to light rays at plane and spherical surfaces (mirrors, thin lenses), and solve associated problems.

#### Course Contents

· **Photovoltaics Generation****: **Introduction to photovoltaic generation, the silicon p–n junction, photon absorptionat the junction, solar radiation absorption, maximization of cell efficiency,solar cell construction, types and adaptations of photovoltaics, photovoltaiccircuit properties, applications and systems, social and environmental aspects.

· **Wind Power:**** **Introductionto wind power, turbine types and terms, linear momentum and basic theory,dynamic matching, blade element theory, characteristics of the wind, powerextraction by a turbine, electricity generation, mechanical power, social andenvironmental considerations.

· **Biomass and Biofuels****: **Introduction to biomass and biofuels, biofuel classification, biomass productionfor energy farming, direct combustion for heat, pyrolysis (destructivedistillation), further thermochemical processes, alcoholic fermentation,anaerobic digestion for biogas, wastes and residues, vegetable oils andbiodiesel, social and environmental aspects.

· **Geothermal energy: **Introductionto geothermal energy, geophysics, dry rock and hot aquifer analysis, harnessinggeothermal resources.

· **Wave Power****: **Introduction to wave power, wave motion, wave energy and power, wave patterns,devices.

· **Fuel Cells:**** **Introduction to fuel cells, electrochemical cells, fuelcell classification, temperature of operation, state of the electrolyte, type offuel, chemical nature of the electrolyte, fuel cell reactions, alkalineelectrolytes, acid electrolytes, molten carbonate electrolytes, ceramicelectrolytes, methanol fuel cells.

· **Hydrogen Production****:**** **Chemical production of hydrogen, historical, modern production: a)partial oxidation, b) steam reforming, c) thermal decomposition, d) syngas, e)shift reaction, f) methanation, g) methanol, h) sycrude, hydrogen purification,desulfurization, CO2 removal, CO removal and hydrogen extraction,hydrogen production plants, compact fuel processors, electrolytic hydrogen,introduction to electrolyzer configurations: a)liquid electrolyteelectrolyzers, b) solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzers, c) ceramicelectrolyte electrolyzers, efficiency of electrolyzes, concentrationdifferential electrolyzers, electrolytic hydrogen compressors.

· **Experimental work:** Introduction of solar cells as an energy converter.Basic measurements of the irradiance of different light sources. Series andparallel connections of solar cells. Investigate shadowing conditions.Introduction of wind turbines as an energy converter. Measuring power output ofthe generator. Deriving the characteristic curve.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the basic concepts behind fuel cells.
- Define the principles of hydrogen production.
- Explain wind power technology.
- Describe biomass and biofuel processes.
- Explain the principles and fundamentals of photovoltaic generation.
- Examine the basic concepts of wave power generation.
- Understand the basic concepts of geothermal energy.
- Perform introductory experiments in wind and solar energy production.

#### Course Contents

1. Introduction to Solar Energy: solar energy, the greenhouse effect.

2. Properties of sunlight: basics of light, photons, solar radiation in space and terrestrial solar radiation, motion of the sun, solar time, elevation angle, declination angle, azimuth angle, position of the sun.

3. Solar radiation: solar radiation on a tilted surface, calculation of insolation(solar radiation energy on a surface), measurement and analysis of solar radiation.

4. Photovoltaics:the PV phenomenon, semiconductor materials and structure, generation and recombination, diode equations for PV.

5. Cells,modules and arrays: solar cell operation, IV characteristics and efficiency of cells, module design, interconnection effects, temperature effects, lifetime of PV modules.

6. Solar collectors: description, flat plate, concentrating collectors, temperature effects, effects of dust and shading, performance, efficiency, characteristics,practical considerations.

7. Solar thermal power systems:__ __Parabolic troughs, Sterling engines, Solar towers, thermal storage.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify and associate the properties of sunlight and solar geometry.
- Understand the fundamental operating mechanisms by which PV cells generate electrical energy.
- Assess and examine solar radiation data and measurements.
- Understand and classify solar thermal technologies and systems.

#### Course Contents

1. Conventional versus dispersed generation: advantages and disadvantages, multi-generation (cogeneration, micro CHP, waste heat recovery, tri-generation, heat storage,heat networks), steady- state operation of distributed generation systems,full-system energy flows to/from supply and to/from loads, selection of technologies and configurations, system reliability and condition monitoring.

2. Smart grids and micro-grids: introduction, transmission and distribution perspectives, design,voltage and frequency control, distributed generation and active network management, present and future challenges.

3. Low carbon emissions and technologies: introduction, climate mitigation and adaptation,bio-renewables (bio-energy, bio-chemicals, bio-materials), production and conversion of biomass.

4. Energy storage technologies: introduction, battery principles-design and operation,hydrogen transmission and storage infrastructure, solar thermal storage,pumped-hydro storage, energy storage for cooling, energy storage in organic fuels.

5. Electric Vehicles: introduction and definitions, plug-in concept and relation to smart grids, electric vehicles with fuel cells, electric vehicles with batteries(lead acid based, nickel based, sodium based, lithium based, metal-air based),hybrid vehicles, power management techniques of electric vehicles, efficiency of electric vehicles.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Differentiate between conventional and dispersed electrical energy generation.
- Concept of smart and micro-grids and their relation to sustainable energy.
- Recognize the necessity for low carbon sectors and identify low carbon technologies.
- Understand the importance of energy storage and identify energy storage technologies.
- Appreciate the role of electric vehicles for sustainable energy.
- Familiarization with multi-generation methods and their relation to sustainable energy.

#### Course Contents

1. Windenergy technologies

- History of wind power generation, Betz’Law.

- Structural considerations and basic operationof wind turbine

- Wind turbine economics

2. Windenergy and power

- Wind kinetic energy, reflection of rotorradius and wind speed on output electrical power

- Basic energy conversion equations

- Betz operational limit.

3. Wind properties and measurement

- Statistical distribution of wind speed.

- Power density, Weibull distribution, airdensity affecting parameters.

- Configurations to measure wind, errorestimates and computed quantities.

4. Windturbine generator components

- The rotor system

- Various configurations and designs ofturbines.

- Normal and extreme wind model

- Wind turbine blade aerodynamics

5.Electricity and generator

- Principles of electromagnetism, alternatingcurrent and electrical machines.

- Energy conversion from mechanical toelectrical using synchronous generators (variable speed permanent magnet anddirect drive)

6.Deploying wind turbines in the power grid

- Dispatch of wind resources in transmission anddistribution (effect on reactive power and power factor)

- Power quality issues (flicker, harmonics)

- Protection for overvoltage and lightning

- SCADA data acquisition.

7. Windenergy systems

- Calculation of estimated output power forspecific wind turbines at proposed locations.

- Effect of height and direction of wind speedon output power.

- Calculation of capacity factor, optimalturbine rotation speed.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the main principles underlying the field of wind turbine operation and also having a critical awareness of the wider context of wind energy systems. Environmental and technological impact on surroundings is also investigated.
- Explain and apply the concepts of energy contained in wind and potential power generation. Describe the properties of wind, dependence of air density on pressure, humidity and temperature, and dependence of energy on wind density.
- Perform literature search of statistical data, and learn how to obtain wind speed measurement values data in order to theoretically implement a utility project.
- Describe the electrical and magnetic concepts, as well as technical components of the wind turbine and their characteristic parameters corresponding to various types of turbines.
- Explain how the variability of wind turbine production is incorporated in the grid, grid connection standards and protection system required.

#### Course Contents

1. Components associated with grid-connected photovoltaic systems: definitions, principles and applications of grid-connected PV systems, photovoltaic modules, grid inverters, solar cables, protective devices.

2. Components associated with off-grid photovoltaic systems: principles and applications of off-grid PV systems, photovoltaic modules, off-grid inverters, batteries, solar charging regulators, protective devices, cabling, generators.

3. Photovoltaic module technical characteristics: module design, module mismatch effects,by-pass diodes, temperature effects, ageing, shading, hotspots, I-Vcharacteristics, module efficiency.

4. Invertertechnical characteristics: conformity with standards, islanding, efficiency,open circuit voltage and short circuit currents, protection, conditions forconnection and disconnection from the grid, inverter selection criteria,control of active and reactive power.

5. Grid-connected PV system design: small scale PV systems for buildings, large scale PV systems,site survey, environmental conditions, performance ratio, considerations for proper plan, electrical circuit design, feasibility study, installation considerations, inspection requirements.

6. Off- GridPV system design: applications, hybrid PV systems, load characteristics and maximum demand, inverter selection criteria, battery types/selection and sizing, types of solar charging regulators and selection, sizing of photovoltaic system in kWp, electrical circuit design, feasibility study,installation considerations, inspection requirements.

7. Simulatio nof grid-connected PV systems: design and simulation for performance assessment of grid-connected PV systems using software tools.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the components and equipment associated with grid connected and off-grid photovoltaic systems.
- Assess the technical characteristics of grid-connected photovoltaic system components and integrate them for small and large photovoltaic system design.
- Assess the technical characteristics of off-grid photovoltaic system. components and integrate them for the design of off-grid photovoltaic systems.
- Design of grid connected photovoltaic systems.
- Design of off-grid and hybrid photovoltaic systems.

#### Course Contents

1. Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements: Principles of Instrumentation and Measurements, Errors in Measurements, Measurement Standards, Uncertainties.

2. Measuring Devices (Sensors and Transducers): Introduction to Sensors and Transducers used in for renewable energy parameter measurements such as solar radiation, wind ,Basic Electrical Sensing Elements, Strain Measurement, Introduction to Calibration, Calibration Techniques.

3. Energy Fundamentals and Trainer Familiarization: identify sources of energy. Review definitions of power and work, measurement methods and units. Identify Trainer components. Highlight safety practices. Perform Lockout-Tagout procedure for proper shut down of machinery.

4. Investigation of solar module: Carry out experiments on a solar module and measure its efficiency and long-term performance. Design different configurations of solar collector systems and record their characteristics for variations on temperature, irradiance and angle of incidence. Effect of shading on solar panel operation.

5. Analysis of solar module parameters: determination of cell distribution on a solar panel. Produce experimentally the V-I and P-V curve. Investigate PV array ratings. Setup of an off-grid power system with rechargeable solar cells.Perform and compare series and parallel configurations of circuits for solar cells.

6. Investigation of wind module: calculate and measure the performance of the wind turbine electrical systems. Operate the generator at varying wind force levels. Compare the efficiency for constant-speed and variable-speed configurations.

7. Power management: Perform power measurements and calculate power consumption,Calculate power efficiency and identify power losses. Configure power transmission and distribution systems.

8. DC to AC inverter: Study the main parameters that are involved during the DC-AC conversion, Operate and integrate the inverter in stand-alone systems.Investigate inverter’s efficiency. Utilize inverter electrical ratings and specifications.

9. On/Off Grid Operation: learn how to configure stand-alone off-grid systems,battery-based grid-tied systems and grid-tied systems without battery. Perform net metering and dual metering practices.

10. Faultfinding and troubleshooting: Follow Systematic troubleshooting steps, perform visual inspections, test mechanical and electrical components. Diagnose common malfunctions with solar panels, wind turbines and inverters. Identify and repair defective parts

11. Field trip to solar park: field trip to an advanced solar park to view the application of large scale solar collectors. The field trip is followed by a written report.

12. Field trip to wind turbine park: field trip to an advanced wind energy park to view the application of large scale wind turbines. The field trip is followed by a written report.

13. Observe areal time installation: Monitor the installation of either a solar or a wind energy system. Write a report on the process and practical aspects to be taken in consideration in an actual application.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic mechanical and electrical measurement and instrumentation concepts.
- Apply independent judgment in performing instrument measurements, calibration and linearization.
- Analyze the working principles, operation and applications of various sensors and transducers in relation to renewable energy systems.
- Identify the components and operational parameters of a solar module.
- Identify the components and operational parameters of a wind turbine.
- Experiment with basic concepts of power measurements, calculations and transmission practices.
- Use of diagnosing and testing equipment for performance assessment.

#### Course Contents

· **Research topics: **The various research topics related to RESES in the electrical engineering department.

· **Report Elements:** Plagiarism, referencing, writing style, literature reviewing, content structure, figures and tables and numbering systems

· **Report structure:** Components of a report. Te Departmental Style Guide.

· **Literature survey:**Disciplines in electrical engineering. Literature survey on a topic, the foundations of a senior project.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Distinguish the research areas and topics in RESES
- Choose a project topic.
- Clarify the overall requirements of a successful project.
- Collect information on a topic which will most probably form the foundation of the senior project.
- Apply the Departmental Style Guide and the information it conveys. Use the Style Guide effectively.
- Construct a preliminary report based on the literature survey conducted and on the methodology evaluated.

#### Course Contents

· **Project Report: **Organization of the report structure. The structure,format and contents of a report. Report writing. Chapters. Contents of each chapter. References.

· **Data presentation: **Graphs, figures, schematics, equations.

· **Presentation:** Organisation and structure. Chapters and their contents. The use of bullet points, figures and graphs. Timing, speed, attention span, personal approach,good visual aids (PowerPoint), logical sequence, practice, answering questions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate practical experience on the design, possibly of experimental or numerical nature, of renewable energy systems and energy sustainability topics.
- Analyze experimental results.
- Construct a project report based on the experimental or computational work conducted.
- Use the Departmental Style Guide effectively.
- Present work to the project committee for evaluation.

#### Course Contents

1. Introduction to Power Systems:

- Load and Generation

- Distribution Systems, Transmission Lines

- Powe rSystem Analysis

2. Introduction to Optimization and Control Methods

- Basic Principles of Feedback Systems

- Linear and Non-Linear Programming

- Pricing Theory

3. Demand Side Management and Response

- Definition,Application, State of the Art

- Pricing and Energy Consumption Scheduling

- Advanced Metering Infrastructures

- Electric Vehicles and Vehicle-to-Grid Systems

4. Generation and Distribution Automation

- Frequency Control

- Voltage Control

- Reactive Power Control

5. Renewable Integration

- Renewable Sources: Wind and Solar

- Microgrid Architecture

- Tackling Intermittency

- Distributed Storage and Reserves

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the main principles underlying various components of the smart grid.
- Learn challenges of the energy industry posed by the introduction of modern technologies such as renewable energy sources and electric vehicles.
- Appreciate how control and optimization methods can be used to address these challenges.
- Explain and apply the essential concepts and design principles of smart grid networks.
- Describe the concepts and issues involved in developing, maintaining and managing a smart grid.
- Use appropriate methods to pursue research or other detailed investigation of technical issues consistent with their level of knowledge and understanding.

#### Course Contents

· **Photovoltaics Generation****: **Introduction to photovoltaic generation, Solar radiation, The silicon p–njunction, Photon absorption at the junction, Solar radiation absorption,Maximising cell efficiency, Solar cell construction, Equivalent circuit of asolar cell, Types and adaptations of photovoltaics, Photovoltaic circuitproperties, Applications and systems, Social and environmental aspects.

· **Semiconductor Processes of Photovoltaics Technologies****: **Introduction to the physics of the various photovoltaictechnologies: Monocrystalline Silicon, Polycrystalline Silicon, AmorphousSilicon, GaAs, CIGS, CdTe and Multijunction (Tandem) solar cells includinggeneration, recombination, carrier lifetimes, Debye length, energy band gaps,valence, conduction bands, Fermi-Level, p-n junction, depletion region andintrinsic electric field.

· **Thin film solar cells:** Introduction and basic concepts of thin film solarcells, Photovoltaic solar energy conversion, Solar energy technologies,Electrochemical deposition of solar energy materials, CdTe solar cells, CIGSsolar cells, GaAs solar cells, Effective harvesting of photons, Multi-layergraded bandgap solar cells, Solar cell behaviour in complete darkness, Effectsof defects on the solar cell characteristics, and Future directions, Researchand development of the above ground braking thin film photovoltaictechnologies.

· **Simulation of thin films:** Simulation exercises usingthe PC1D/WXAMPS program to reinforce an understanding of device physics and thedifferent solar cell technologies, Mathematical models used for characterisation of solar cells, Spectralresponse, Temperature sensitivity, Resistive losses, Current-voltagegeneration, open-circuit voltages and short-circuit currents.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the basic concepts of solar cell generation.
- Define the principles of pn junction, depletion region and intrinsic electric field.
- Explain the principles and fundamentals of photovoltaic generation.
- Describe 3rd generation solar cells.
- Examine the basic concepts of thin film solar cells.
- Analyze using simulation software the effects of fundamental properties on the performance of thin film cells.

#### Course Contents

· **Introductionto Power Electronics:**** **Applicationsof Power Electronics, History of PowerElectronics, Power Semiconductor Devices- Power Diodes, Thyristors, Power Transistors.

· **ControlCharacteristics of Power Devices:**** **Characteristicsand Specifications of Switches- Ideal Characteristics, Characteristics ofPractical Devices, Switch Specifications, Types of Power Electronic Circuits.

· **Design ofPower Electronics Equipment:**** **Square Values of Waveforms, PeripheralEffects, Power Modules, Intelligent Modules.

· **Power Diodes****: **Diode characteristics and its models, Types of diodes,Series and parallel operation of diodes, Unidirectional device like a diode onRLC circuits, Freewheeling and stored-energy recovery.

· ** AC/DC Rectifiers, DC/AC Inverters, AC/ACChangers and DC/DC Choppers:**

Principles of operation, General characteristics of these devices,Applications of the above circuits.

· **Photovoltaic Power Electronics:** PV Energy Basics, PVEnergy Generation, Electrical Efficiency, Construction of PV Cells and PanelModules, PV Modules and Strings, Mismatch Losses, Models of PV Cells, OutputCharacteristics of a PV Cell, Approximate Determination of the PV Panel Parameters,Determination of the PV Panel Maximum Power, Temperature Effects, Parameters ofPV Cell, Module Inverter, String Inverter, Central Inverter, Team ConceptInverters, Energy Storage for PV, Power Electronic Topologies in PV Systems,Transformer Isolated Converters, Stand-Alone PV Systems, Series ConnectedInverters, Parallel-Connected Converters, Grid-Connected PV Systems,Distributed Photovoltaic Systems, Maximum Power Point Tracking.

· **Power Electronics for Wind Power:** Partially-Rated PowerElectronics, Soft Starters for Fixed-Speed Turbines, Power Converter forExternal Resistance Control in Variable-Slip Turbines, Back-to-Bath PWM VSI forDFIG Turbines, Crowbar for Rotor Circuit of DFIG Turbines, Full Scale PowerElectronics, Back-to-Back PWM VSI for Full Converter Turbines, ConverterExclusively for Full Converter Turbines with Permanent Magnet SynchronousGenerators, New and Advanced Topologies, Reduced Switch Count PWM VSI FullConverter Configuration for PMSG Turbines, Multilevel Converters, Matrix Converters,FACTS Devices, HVDC Systems for Wind Power Plants, Controls for PowerElectronics for Wind Power, Controlling Wind Turbines, Blade Pitch Control,Controls for Variable-Slip Turbines, Controls for DFIG Turbines, Controls forFull Converter Turbines, Controlling Wind Power Plants.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the basic concepts of power electronics.
- Be familiar with the different existing types of basic power electronic switches such as the power diodes, transistors and thyristors.
- Understand power electronic control principles for renewable energy systems.
- Be familiar with the general principles of AC/DC Rectifiers, DC/AC Inverters, AC/AC Changers and DC/DC Choppers.
- Examine power electronic devices used in renewable energy sources applications.
- Explain power electronic devices used in photovoltaic and wind applications.

#### Course Contents

1.Introduction

-What is nano

-Why nano

-Nanomaterials

2.PhysicsBackground - Quantum mechanics andstatistical physics

- de Broglie's hypothesis

- Heisenberg uncertainty principle

- Pauli exclusion principle

- Schrödinger's equation

- Properties of the wave function -Application: quantum well, wire, dot

- Structure and bonding - Application: carbonnanotube

- Electronic band structure

- Electron statistics - Application: Optical transitions in solids

3.Typesof Nanomaterials

-Carbon Nano Tubes

- Carbon Nanofibers

-Nanoparticles and nanopowders

-Nanopowder dispersions

4.Nanomaterials: Fabrication

- Bottom-up vs. top-down

- Epitaxial growth

- Self-assembly

5.Nanomaterials:Characterization

- Structural: XRD, TEM, SEM, STM, AFM

- Chemical

- Optical

- Transport

6.Electronic Nanodevices

- Background

- Quantization of resistance

- Single-electron transistors

- Esaki and resonant tunneling diodes

7.Magnetic Nanodevices

-Magnetoresistance

-Spintronics

8. MEMSand NEMS

- Fabrication

- Modeling

- Applications

9.Nanotechnology Applications

- Nanotechnology for PVs

- Nanotechnology for Sustainability:environment, water, food, and climate

- Nanotechnology for Sustainability: energy conversion, storage, and conservation

- Applications: nanobiosystems, medicine,and health

-Applications: nanoelectronics andnanomagnetics

-Applications: photonics and plasmonics

-Applications: nanostructured catalysts

-Applications: high-performancenanomaterials and other emerging areas

-Applications: solar energy harvesting, highenergy density batteries, high-sensitivity sensors, nanomaterials in catalysis

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the physical principles behind nanomaterials and nano-scale fabrication.
- Explain the advantages and compare different types of nanostructures.
- Comprehend the technological limitations in fabrication and characterization of nanostructures.
- Recognize the potential of exploiting nanothechnology in a traditional fields of engineering.
- Discuss the properties and advantages of electronic, magnetic and photonic nanodevices.
- Apply nanotechnology for sustainability: energy conversion, storage. solar energy harvesting, or high energy density batteries and nanosensors.

#### Course Contents

1.Energy saving technologies

- Simple steps towards energy saving.

- Monitoring systems.

- Voltage optimization.

- Power factor correction.

- Electricity Authority tariff selection.

2. Definition of thermal energy efficiency parameters and Minimumdemands

- Material U-values.

- Thermal resistivity, heat capacity.

- Effect of parameters on Active power consumption.

3. Energydata collection

- Structure and gaps.

- Electrical installation parameters.

- Mechanical Installation parameters.

4.Energy efficiency legislation for buildings

- Introduction to current legislation.

- Qualification of Expert Technical Advisors

- Energy efficiency certificate.

- Required documentation.

5.ISBEM software

- Software familiarization.

- Calculation and insertion of required data in software

- Energy consumption calculation

- Improvement suggestions based on documented energy benefits.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the main principles underlying the field of material Energy performance and also having a critical awareness of the wider context of energy efficient systems.
- Explain and apply the concepts of energy conservation technologies at distribution level.
- Describe the legal structure surrounding building energy efficiency in Cyprus according to the latest directions of the ministry of commerce industry and tourism, energy service.
- Calculate all required parameters for energy efficiency simulations using ISBEM software and calculate the impact of proposed energy saving techniques on the total consumption of a case project.

#### Course Contents

__MODULE 1 (Introduction to Sustainable Development):__

· *Basic Concepts and Vocabulary (Definitions of Sustainability, Quantification Methods of Sustainability)*

· *Ethics and Sustainability*

· *Major Environmental and Resource Concerns*

· *Defining Sustainable Construction (The Green Building Movement)*

__MODULE 2 (Sustainable Sites):__

· *Site Selection*

· *Development Density & Community Connectivity*

· *Alternative Transportation: Public Transportation Access & facilities*

· *Site Development: Open Space 17*

· *Stormwater Design: Quantity & Quality Control*

__MODULE 3 (Water Efficiency):__

· *Water Efficient Landscaping*

· *Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation*

· *Innovative Wastewater Technologies*

· *Water Use Reduction*

__MODULE 4 (Energy & Atmosphere):__

· *Optimize Energy Performance*

· *On-Site Renewable Energy*

__MODULE 5 (Materials & Resources):__

· *Storage & Collection of Recyclables*

· *Building Reuse*

· *Construction Waste Management*

· *Materials Reuse*

· *Recycled Content*

· *Regional Materials*

__MODULE 6 (Indoor Environmental Quality):__

· *Minimum IAQ Performance*

· *Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control*

· *Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring*

· *Ventilation*

· *Construction IAQ Management Plan*

· *Low-Emitting Materials (e.g. Adhesives, Sealants, Paints, Coatings, Carpet Systems)*

· *Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control*

· *Controllability of Systems: Lighting & Thermal Comfort*

· *Daylight & Views*

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify major problems facing the planet earth and human society.
- Explain the concept of Sustainability, and how building green is good for Cyprus and the World.
- Describe primary components of a sustainable engineering system.
- Explain design and construction principles for developing green structures.
- List roles that a civil engineer has in implementing a sustainable construction/development project.
- Perform detail evaluation of new and existing buildings based on LEED standards.
- Classify various technologies aimed at achieving global sustainability.

Το πρόγραμμα στηρίζεται στο σύστημα συσσώρευσης ευρωπαϊκών πιστωτικών μονάδων ECTS. Στους φοιτητές απονέμεται το Πτυχίο Ηλεκτρολόγου Μηχανικού με τη συμπλήρωση 240 πιστωτικών μονάδων. Οι μονάδες αυτές κατανείμονται σε υποχρεωτικά και επιλεγόμενα μαθήματα. Στους πιο κάτω πίνακες φαίνονται οι διάφορες κατηγορίες μαθημάτων και οι λίστες με τα μαθήματα της κάθε κατηγορίας.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων |
ECTS |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα | 174 |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης | 40 |

Επιλεγόμενα Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης | 20 |

Ελεύθερης Επιλογής | 6 |

ΣΥΝΟΛΟ |
240 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα **

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 174 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | AEEE161 | Ηθική και Επαγγελματισμός στη Μηχανική | 3 | 2 |

2 | AEEE170 | Εισαγωγή στην Ηλεκτρολογική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

3 | AEEE191 | Ψηφιακά Κυκλώματα Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

4 | AEEE192 | Ψηφιακά Κυκλώματα ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

5 | AEEE195 | Αρχές Προγραμματισμού | 5 | 1 + 2 |

6 | AEEE222 | Ανάλυση Κυκλωμάτων Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

7 | AEEE223 | Ανάλυση Κυκλωμάτων ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

8 | AEEE225 | Όργανα και Μετρήσεις | 5 | 3 + 2 |

9 | AEEE238 | Ηλεκτρονικά Ι | 6 | 3 + 2 |

10 | AEEE239 | Ηλεκτρονικά ΙΙ | 6 | 3 + 2 |

11 | AEEE294 | Αρχιτεκτονική Υπολογιστών | 5 | 3 |

12 | AEEE298 | Εργαστήριο Ηλεκτρολογίας | 6 | 3 + 2 |

13 | AEEE299 | Συγγραφή Τεχνικής Έκθεσης | 3 | 2 |

14 | AEEE310 | Σήματα, Συστήματα και Μετασχηματισμοί | 5 | 3 |

15 | AEEE312 | Εισαγωγή στον Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμό | 5 | 3 |

16 | AEEE313 | Γραμμές Μεταφοράς και Κυματική | 6 | 3 + 2 |

17 | AEEE321 | Συστήματα Τηλεπικοινωνιών Ι | 7 | 3 + 2 |

18 | AEEE344 | Συστήματα Ελέγχου | 5 | 3 |

19 | AEEE350 | Εισαγωγή στα Συστήματα Ισχύος | 5 | 3 |

20 | AEEE351 | Ανάλυση Συστημάτων Ισχύος | 5 | 3 + 1 |

21 | AEEE352 | Ηλεκτρικές Μηχανές | 6 | 3 + 1 |

22 | AEEE414 | Αυτοματισμοί και Ρομποτική | 5 | 3 |

23 | AEEE422 | Συστήματα Τηλεπικοινωνιών ΙΙ | 7 | 3 + 2 |

24 | AEEE424 | Επεξεργασία Ψηφιακών Σημάτων | 5 | 3 |

25 | AEEE438 | Ψηφιακά Ολοκληρωμένα Κυκλώματα Ι | 5 | 3 |

26 | AMAT111 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία Ι | 5 | 3 |

27 | AMAT122 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία ΙI | 5 | 3 |

28 | AMAT181 | Γραμμική Άλγεβρα με τη Χρήση «MATLAB» | 5 | 3 |

29 | AMAT204 | Διαφορικές Εξισώσεις | 5 | 3 |

30 | AMAT223 | Λογισμός ΙΙΙ | 5 | 3 |

31 | AMAT300 | Πιθανότητες και Στατιστική | 5 | 3 |

32 | APHY111 | Μηχανική, Θερμότητα και Κύματα με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

33 | APHY112 | Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμός και Οπτική με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 40 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | AEEE260 | Εισαγωγή στα Συστήματα Ανανεώσιμης Ενέργειας | 6 | 3 + 1 |

2 | AEEE360 | Ηλιακή Ενέργεια | 5 | 3 |

3 | AEEE361 | Αειφόρος Ενέργεια Ι | 5 | 3 |

4 | AEEE362 | Αιολική Ενέργεια | 5 | 3 |

5 | AEEE460 | Σχεδιασμός Φωτοβολταϊκών Συστημάτων | 5 | 3 |

6 | AEEE461 | Όργανα και Μετρήσεις Συστημάτων Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας | 5 | 1 + 2 |

7 | AEEE495 | Εισαγωγή στη Πτυχιακή Εργασία | 1 | 3 |

8 | AEEE496 | Πτυχιακή Εργασία | 8 | 3 |

**Επιλεγόμενα Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 20 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | AEEE462 | Έξυπνα Δίκτυα και Έλεγχος | 5 | 3 |

2 | AEEE463 | Φωτοβολταϊκά Κύτταρα Λεπτής Μεμβράνης | 5 | 3 |

3 | AEEE464 | Ηλεκτρονικά Συστημάτων Ισχύος Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας | 5 | 3 |

4 | AEEE465 | Εφαρμογές Νανοτεχνολογίας | 5 | 3 |

5 | AEEE466 | Αειφόρος Ενέργεια ΙΙ | 5 | 3 |

6 | CEC246 | Αειφόρος Κατασκευή και Τεχνολογία | 5 | 3 |

Για ενημέρωση σχετικά με τη διαδικασία εγγραφής στα προπτυχιακά προγράμματα κάντε κλικ στον παρακάτω σύνδεσμο.

Για οποιαδήποτε απορία σας σχετικά με τα προπτυχιακά προγράμματα επικοινωνήστε μαζί μας μέσω της φόρμας που θα βρείτε στο παρακάτω σύνδεσμο.