#### Περιγραφή Προγράμματος

**Σκοπός**

Το προπτυχιακό πρόγραμμα σπουδών στην Πολιτική Μηχανική προετοιμάζει τους φοιτητές για την άμεση ένταξή τους στη βιομηχανία, με σκοπό την ανάληψη ευθύνης για ανάπτυξη, σχεδιασμό, κατασκευή, λειτουργία και συντήρηση κατασκευαστικών έργων, ή και τη συνέχιση των σπουδών τους σε μεταπτυχιακό επίπεδο.

Το πρόγραμμα σπουδών, προσφέρει ευρεία εκπαίδευση στο αντικείμενο της Πολιτικής Μηχανικής συμπεριλαμβανομένων της ανάλυσης και σχεδιασμού των κατασκευών, τις ιδιότητες και τη συμπεριφορά των δομικών υλικών και των μεθόδων κατασκευής, το σχεδιασμό θεμελιώσεων των κατασκευών, πρανών, χωμάτινων φραγμάτων και γεωτεχνικών έργων, τη διοίκηση και διαχείριση έργων (συμπεριλαμβανομένων των νομικών και συμβατικών θεμάτων), την εκτίμηση της αξίας του περιβάλλοντος και των μεθόδων προστασίας του, αλλά και την εκτίμηση της κοινωνικής συμβολής, καθώς και των ηθικών υποχρεώσεων των επαγγελματιών Πολιτικών Μηχανικών.

Ο συνδυασμός θεωρητικών γνώσεων και πρακτικών δεξιοτήτων, παρέχει στους απόφοιτους τις απαιτούμενες γνώσεις και κατάρτιση για την παροχή εξειδικευμένων συμβουλευτικών υπηρεσιών, στο πλαίσιο των αρμοδιοτήτων και ήθους του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού όπως καθορίζονται από το ΕΤΕΚ. Για τους φοιτητές που επιλέγουν να συνεχίσουν τις σπουδές τους σε μεταπτυχιακό επίπεδο, το προσφερόμενο πρόγραμμα μαθημάτων παρέχει μια γερή βάση για την εξειδίκευση σε αντικείμενα του ίδιου αλλά και παρεμφερών κλάδων σπουδών

Το πρόγραμμα έχει τρεις κατευθύνσεις. Ο φοιτητής μπορεί να επιλέξει οποιαδήποτε κατεύθυνση ανάλογα με τα ενδιαφέροντά του. Οι τρείς κατευθύνσεις είναι:

**Γενική Κατεύθυνση Πολιτικού Μηχανικού**

**Κατεύθυνση Γεωτεχνική Πετρελαίου**

**Κατεύθυνση Αειφόρο Δομημένο Περιβάλλον**

Το εργαστήριο του Τμήματος Πολιτικών Μηχανικών έχει πρόσφατα αναβαθμιστεί και περιλαμβάνει νέο εξοπλισμό για σκοπούς διδασκαλίας και έρευνας. Ο υφιστάμενος εξοπλισμός μπορεί να χρησιμοποιηθεί για την εκπόνηση ενός μεγάλου φάσματος εργαστηριακών δοκιμών. Ενδεικτικά αναφέρονται οι δοκιμές τριαξονικής θλίψης αργιλωδών εδαφών, εφελκυστικής αντοχής χαλύβδινων ράβδων, η μέτρηση του μέτρου ελαστικότητας υλικών, έλεγχοι θλιπτικής και καμπτικής αντοχής δοκιμίων σκυροδέματος και πολλές άλλες. Το εργαστήριο διαθέτει επίσης σεισμική τράπεζα καθώς και κατάλληλα εξοπλισμένη μονάδα για εκπόνηση ελέγχων περιβαλλοντικής μηχανικής. Όλος ο νέος εξοπλισμός είναι συνδεμένος με σύγχρονα λογισμικά και αυτοματοποιημένα συστήματα συλλογής και επεξεργασίας δεδομένων και συνάδει με τα Ευρωπαϊκά Πρότυπα και Προδιαγραφές. Τον Ιούλιο του 2012 ολοκληρώθηκαν οι εργασίες για το νέο κτίριο εργαστηρίων της Σχολής Μηχανικής και Εφαρμοσμένων Επιστημών.

Το κτίριο, συνολικής επιφάνειας ισογείου 800 m2 και ορόφου 450 m2, στεγάζει εργαστήρια και εξοπλισμό, καθώς επίσης και γραφειακούς χώρους. Το νέο κτίριο διαθέτει γερανό με δυνατότητα μετακίνησης φορτίου 5 τόνων, καθώς και ενσωματωμένα συστήματα και υπηρεσίες για την εξυπηρέτηση των εργαστηριακών και ερευνητικών δραστηριοτήτων της Σχολής.

Ικανότητες και Δεξιότητές που θα Αποκτηθούν

- Υπόβαθρο στις αρχές της Μηχανικής Επιστήμης και στις Μεθοδολογίες ανάλυσης και σχεδιασμού των κατασκευών.
- Γνώσεις για τις ιδιότητες και τη συμπεριφορά των υλικών συμπεριλαμβανομένων των σκύρων και του εδάφους.
- Τεχνογνωσία των μεθόδων κατασκευής.
- Ικανότητες διοίκησης και διαχείρισης έργων συμπεριλαμβανομένων των νομικών και συμβατικών θεμάτων.
- Εκτίμηση της αξίας του περιβάλλοντος και των μεθόδων προστασίας του.
- Σχεδιαστικές και πειραματικές δεξιότητες.
- Εκτίμηση της κοινωνικής συμβολής, καθώς και των ηθικών υποχρεώσεων των επαγγελματιών Πολιτικών Μηχανικών.

Ο απόφοιτος του προγράμματος:

- Εξασφαλίζει την ευστάθεια όλων των κατασκευαστικών έργων (κτίρια, στάδια, γέφυρες, φράγματα, οδοστρώματα, κλπ).
- Ετοιμάζει προδιαγραφές για υλικά που χρησιμοποιούνται στην οικοδομική βιομηχανία και ταυτόχρονα διεξάγει ελέγχους για την εξασφάλιση της ποιότητας των υλικών αυτών.
- Διεξάγει εδαφοτεχνικές μελέτες, έτσι ώστε να είναι σε θέση να προβεί στο σχεδιασμό θεμελιώσεων των κατασκευών, πρανών, χωμάτινων φραγμάτων και γεωτεχνικών έργων.
- Εκπονεί κυκλοφοριακές μελέτες και μελέτες συγκοινωνιών.
- Μελετά υδρολογικά και υδραυλικά χαρακτηριστικά και προβαίνει στο σχεδιασμό της διανομής νερού και συστημάτων λυμάτων και αποβλήτων.
- Μελετά τις επιπτώσεις των έργων στο περιβάλλον και μελετά μεθόδους απάμβλυνσης αυτών των επιπτώσεων.
- Διεξάγει τεχνοοικονομικές μελέτες και μελέτες βιωσιμότητας των έργων.
- Έχει την κύρια συμβολή στην επίβλεψη, διεύθυνση, διαχείριση και συντονισμό τεχνικών έργων.

Οι απόφοιτοι του προγράμματος μπορούν να απασχοληθούν στον ευρύτερο δημόσιο και ιδιωτικό τομέα, σε τεχνικές επιχειρήσεις, στη βιομηχανία, σε οργανισμούς και τράπεζες, εργαστήρια και γενικά σε θέσεις σχετικές με το αντικείμενο της Μηχανικής επιστήμης, αλλά και σε θέσεις οργάνωσης και διοίκησης, καθώς και ως μελετητές κατασκευαστικών έργων.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων |
ECTS |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα | 206 |

Τεχνικά Μαθήματα Επιλογής | 20 |

Ελεύθερης Επιλογής | 14 |

ΣΥΝΟΛΟ |
240 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 206 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ACSC104 | Προγραμματισμός Η/Υ για Μηχανικούς | 5 | 2 + 2 |

2 | AMAT111 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία Ι | 5 | 3 |

3 | AMAT122 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία ΙI | 5 | 3 |

4 | AMAT181 | Γραμμική Άλγεβρα με τη Χρήση «MATLAB» | 5 | 3 |

5 | AMAT204 | Διαφορικές Εξισώσεις | 5 | 3 |

6 | AMAT300 | Πιθανότητες και Στατιστική | 5 | 3 |

7 | AMAT314 | Αριθμητικές Μέθοδοι | 5 | 3 |

8 | APHY111 | Μηχανική, Θερμότητα και Κύματα με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

9 | APHY112 | Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμός και Οπτική με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

10 | CEC200 | Τεχνική Οικονομική | 5 | 3 |

11 | CEC246 | Αειφόρος Κατασκευή και Τεχνολογία | 5 | 3 |

12 | CEC316 | Οργάνωση και Διοίκηση Κατασκευαστικών Έργων | 5 | 3 |

13 | CED100 | Ελεύθερο και Τεχνικό Σχέδιο | 5 | 1 + 2 |

14 | CED200 | Τεχνικό Σχέδιο με τη Βοήθεια Υπολογιστή (AutoCAD) | 5 | 1 + 2 |

15 | CEG209 | Μηχανική Γεωλογία | 5 | 3 |

16 | CEG210 | Εδαφομηχανική Ι | 5 | 3 + 1 |

17 | CEG220 | Εδαφομηχανική ΙΙ | 5 | 3 + 1 |

18 | CEG334 | Γεωτεχνικός Σχεδιασμός | 5 | 3 |

19 | CEH240 | Ρευστομηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

20 | CEH318 | Περιβαλλοντική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

21 | CEH340 | Υδραυλική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

22 | CEH370 | Υδρολογία | 5 | 3 |

23 | CEM213 | Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 + 1 |

24 | CEM214 | Αντοχή Υλικών | 5 | 3 |

25 | CEM215 | Σύγχρονα Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 |

26 | CEP399 | Πρόταση Διπλωματικής Μελέτης | 2 | 0 |

27 | CEP400 | Διπλωματική Μελέτη | 8 | 0 |

28 | CES100 | Εισαγωγή στην Επιστήμη του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού | 3 | 2 |

29 | CES200 | Δομοστατικά Συστήματα και Φορείς | 5 | 3 |

30 | CES212 | Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

31 | CES322 | Ανάλυση Υπερστατικών Φορέων | 5 | 3 |

32 | CES351 | Προηγμένη Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

33 | CES390 | Επαγγελματισμός και Ηθική | 3 | 2 |

34 | CES411 | Λογισμικός Σχεδιασμός και Προσομοίωση | 5 | 2 + 2 |

35 | CES422 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Οπλισμένο Σκυρόδεμα | 5 | 3 |

36 | CES433 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Χάλυβα | 5 | 3 |

37 | CES450 | Δυναμική Ανάλυση των Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

38 | CES471 | Σεισμική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

39 | CES475 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Δομικών Συστημάτων | 5 | 3 |

40 | CET108 | Τοπογραφία | 5 | 2 + 2 |

41 | CET314 | Μηχανική Συγκοινωνιών | 5 | 3 |

42 | CET406 | Οδοποιία και Σχεδιασμός Οδών | 5 | 3 |

**Τεχνικά Μαθήματα Επιλογής**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 20 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ASOG302 | Εξερεύνηση Επεξεργασία και Εκμετάλλευση Πετρελαίου και Φυσικού Αερίου | 5 | 3 |

2 | ASOG400 | Τεχνολογίες Ανάντη Πετρελαίου και Φυσικού Αερίου | 5 | 3 |

3 | CEC438 | Συμβόλαια και προδιαγραφές | 5 | 3 |

4 | CEG435 | Παράκτια Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

5 | CEG436 | Αλληλεπίδραση Εδάφους Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

6 | CEG437 | Γεωτεχνική Μηχανική σε Ξηρό Περιβάλλον | 5 | 3 |

7 | CEH418 | Μέθοδοι Περιορισμού Περιβαλλοντικών Ρύπων | 5 | 3 |

8 | CEH419 | Διαχείριση Υδάτινων Πόρων | 5 | 3 |

9 | CEH420 | Επεξεργασία Λυμάτων και Πόσιμου Νερού | 5 | 3 |

10 | CEM414 | Προηγμένη Αντοχή Υλικών | 5 | 3 |

11 | CEM415 | Εισαγωγή στη Θραυστομηχανική | 5 | 3 |

12 | CEM416 | Τεχνολογία Σκυροδέματος | 5 | 3 |

13 | CES407 | Ενίσχυση και Επιδιόρθωση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

14 | CES460 | Εισαγωγή στα Πεπερασμένα Στοιχεία | 5 | 3 |

15 | CES480 | Προεντεταμένο Σκυρόδεμα | 5 | 3 |

16 | CES490 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Γεφυρών | 5 | 3 |

17 | CES491 | Ανάλυση Συστημάτων Πολιτικής Μηχανικής | 5 | 3 |

18 | CES492 | Ειδικά Θέματα στην Πολιτική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

19 | CESU310 | Ενεργειακός Σχεδιασμός Κτιρίων | 5 | 3 |

20 | CESU320 | Αειφόρος Αποκατάσταση και Αναβάθμιση Κτιρίων | 5 | 3 |

21 | CESU420 | Δομικές Πτυχές Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας | 5 | 3 |

22 | CESU430 | Μελέτες Επιπτώσεων στο Περιβάλλον | 5 | 3 |

23 | CET408 | Προηγμένη Τοπογραφία | 5 | 3 |

24 | CET450 | Τηλεπισκόπηση και Συστήματα Γεωγραφικών Πληροφοριών | 5 | 3 |

25 | PEG200 | Γεωλογία Υδρογονανθράκων και Χαρακτηρισμός Ταμιευτήρων | 5 | 3 |

26 | PEG300 | Σεισμολογία και Γεωφυσική | 5 | 3 |

27 | QSE330 | Σχεδιασμός και Έλεγχος Κόστους | 5 | 3 |

28 | QSE370 | Ανάλυση και Διαχείριση Επικινδυνότητας | 5 | 3 |

29 | QSE460 | Τεχνοοικονομικές Μελέτες και Μελέτες Σκοπιμότητας | 5 | 3 |

Σκοπός της Κατεύθυνσης είναι η εκπαίδευση των φοιτητών στους τεχνικούς και επιστημονικούς τομείς του επαγγέλματος του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού με εξειδίκευση στον τομέα της Γεωτεχνικής Πετρελαίου. Ο τομέας αυτός είναι από τους πλέον επίκαιρους για τη χώρα μας και για τη γύρω περιοχή, και προσβλέπει στη σωστή κατάρτιση των αποφοίτων μας για την καλύτερη τεχνική υποστήριξη του τομέα της εξόρυξης και αξιοποίησης Υδρογονανθράκων. Η κατεύθυνση δίνει έμφαση σε θέματα γεωλογίας και γεωμηχανικής που σχετίζονται με κοιτάσματα υδρογονανθράκων, τη σεισμολογία και τη γεωφυσική, αλλά και τεχνολογίες αξιοποίησης κοιτασμάτων υδρογονανθράκων.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων |
ECTS |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα | 196 |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης | 35 |

Ελεύθερης Επιλογής | 9 |

ΣΥΝΟΛΟ |
240 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 196 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ACSC104 | Προγραμματισμός Η/Υ για Μηχανικούς | 5 | 2 + 2 |

2 | AMAT111 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία Ι | 5 | 3 |

3 | AMAT122 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία ΙI | 5 | 3 |

4 | AMAT181 | Γραμμική Άλγεβρα με τη Χρήση «MATLAB» | 5 | 3 |

5 | AMAT204 | Διαφορικές Εξισώσεις | 5 | 3 |

6 | AMAT300 | Πιθανότητες και Στατιστική | 5 | 3 |

7 | AMAT314 | Αριθμητικές Μέθοδοι | 5 | 3 |

8 | APHY111 | Μηχανική, Θερμότητα και Κύματα με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

9 | APHY112 | Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμός και Οπτική με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

10 | CEC200 | Τεχνική Οικονομική | 5 | 3 |

11 | CEC246 | Αειφόρος Κατασκευή και Τεχνολογία | 5 | 3 |

12 | CEC316 | Οργάνωση και Διοίκηση Κατασκευαστικών Έργων | 5 | 3 |

13 | CED100 | Ελεύθερο και Τεχνικό Σχέδιο | 5 | 1 + 2 |

14 | CED200 | Τεχνικό Σχέδιο με τη Βοήθεια Υπολογιστή (AutoCAD) | 5 | 1 + 2 |

15 | CEG209 | Μηχανική Γεωλογία | 5 | 3 |

16 | CEG334 | Γεωτεχνικός Σχεδιασμός | 5 | 3 |

17 | CEH240 | Ρευστομηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

18 | CEH318 | Περιβαλλοντική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

19 | CEH340 | Υδραυλική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

20 | CEH370 | Υδρολογία | 5 | 3 |

21 | CEM213 | Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 + 1 |

22 | CEM214 | Αντοχή Υλικών | 5 | 3 |

23 | CEM215 | Σύγχρονα Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 |

24 | CEP399 | Πρόταση Διπλωματικής Μελέτης | 2 | 0 |

25 | CEP400 | Διπλωματική Μελέτη | 8 | 0 |

26 | CES100 | Εισαγωγή στην Επιστήμη του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού | 3 | 2 |

27 | CES200 | Δομοστατικά Συστήματα και Φορείς | 5 | 3 |

28 | CES212 | Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

29 | CES322 | Ανάλυση Υπερστατικών Φορέων | 5 | 3 |

30 | CES351 | Προηγμένη Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

31 | CES390 | Επαγγελματισμός και Ηθική | 3 | 2 |

32 | CES411 | Λογισμικός Σχεδιασμός και Προσομοίωση | 5 | 2 + 2 |

33 | CES422 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Οπλισμένο Σκυρόδεμα | 5 | 3 |

34 | CES433 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Χάλυβα | 5 | 3 |

35 | CES450 | Δυναμική Ανάλυση των Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

36 | CES471 | Σεισμική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

37 | CES475 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Δομικών Συστημάτων | 5 | 3 |

38 | CET108 | Τοπογραφία | 5 | 2 + 2 |

39 | CET314 | Μηχανική Συγκοινωνιών | 5 | 3 |

40 | CET406 | Οδοποιία και Σχεδιασμός Οδών | 5 | 3 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 35 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ASOG302 | Εξερεύνηση Επεξεργασία και Εκμετάλλευση Πετρελαίου και Φυσικού Αερίου | 5 | 3 |

2 | ASOG400 | Τεχνολογίες Ανάντη Πετρελαίου και Φυσικού Αερίου | 5 | 3 |

3 | CEG211 | Γεωτεχνική Μηχανική Ι | 5 | 3 + 1 |

4 | CEG221 | Γεωτεχνική Μηχανική ΙΙ | 5 | 3 + 1 |

5 | CEG435 | Παράκτια Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

6 | PEG200 | Γεωλογία Υδρογονανθράκων και Χαρακτηρισμός Ταμιευτήρων | 5 | 3 |

7 | PEG300 | Σεισμολογία και Γεωφυσική | 5 | 3 |

Σκοπός της Κατεύθυνσης είναι η εκπαίδευση των φοιτητών στους τεχνικούς και επιστημονικούς τομείς του επαγγέλματος του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού με εξειδίκευση στον τομέα του Αειφόρου Δομημένου Περιβάλλοντος. Ο τομέας αυτός επιβάλλεται, πλέον, όχι μόνο από τη Στρατηγική και τις Κατευθυντήριες Οδηγίες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, αλλά και μέσω της Κυπριακής Νομοθεσίας, προσβλέποντας σε μια πιο ορθολογιστική ανάπτυξη του τομέα των έργων υποδομής. Οι απόφοιτοι του προγράμματος θα αποκτήσουν γνώσεις και δεξιότητες που εφάπτονται νέων τεχνολογιών, υλικών και πρακτικών, ώστε να αυξηθεί η πράσινη δόμηση και να ελαχιστοποιηθεί η επίδραση στο περιβάλλον μέσα από τις κατασκευές.

Κατηγορία Μαθημάτων |
ECTS |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα | 198 |

Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης | 40 |

Ελεύθερης Επιλογής | 2 |

ΣΥΝΟΛΟ |
240 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 198 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | ACSC104 | Προγραμματισμός Η/Υ για Μηχανικούς | 5 | 2 + 2 |

2 | AMAT111 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία Ι | 5 | 3 |

3 | AMAT122 | Απειροστικός Λογισμός και Αναλυτική Γεωμετρία ΙI | 5 | 3 |

4 | AMAT181 | Γραμμική Άλγεβρα με τη Χρήση «MATLAB» | 5 | 3 |

5 | AMAT204 | Διαφορικές Εξισώσεις | 5 | 3 |

6 | AMAT300 | Πιθανότητες και Στατιστική | 5 | 3 |

7 | AMAT314 | Αριθμητικές Μέθοδοι | 5 | 3 |

8 | APHY111 | Μηχανική, Θερμότητα και Κύματα με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

9 | APHY112 | Ηλεκτρομαγνητισμός και Οπτική με Εργαστήριο | 5 | 3 + 2 |

10 | CEC200 | Τεχνική Οικονομική | 5 | 3 |

11 | CEC246 | Αειφόρος Κατασκευή και Τεχνολογία | 5 | 3 |

12 | CEC316 | Οργάνωση και Διοίκηση Κατασκευαστικών Έργων | 5 | 3 |

13 | CED100 | Ελεύθερο και Τεχνικό Σχέδιο | 5 | 1 + 2 |

14 | CED200 | Τεχνικό Σχέδιο με τη Βοήθεια Υπολογιστή (AutoCAD) | 5 | 3 |

15 | CEG209 | Μηχανική Γεωλογία | 5 | 3 |

16 | CEG210 | Εδαφομηχανική Ι | 5 | 3 + 1 |

17 | CEG220 | Εδαφομηχανική ΙΙ | 5 | 3 + 1 |

18 | CEG334 | Γεωτεχνικός Σχεδιασμός | 5 | 3 |

19 | CEH240 | Ρευστομηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

20 | CEH318 | Περιβαλλοντική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

21 | CEH340 | Υδραυλική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 + 1 |

22 | CEH370 | Υδρολογία | 5 | 3 |

23 | CEM214 | Αντοχή Υλικών | 5 | 3 |

24 | CEM215 | Σύγχρονα Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 |

25 | CEP399 | Πρόταση Διπλωματικής Μελέτης | 2 | 0 |

26 | CEP400 | Διπλωματική Μελέτη | 8 | 0 |

27 | CES100 | Εισαγωγή στην Επιστήμη του Πολιτικού Μηχανικού | 3 | 2 |

28 | CES200 | Δομοστατικά Συστήματα και Φορείς | 5 | 3 |

29 | CES212 | Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

30 | CES322 | Ανάλυση Υπερστατικών Φορέων | 5 | 3 |

31 | CES351 | Προηγμένη Ανάλυση Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

32 | CES390 | Επαγγελματισμός και Ηθική | 3 | 2 |

33 | CES411 | Λογισμικός Σχεδιασμός και Προσομοίωση | 5 | 2 + 2 |

34 | CES422 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Οπλισμένο Σκυρόδεμα | 5 | 3 |

35 | CES433 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Φορέων από Χάλυβα | 5 | 3 |

36 | CES450 | Δυναμική Ανάλυση των Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

37 | CES471 | Σεισμική Μηχανική | 5 | 3 |

38 | CES475 | Ανάλυση και Σχεδιασμός Δομικών Συστημάτων | 5 | 3 |

39 | CET108 | Τοπογραφία | 5 | 2 + 2 |

40 | CET406 | Οδοποιία και Σχεδιασμός Οδών | 5 | 3 |

41 | UNI101 | Χρήσιμα Εργαλεία και Πρακτικές για το Πανεπιστήμιο | 2 | 2 |

**Υποχρεωτικά Μαθήματα Κατεύθυνσης**

Ο φοιτητής πρέπει να συμπληρώσει επιτυχώς 40 ECTS, από την ακόλουθη λίστα μαθημάτων:

No. | Κωδικός | Όνομα | ECTS | Ώρες / εβδ. |

1 | CEMSU213 | Αειφόρα Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 |

2 | CESU210 | Διαχείριση Ολοκληρωμένου Κύκλου Ζωής Αειφόρων Κατασκευών | 5 | 3 |

3 | CESU310 | Ενεργειακός Σχεδιασμός Κτιρίων | 5 | 3 |

4 | CESU320 | Αειφόρος Αποκατάσταση και Αναβάθμιση Κτιρίων | 5 | 3 |

5 | CESU410 | Πράσινα Δομικά Υλικά | 5 | 3 |

6 | CESU420 | Δομικές Πτυχές Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας | 5 | 3 |

7 | CESU430 | Μελέτες Επιπτώσεων στο Περιβάλλον | 5 | 3 |

8 | CETSU314 | Αειφόρος Μηχανική Συγκοινωνιών | 5 | 3 |

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to Computers: Computers and Peripherals, Software and Hardware, Input and Output Devices, Memory, Difference between Main Memory (RAM) and Secondary Memory (Hard Disk), Central Processing Unit, Units of Storage and Speed, Operating Systems, Graphical User Interface and File Management.

- Systems Analysis and Design: Systems Analysis and Design principles, Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), SDLC Diagram, Development models sequential and iterative.

- Algorithms and Flowcharts: Algorithms, Flowcharts, Pseudocode Algorithms and Statements, Pseudocode and Variables, Testing, and Debugging Algorithms and Flowcharts.

- Introduction to Programming: About Programming and Program Execution, Programming Steps, Learning to Program, Integrated Development Environment, “Hello World!” Program, Program Explanations.

- Variables and Arithmetic Expressions: Simple Programs, Program Explanations, Arithmetic Operations, Program Explanations, Data Types (Dim … as Integer, Double, Char, String, Boolean) and Memory Allocation, Further Program Explanations, and Examples.

- Input/Output in VB .Net: Converting Input (CInt, CDbl, CChar, CDec, CStr, CBool) Formatted Output (Console.Write("…"), Console.WriteLine("…")), Examples, Formatted Input (x = Console.ReadLine(), Console.ReadKey()), Examples, and Program Explanations.

- Types, Operators and Expressions: Variables, Constants, Examples, Arithmetic Operators ( , -, *, /), Example, Relational Operators, Math Library, Example, Logical Operators (NOT, AND, OR), Example, Assignment Operator, Example, Control Flow (If … Then …, If … Then … Else, If … Then … Else if … Else …, and Select Case …, Case …, Select Case …, Case 1 To 10 …, Case Else …), and Examples.

- Iteration: VB .Net syntax, While loop, For loop, Do – While loop, Examples, Debugging Loops, and Avoiding Infinite Loops.

- Arrays: Visual Basic arrays, One Dimensional Array, Array Indexing, Using Arrays, Arrays, Examples, Multi-dimensional Arrays, Using Multi-dimensional Arrays, Strings, String Functions, String Example, and Examples. Initializing arrays, Storing values, Process the array, and Print the results on screen. Array sorting using Bubble sort.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the components that constitute a computer system both in terms of hardware and software and effectively use core operations of a modern operating system
- Distinguish the advantages of imperative programming and object oriented programming using a language such as VB .Net and being able to comprehend programs of small and medium size complexity.
- Demonstrate the ability to express elementary algorithms using the syntax of a programming language thus choosing the appropriate data types, applying the correction operations, and forming the necessary statements.
- Analyse simple engineering problems, and construct algorithms to programmatically solve them.
- Illustrate the ability to formulate programs using selective, iterative, and sequential statements and implement them using a programming language.

#### Course Contents

Linear and other Inequalities in one Variable. Absolute Values and their Properties.

Exponents, roots and their properties. The concept of the logarithm and its properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Basic trigonometric functions and their graphs (sinx, cosx, tanx, cotx, secx, cscx) and basic identities of trigonometric functions including trigonometric functions of sums and differences of two angles.

Real valued functions of one variable: functions**, **operations of functions, inverse functions, logarithmic and exponential functions and their properties, parametric equations. Graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limits and continuity: introduction to calculus, limits, and continuity.

Differentiation: The derivative as a function, the derivative as a rate of change and as the slope of a graph, techniques of differentiation, chain rule, derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, and differentials.

Applications of differentiation: related rates, increase, decrease, and concavity, relative extrema, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching, absolute minimum and maximum values of functions, applied maximum and minimum value problems.

Introduction to the concept of integration.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a function of a real variable, define the absolute value function, state and use its properties and sketch the graph of linear, quadratic, and absolute value functions.
- Solve inequalities with absolute values, quadratic inequalities by factorizing and considering the two linear terms, rational inequalities and illustrate a geometric interpretation of the above inequalities by sketching the graph of the corresponding function.
- Define, sketch the graph, and describe the properties of the exponential function, the logarithmic function and the basic trigonometric functions.
- Explain the notion of limits and continuity of functions, identify and verify limits and points of discontinuity from a graph.
- Describe the derivative as a limit of finite differences, find the derivative of specific categories of functions, state and apply the general rules of differentiation to calculate derivatives, use the first and second derivative of a function to find its local extrema , points of inflection, and regions in which it is increasing, decreasing, concaving upwards or downwards.
- Apply the knowledge of derivatives in the field of engineering and in optimization problems.
- Explain in broad terms the concept of the integral of a function of a real variable.

#### Course Contents

**Definite and Indefinite integrals: **The notions of definite and indefinite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

**Applications of the Definite Integral:** Areas between two curves, volumes by the methods of slices and cylindrical shells, and areas of surfaces of revolution.

**Techniques of Integration:** Method of u-substitution, Integration by Parts, partial fraction decomposition. Trigonometric integrals, inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions: their derivatives and integrals, integrals of powers of sines, cosines, tangents and secants by using reduction formulae, trigonometric substitutions.

**Introduction to Partial Derivatives and Double Integrals.**

**Series:** Infinite series, Power Series, Taylor and MacLaurin Series, tests of convergence.

**Polar Coordinates:** Polar coordinates and conversion of Cartesian to Polar coordinates. Areas in polar coordinates.

**An introduction to complex numbers:** Geometric interpretation, Polar form, Exponential form, powers and roots.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of definite and indefinite integrals, state and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
- Solve simple definite and indefinite integrals of polynomials, functions involving rational powers of the variable, exponential, trigonometric, and rational functions.
- Solve more complicated integrals by using the methods of integration by parts, u-substitution, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric substitution.
- Explain the concept of functions of two variables, find partial derivatives,
- Explain the concept of infinite series, state Taylor’s and MacLaurin’s Theorems, and expand simple functions in such series.
- Explain the notion of complex numbers, evaluate simple expressions involving complex numbers, and express complex numbers in polar form.
- Apply definite integration in order to compute areas between curves, and volumes of solids of revolution by using the methods of slices and cylindrical shells.

#### Course Contents

**Vectors and Linear spaces.** Vector concept, operations with vectors, generalization to higher dimensions, Euclidean space, basis, orthogonal basis: linear dependence, Cartesian products, vector products, vector transformations, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, vector spaces and subspaces. Geometric examples.

**Matrices and Determinants.** Matrix concept, operations with matrices, Special matrices, definition of a determinant and its properties, determinant of a product, inverse matrix, properties and computation.

**Linear Transformations.** Definition of linear transformations, properties, elementary transformations, rank and determinants.

**Simultaneous Linear Equations.** Cramer’s rule, Gaussian elimination, Gauss-Jordan elimination, homogeneous linear equations, geometric interpretation.

**Quadratic forms and Eigenvalue Problem.** Quadratic forms, definitions, Normal form, eigenvalue problem, characteristic equation, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition.

**MATLAB Applications.** Basic matrix algebra, the determinant of a matrix of n-order, solving simultaneous equations with n unknowns with a number of techniques, finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Elementary vector manipulation, finding linear dependence. Linear Transformations, plotting transforms on the x-y plane.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a matrix, including its transpose, identify the properties of special types of matrices and perform different matrix operations.
- Generate determinants of any order using minors, compute 2x2, 3x3 determinants directly and find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors.
- Use Cramer’s Rule for solving square linear systems with the aid of determinants, employ Gaussian Elimination for solving systems of linear equations, perform elementary row matrix reduction to echelon form and back substitution to obtain the solution of the system, apply Gaussian Elimination to find the inverse of a square matrix using augmentation, execute Gauss-Jordan elimination and implement a readily available inverse of the matrix of coefficients to solve a square linear system.
- Explain the notion of multiplicity of roots of the characteristic equation, employ these concepts to various applications and compute eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of square matrices.
- Defend the notion of vectors in two, three and higher dimensions, perform operations with vectors including dot/Cartesian and vector products, outline the concept of an orthogonal basis of the Euclidean space as well as the geometric structure of linearly independent vectors, show vector linear transformations in concrete geometric examples and exploit the properties of vector spaces and subspaces.
- Define linear transformations, perform elementary transformations available, rank and determinants and apply these concepts to real-life examples identifying their geometric implications.
- Employ the computer programming language Matlab to solve different matrix operations and systems of linear equations, to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors, to execute elementary vector manipulation, to exhibit linear transformations and to construct plots.

#### Course Contents

**First Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification of differential equations. Separable, linear with integrating factor, exact, and homogeneous ordinary differential equations, Applications of First-Order Differential Equations.

**Second and nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Linear homogeneous with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous with constant coefficients. The method of reduction of order, the method of undetermined coefficients, and the method of variation of parameters. Initial value problems and applications of second order linear ordinary differential equations.

**Series of Solutions: **Definition and properties, convergence, and solution of linear differential equations with constant and non constant coefficients.

**Laplace Transform:** Definition and properties, partial fractions, Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification. Introduction to separation of variables.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB: **Calculation of solutions with readily available codes and analysis of results.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and explain the concept of an ordinary differential equation, employ the appropriate method to solve Separable, Linear, Homogeneous, and Exact first-order differential.
- Define the concept of second order linear ordinary differential equations, describe the general method of their solution, and calculate the general solution of second-order homogeneous differential equations with constants coefficients.
- Describe the method of Reduction of Order in the solution of second order homogeneous differential equations, and employ the method to obtain the second linearly independent solution.
- Describe the Methods of Undetermined Coefficients, and Variation of Parameters, use these methods to find the general solution of second-order non-homogeneous differential equations, and compare the two methods identifying their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the concept of Power Series expansions as solutions of linear differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of non-homogeneous differential equations that arise in applied engineering problems, and compare the method with the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.
- Identify the importance of the method of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of important differential equations, and compare the results with the ones given by previous methods wherever this is possible.
- Define partial differential equations, and apply the method of Separation of Variables on partial differential equations to deduce a system of ordinary differential equations.
- Use readily available Matlab codes to calculate solutions of differential equations that arise in Applied Engineering Problems, and compare the results with the analytic solutions obtained with the techniques learned in the course.

#### Course Contents

**Descriptive Statistics:** Introduction to Statistics, Data Collection, Describing and Summarizing Data, Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Skewness, Tables, Charts, Exploratory Data Analysis.

**Probability:** Sample Spaces and Events. Introduction to set theory and relations in set theory. Definitions of Probability and properties. Conditional probability.

**Discrete Random Variables:** Probability Distribution Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson.

**Continuous Random Variables:** Probability density Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Uniform, Normal Distribution. Approximations for Discrete Distributions.

**Sampling distributions:** Properties of sample distributions: Unbiasedness and minimum variance. The central limit theorem.

**Estimation: **Confidence Internal Estimation for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions. Sample size determination.

**Hypothesis** **Testing:** Hypothesis Testing for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions.

**Introduction to regression: **Simple Linear Regression and Correlation

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Use descriptive statistics to present data by constructing Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Histograms and Box Plots.
- Explain and apply measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode, measures of Dispersion such as Range, IQR, Variance and standard deviation and the coefficients of Variation and Skewness to different types of data.
- Describe the notion of sample space for an experiment, describe events as subsets of the sample space and construct events by using set theoretic operations and with the use of Venn diagrams.
- Construct the probability function on the space of events with its properties, define conditional probability and calculate probabilities of events in simple problems.
- Describe the concepts of discrete and continuous random variables as functions from the sample space to the set of real numbers and explain and use the probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function to calculate simple probabilities.
- Calculate the expected number, variance and standard deviation of a random variable and use discrete and continuous distributions in examples to calculate probabilities in real life problems.
- Calculate point estimators and construct confidence intervals for means and proportions of one and two populations.
- Test hypothesis for means, proportions and difference of means, apply hypothesis testing to real life problems and construct linear models for a given set of data using linear regression.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Use of mathematical modelling in engineering problem solving; Overview of modern engineering tools used in engineering practice (such as MATLAB); Approximations of errors.

**Roots of Equations:** Bracketing Methods(Graphical, Bisection and False Position Methods), Open Methods(Fixed-Point Iteration, Newton-Rapson and Secant Methods, Multiple Roots and Systems of Nonlinear Equations), Roots of Polynomials(Conventional, Muller’s, and Bairstow’ Methods).

**Curve Fitting:** Interpolation Methods, Least-Squares Regression.

**Numerical Integration:** Newton-Cotes Integration Formulas (Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules, Integration with unequally spaced data, Open Integration Formulas), Integration of Equations (Newton-Cotes Algorithms for Equations, Romberg Integration, Gauss Quadrature).

**Numerical Differentiation:** High-Accuracy Differentiation Formulas, Richardson Extrapolation, Derivatives of Unequally Spaced Data.

**Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:** Initial value problems, single and multiple step problems, convergence and stability. Boundary value problems, finite difference methods using simple routines. The Euler Method, the Runge-Kutta Methods, and Multi-step Methods.

**Numerical solution of field problems:** Finite difference methods, applications using simple routines.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB**

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the various methods for finding approximation of roots of nonlinear equations, employ these methods to solve applied engineering problems, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method through the solutions.
- Define the concept of interpolation and least squares for curve fitting, employ the two methods to obtain the interpolation polynomials for given data sets and various functions, and generate a set of criteria that allow the use of each method.
- Describe the concept of numerical integration, apply different techniques for the calculation of integral approximations, and identify when the relative errors become minimal.
- Explain the need for approximation of derivatives of any order, define the important approximation formulas and employ various methods to calculate approximate solutions of first and second order differential equations.
- Analyse approximate solutions and based on the analysis classify the different methods based on their order of approximation.
- Explain the concept of finite difference methods in two dimensions and relate to simple problems that arise in Engineering.
- Employ a computer programming language (Matlab) to solve applied engineering problems discussed throughout the course, and compare the approximate solutions with the ones obtained by hand.

#### Course Contents

**Kinematics in one dimension:** Motion along a straight line, motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, graphical representations, motion with constant deceleration, motions due to gravity (Free Fall, Fall with initial velocity, objects thrown upward).

**Dynamics:** Newton ’s Laws of motion, type of forces, free-body diagrams, adding forces graphically, static and kinetic friction, inclines.

**Work and energy:** Work done by a constant force, kinetic energy, work-energy principle, potential energy due to position and due to a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, dissipative forces.

**Linear Momentum:** Momentum and forces, conservation of linear momentum in one and two dimensions, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse, energy and momentum in collisions.

**Oscillations:** Simple harmonic motion, conservation of mechanical energy, simple pendulum.

**Rigid Body:** Moments, equilibrium of a rigid body, kinematics of a rigid body (motion and rotation about a fixed axis), dynamics of a rigid body (torque, work, energy and power in rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum).

**Waves:** Wave motion, superposition, sound waves, speed of sound, Doppler effect).

**Ideal gas:** density, ideal gas law, temperature scales.

**Laboratory Work:** General Laboratory Instructions and Error Analysis-Error bars are initially covered. Small group experiments on: Measurement of the Acceleration of Gravity, Force of Equilibrium, Newton 's Second Law, Kinetic Friction, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Conservation of Linear Momentum, Collision – Impulse, and Simple Pendulum.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe with equations and graphically the motion along a straight line, the motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, and the motion due to gravity, distinguish and analyse motions to solve problems.
- Explain and apply the Newton’s Laws of motion to write the equations of motions, draw forces, solve problems by adding forces using free-body diagrams, and experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity, investigate the Newton’s Second Law, the factors effecting kinetic friction and force equilibrium.
- Define and apply the concepts of work by a constant force, the kinetic energy, the potential energy due to the position and a spring, the work-energy principle, to solve problems with conservation of mechanical energy with/out dissipative forces, and experimentally determine the spring constant and investigate the conservation of mechanical energy.
- Identify the concept of linear momentum and its relation to forces, define the concept of impulse, explain the circumstances under which momentum is a conserved quantity, distinguish elastic and inelastic collisions, solve problems that involve elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions using the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and experimentally investigate the impulse and the conservation of linear momentum in elastic collisions.
- Describe simple harmonic motion, apply conservation of mechanical energy on problems with simple harmonic oscillators, determine under what circumstances a simple pendulum resembles simple harmonic motion, calculate and experimentally investigate its period and frequency.
- Define the concept of moments and the circumstances that a rigid body is in equilibrium, determine the rotation of a body about a fixed axis, calculate its torque, work, energy and power, and solve problems involving the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
- Describe with equations and graphically the wave motion, define the types of waves and the concept of superposition (overlapping waves), describe the characteristics of sound waves, define Doppler effect, use the abovementioned terms and concepts to solve associated problems.
- Describe the characteristics of ideal gas, determine under what circumstances the ideal gas law is valid, and solve associated problems using different temperature scales.

#### Course Contents

**Review: **Basic concepts of electricity, atomic structure.** **

**Electrostatics: **Coulomb’s Law, electric field intensity due to one or more point charges, electric potential, motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field.

**Further electrostatics: **Gauss Law and applications, capacitors and combination of capacitors, electrostatic energy of charged capacitors, dielectrics.

**Dynamic electricity: **Electric current, resistance and Ohm's Law, resistivity of conductors, combination of resistances.** **

**Direct Current Circuits: **Electromotive force (EMF), Kirchhoff’s rules, power, potential across resistors, RC circuits.

**Magnetism: **Definition of magnetic field, magnetic field at a point due to current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Ampere’s Law), magnetic forces on current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field.

**Optics: **The nature of light, measurement of the speed light, Huygen's principle, reflection, refraction, and polarization.

**Geometrical Optics: **Convex and concave** **mirrors, thin lenses, optical instruments.

**Laboratory Work: **Small group experiments on: Electrostatic Charge, Ohm’s Law, Exploratory Study of Resistance, Resistances in Circuits, EMF, Kirchhoff's Rules, Resistor – Capacitor Network, Wheatstone Bridge, Law of Reflection, Law of Refraction.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate graphically and calculate the forces experienced on a charged particle by other charged particles, the electric field intensity and the electric potential due to several point charges at a particular point, describe and solve problems of charged particles motion in a uniform electric field.
- Explain and apply the Gauss law to evaluate the electric field intensity in problems where spherical or cylindrical or translational symmetry exists
- Define the electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor with/out dielectrics, describe and experimentally investigate the resistance’s and the Ohm’s Law variables, explain and experimentally measure the electromotive force.
- Develop skills to solve problems with circuits including several capacitors, several resistors, and resistors-capacitors, experimentally investigate the equations in Wheatstone Bridge and RC circuits, and experimentally demonstrate the Kirchhoff's Rules in electrical circuits.
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic field at a point due to one or more current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Amperes Law),
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic forces on two current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, and the path of a charged particle motion in a constant magnetic field.
- Describe and experimentally demonstrate the laws of reflection and refraction, show with appropriate drawings how these laws apply to light rays at plane and spherical surfaces (mirrors, thin lenses), and solve associated problems.

#### Course Contents

**Overview of the Construction Industry**

Who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.

‘Project-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to the main contracts and procurement methods emphasizing on the economic side.

Pre-contract project economics: preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, tender preparation, tender evaluation.

Post-contract project economics: estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.

Other project economic issues: development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.

**‘Company-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics**

Introduction to Accounting and Finance issues like: financial statements (the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement), financial ratios.

‘Industry-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to micro- and macro-economics: micro-economics (supply, demand, equilibrium, elasticity), macro-economics (Governmental policies, unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.
- Review main ‘project-level’ economics issues like contract types and procurement methods with emphasis on their economic side.
- Carry out ‘pre-contract’ economic exercises like preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, and evaluate tender preparation and tender evaluation methods.
- Carry out ‘post-contract’ economic exercises like estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.
- Carry out other economic exercises like development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.
- Prepare and analyse financial statements like the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement and interpret them using financial ratios.
- Define micro-economic issues like demand, supply, equilibrium, and elasticity as well as and macro-economic issues like unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates.

#### Course Contents

__MODULE 1 (Introduction to Sustainable Development):__

· *Basic Concepts and Vocabulary (Definitions of Sustainability, Quantification Methods of Sustainability)*

· *Ethics and Sustainability*

· *Major Environmental and Resource Concerns*

· *Defining Sustainable Construction (The Green Building Movement)*

__MODULE 2 (Sustainable Sites):__

· *Site Selection*

· *Development Density & Community Connectivity*

· *Alternative Transportation: Public Transportation Access & facilities*

· *Site Development: Open Space 17*

· *Stormwater Design: Quantity & Quality Control*

__MODULE 3 (Water Efficiency):__

· *Water Efficient Landscaping*

· *Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation*

· *Innovative Wastewater Technologies*

· *Water Use Reduction*

__MODULE 4 (Energy & Atmosphere):__

· *Optimize Energy Performance*

· *On-Site Renewable Energy*

__MODULE 5 (Materials & Resources):__

· *Storage & Collection of Recyclables*

· *Building Reuse*

· *Construction Waste Management*

· *Materials Reuse*

· *Recycled Content*

· *Regional Materials*

__MODULE 6 (Indoor Environmental Quality):__

· *Minimum IAQ Performance*

· *Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control*

· *Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring*

· *Ventilation*

· *Construction IAQ Management Plan*

· *Low-Emitting Materials (e.g. Adhesives, Sealants, Paints, Coatings, Carpet Systems)*

· *Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control*

· *Controllability of Systems: Lighting & Thermal Comfort*

· *Daylight & Views*

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify major problems facing the planet earth and human society.
- Explain the concept of Sustainability, and how building green is good for Cyprus and the World.
- Describe primary components of a sustainable engineering system.
- Explain design and construction principles for developing green structures.
- List roles that a civil engineer has in implementing a sustainable construction/development project.
- Perform detail evaluation of new and existing buildings based on LEED standards.
- Classify various technologies aimed at achieving global sustainability.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Discuss the basic concepts of construction management. Present historic projects and explain the basic terms such as quality management, contracts, Tenders etc.

**Quality Management: **Quality Control and Inspection. Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management.

**Preparing of Bid Package:** Decision to Bid. Explain the general and supplementary conditions and define the importance of technical specifications. Describe the documents and material that has to be included in a bid.

**Construction Contracts:** Present the major construction contract types. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of competitively bid contracts, the unit-price contracts, the negotiated contracts, the design-build contracts and the construction management contracts. Identify the key issues upon the decision of using any of the above types of contracts.

**Time Planning/Control:** Explain the importance of timely execution of construction works. Describe the problems that are created from bad management of the works. Explain project time control, project planning, activity durations and critical path. Calculate early and late event times.

**Project Funding:** Explain the construction financing process. Present the different financing schemes including the mortgage loan commitment, the construction loan and owner financing using bonds.

**Construction Operations:** Plan and model construction operations. Develop building process models and the structure of construction operations.

**Estimating Process:** Define the importance of the accurate estimating of the works and explain the estimating construction cost the types of estimates the quantity takeoff the methods of detail and the cost determination.

**Cost Control:** Describe the cost related issues such as project cost control systems, cost accounts, project cost code structure, data collection from payroll, project indirect costs, fixed overhead.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic principles that characterise and define construction management.
- Identify critical path networks and resource allocation. Evaluate quality assurance. Identify the importance of health and safety and codes of practice and understand aspects of civil engineering management.
- Apply the knowledge of the above topics in carrying out associated analysis and planning.
- Analyze discipline-specific practical skills in using discounted cash flow techniques to assess the financial worth of construction projects.
- Evaluate basic planning methods used in construction.
- Create case study involving manipulation and interpretation of data; mathematical skills; project, time and resource management.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Basics of construction detailing. Identification of drawing equipment, construction lines, and line types. Presentation methods, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections. Undertaking and reading architectural and construction drawings. Work with drawing instruments.

**Staircases:** Different types of staircase parts, symbols, and structural details. Description of the geometric parameters including step width and height. Applications for the use of each type of staircase.

**Foundations and Retaining Walls:** Different types of foundation and retaining walls. Types of reinforcement and reinforcement sizes. Bar splicing and cover. Applications for the use of various types of foundations and retaining walls.

**Windows:** Different types of windows and demonstration of the use for each type of window. Symbols related to windows. Discussion on window elevations and sections. Drawing of parts of a window frame.

**Parapet Wall and Roof Details:** Types of parapet walls and their applications. Drawings of the symbols and parts of parapet walls. Discussion of the differences between flat and pitched roofs. Drawing of details for each type.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify drawing equipment, lines, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections
- Present and relate to architectural and construction drawings
- Show basic drawing skills in the drafting of elements in plan view, elevation view and sections.
- Reproduce the three dimensional nature of objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Show different presentation methods for engineering drawings.
- Arrange drawing elements to create drawings for case studies of a building project.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction: Introduction of CAD systems and presentation of the basic principles of CAD drawings. Introduction to the Autocad environment (Title line, Menu line, Command line, Drawing Area, Selection of toolboxes).

- “Draw” tools: Explanation of the “DRAW” toolbox and use of drawing commands in Autocad files. Understanding of the coordinate system. Application of facilities “SNAP”, “GRID”,”OSNAP”,”ORTHO”.

- “Modify” tools: Explanation and use of the “MODIFY” toolbox. Application of commands to prepare simple drawings.

- Organisation of Work: Explanation for creating and using “BLOCKS” and “LAYERS” to organize the work in the drawing file.

- View: Application of commands “ZOOM” and “PAN” to view drawings.

- Dimensions and Text: Different types of dimensions. Modification of dimension styles and insertion of dimensions in drawings. Use of various types of text. Modifications of text styles and insertion of text in drawings.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize AutoCAD layout, layers, various drawing commands, drawing layout, printing and plotting
- Manipulate AutoCAD drawings, apply corrections and modifications inside AutoCAD.
- Organise engineering drawings using suitable AutoCAD commands and facilities.
- Apply drawing skills in drawing plans, elevations and sections.
- Reproduce three dimensional objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Develop engineering drawings for building projects using AutoCAD.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Geology:** Earth Structure: Definition of Geology Science. Explanation of relevance to Civil Engineering projects. Presentation of Earth’s formation and origin. Description of Earth’s interior structure, including materials (core, mantle, crust) and zones (Mesosphere, Asthenosphere, Lithosphere). Geological History.

**Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes:** Definition of plate tectonics theory. Explanation of terms continental drift and ocean floor spreading. Description of different types and characteristics of plate boundaries (ridges, trenches and faults) and explanation on how these are related to earthquakes. Description of earthquake occurrence and effects on infrastructure. Definition of focus and epicentre, and description of scales of magnitude (Richter, Mercalli). Protection measures taken by civil engineers. Definition of Elastic Rebound theory.

**Earth Surface Processes:** Description of the major earth surface processes: weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition. Explanation on how these are related to the rock cycle. Definition of weathering and different types of weathering, namely physical (or mechanical), chemical and biological. Examples for all types of weathering and relevance to Cyprus. Definition of erosion and its effect on the natural environment. Description of erosion agents (rivers, sea, ice, wind). Description of transportation and deposition of sediments and their relation to formation of sedimentary rocks.

**Minerals and Rocks:** Definitions of minerals and mineralogy science. Presentation of different mineral groups and examples of common minerals. Description of mineral properties used for the identification of minerals. Moh’s scale of hardness. Definition of cleavage and symmetry of minerals. Description of primary classification and modes of formation of igneous rocks, extrusive and intrusive (major and minor). Description of primary classification and modes of formation of sedimentary rocks. Usage of sedimentary deposits in the construction industry. Definition of local and regional metamorphic rocks. Presentation of actual rock examples and explanation of the rock cycle. Identification of rocks. Presentation of Cyprus geological zones.

**Site Investigation and Groundwater:** Definition and purpose of a site investigation in civil engineering projects. Presentation and discussion of all main stages in a site investigation. Explanation of desk study and presentation of methods for sub-surface investigations, in-situ testing and laboratory testing. Importance of geotechnical reports and construction monitoring. Discussion of case studies from the instructor’s personal experience. Importance of groundwater conditions and hydrological cycle. Definition of groundwater table, saturated soils, porosity, aquifers and aquicludes. Fluctuations of groundwater level and their effects in structures.

**Geological hazards:** Description and identification of geological hazards. Description of different types of slope failure and landslides. Explanation of trigger mechanisms and protection measures (retaining walls etc.). Description of hazards like sand liquefaction and excessive settlements and explanation of methods of protection (piled foundations etc.). Description of other natural geological hazards such as volcanoes and earthquakes.

**Structural Geology: **Definition of structural geology and the three main types, namely faults, folds and joints. Description of the components of geological structures. Types of faults, folds and joints. Discussion on relevant examples in Cyprus.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the relevance of geology to civil engineering projects.
- Describe the interior structure of the Earth and distinguish between different forms of Earth’s surface processes.
- Define the theory of plate tectonics and relate to the effects of earthquakes on the built environment.
- Identify different types of soils and rocks and differentiate between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
- List the geological zones of Cyprus and describe the geological features and rock formations for each zone.
- Describe the main stages of a site investigation and recognize the importance of groundwater level in construction projects.
- Explain the main geological hazards present in Cyprus and describe measures for protection.

#### Course Contents

**Principles of Soil Behaviour and Soil Classification: **Introduction in Soil Mechanics. Definition of saturated soils, water content, specific gravity, dry and bulk densities. Phase relationships with numerical examples. Classification of soils. Sieve analysis and grading curve for granular soils. Plasticity of cohesive soils, Atterberg limits. Plasticity Index. Soil description by visual inspection using standard methods. Laboratory work for phase relationships, sieve analysis and measurement of Atterberg limits.

**Water in soil and Flownets: **Flow of groundwater in soils. Total head and water pressure. Soil permeability, hydraulic gradient and rate of flow. Creation of flownets with flowlines and equipotentials and seepage calculation for flowrate and water pressure. Several examples of flownet calculations solved in class. Measurement of soil permeability in the laboratory using the constant head test.

**Stresses in soils: **Concepts of total stress, pore water pressure and effective stress explained and demonstrated through examples. Importance of groundwater level in the calculation of stresses. Stress changes calculated below the centre and corner of foundations, based on Fadum’s chart and Boussinesq’s formulae. Examples solved in class. Stress changes under the centre of circular footings.

**Settlement and Consolidation:** One-dimensional compression theory of soils. Soil stiffness and settlement of soils. Calculation of settlement based on elastic theory. Consolidation of clays. Consolidation settlement and consolidation time calculated through examples. Oedometer test in the laboratory and consolidation measurement. Use of oedometer test data to calculate actual consolidation in clays and solution of practical examples for estimating foundation settlements.

**Site Improvement: **Methods of site improvement for different site conditions, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Chemical Stabilization, Surface and Dynamic Compaction. Compaction of earthfill for engineering projects. Importance of field compaction and on-site control. Measurement of maximum dry density and optimum water content from compaction tests.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify different types of soils by recognizing their physical behaviour, use various phase relationships and describe methods of visual soil classification.
- Apply principles of water flow in soils to sketch flownets and calculate water flowrate and water pressures for specific engineering problems.
- Compute soil stresses, pore water pressure and stress changes due to external loads.
- Calculate soil stiffness, soil settlement and consolidation settlement based on oedometer test data.
- Assess suitability of methods for site improvement for various ground conditions and compute optimum water content and maximum dry density in compaction tests.
- Solve various geotechnical problems by appropriately categorizing these into soil mechanics formulations.
- Develop skills for measuring soil index properties, permeability, consolidation and compaction parameters in the laboratory.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction**: review of material from Soil Mechanics I course.

**Soil strength**: inter-particle friction as source of soil strength, its dependence on effective stress and hence pore water pressure; inter-dependency of soil strength and density, concepts of dilation and critical state strengths; effect of permeability on volume change of saturated soils and undrained and drained behaviour; laboratory measurement of shear strength of soils using shear box and triaxial cell.

**Shallow foundations**: types of shallow foundations, derivation of bearing resistance equations and factors, verification of bearing resistance of example foundations.

**Retaining walls**: derivation of basic equations of active and passive earth pressure coefficients; verification of ultimate limits states of simple rc cantilever walls; types of retaining walls, their pros and cons and modes of failure.

**Piled foundations**: shaft friction and end bearing, negative shaft friction; types of piles and installation methods, pros and cons; situations where piled foundations are necessary.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the definition and nature of soil failure and identify examples of soil failure in the field.
- Perform a shear box test on dense and loose dry sand and derive internal friction angle.
- Explain the effect of pore water pressure on soil strength – use of effective stress, volume changes causing pore fluid flow and concept of drained and undrained behaviour.

#### Course Contents

** Introduction**: review of material from Soil Mechanics I and II courses.

** Site investigations**: In-situ testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters. Laboratory testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters.

** Design to Eurocode 7**: Introduction to Eurocode programme. Definitions. Partial factors, design approach.

** Spread foundation resistance**: Soil parameters needed for foundation design. Derivation of design values of actions, including inclined loads and moments. Bearing capacity equations and factors. Derivation of design resistance values and safety check.

** Settlement of foundations**: Immediate and consolidation settlement and their estimation. Derivation of settlement estimates from laboratory and in-situ tests. Shallow foundation types and their application.

** Deep foundation resistance**: Pile design in accordance with EC7 for vertical loads in clays and in sands. Derivation of design resistances and safety checks. Design principles and modes of failure for laterally loaded piles. Design of pile groups.

** Retaining walls**: Design of supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls according to EC7.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify methods of site investigation, foundation and retaining wall types and understand the geotechnical design process from site investigation, interpretation, design and monitoring.
- Apply design techniques for shallow foundations with complex loads, RC cantilever and gravity retaining walls.
- Analyze site investigation data for the selection of appropriate shallow and deep foundation types or retaining wall types and calculation of factors of safety on stability for complex cases.
- Evaluate degree of certainty and hence degree of conservatism, need for further investigation, need for monitoring.
- Create design calculations for shallow foundation with complex loads and soil conditions, supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls.

#### Course Contents

**Properties of Fluids:**** **Basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility. Relationships and interconnections between various concepts. Basic problem solving using fluids terms and concepts.

**Fluid Statics:**** **Atmospheric and Gage Pressure. Characteristics of pressure. Pascal’s Paradox. Variation of pressure. Equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack). Measurement of pressure. Barometers. Manometer (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers). Hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), Reservoir Dams. Piezometric Head. Archimedes Principle (buoyancy and stability).

**Fluid Motion: ** Motion of Fluids and the Bernoulli’s Equation. Fluid Flow Rates and the Continuity Equation. Variation of flow parameters in time and space. The Venturi meter and other closed systems with unknown velocities. Toricelli’s Theorem Flow due to a falling head

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility.
- Differentiate among various basic fluid properties, atmospheric and gage pressure
- Describe the principles behind the measurement of pressure and the function of barometers
- Understand the theory governing the flow (motion of fluids) and Bernoulli’s Equation, and the variation of flow parameters in time and space
- Solve problems pertaining to the variation of pressure, the equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack), manometer problems (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers), and numerical problems that make use of the Bernoulli Equation principles
- Calculate the hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), reservoir dams
- Apply Archimedes principle of buoyancy and stability
- Use the Venturi meter and other closed systems to measure pressure under schemes of unknown velocities.

#### Course Contents

**Environmental Pollution and Public Health:**** **Basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering. Important issues that relate to environmental pollution. Important sources of environmental pollution. Relationship between pollutants and the corresponding contributing sources. Possible scenarios of public health manifestations of environmental pollution sources and events.

**Water Supply and Treatment:**** **Key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment. Key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water. The root causes of water supply issues that we are facing in Cyprus . Possible solutions to various potable water treatment scenarios. Conceptual design of a water treatment plant

**Wastewater Treatment: ** Key terms and concepts relating to wastewater production and treatment. Estimation of wastewater quantity production from municipal and industrial sources. Identify key wastewater characteristics (BOD, COD, TSS, TN, TP, etc.). Differentiation among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics. Conceptual design of an Activated Sludge wastewater treatment plant. Key elements of various unit processes (sedimentation / clarification, filtration, aeration, and disinfection) involved in the biological treatment of municipal wastewater. Different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Continuous flow, Sequencing Batch Reactors, Constructed Wetlands)

**Solid Waste Management:**** ** Key terms and concepts relating to municipal solid waste production, transport, selection and final disposal. Calculation of municipal solid waste quantities and characteristics. Key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Alternative final disposal methods for municipal solid waste (i.e. incineration, composting, recycling).

**Air Pollution:** Key terms and concepts relating to air pollution engineering (sources, characteristics, and control methods). Key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog). Air pollution control methods (i.e. cyclones, baghouse filters, wet scrubbers, etc.)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering.
- Recognize key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment, wastewater production and treatment
- Identify key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water, key wastewater characteristics
- Differentiate among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics
- Associate different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources
- Describe the key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill
- Argue for / against incineration and / or landfilling as final disposal options for municipal solid waste.
- Discuss key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog)

#### Course Contents

**Momentum Equation:**** **Forces due to fluids in motion. Momentum Equation. Force Equation.

**Open Channels:**** **Types of Open Channels. Laminar and Turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Uniform steady flow in open channels. Geometry and efficiency of typical open channels. Hydraulic jump.

**Dimensional Analysis:** Application of dimensional analysis in hydraulics and in other engineering problems

**Flow in Pipes:** Energy loss in pipes. Hazen-Williams equation. Darcy-Weisbach equation Major and Minor (friction) losses in pipes (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements).

**Pipe Networks:** Pipes in series. Pipes in parallel. Systems with two branches. Systems with three or more branches

**Hydraulic Systems:** Interconnected reservoirs. Quasi-steady flow. Pumps.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe relationships and interconnections between various concepts involved in the Momentum Equation that refers to forces due to fluids in motion
- Differentiate between the Force Equation and the Momentum Equation, laminar and turbulent flow and the concept of Reynolds number
- Solve problems that utilize the principles of the Momentum Equation, problems of systems with two branches and systems with three or more branches, numerical problems that calculate the hydraulic regime that describes interconnected reservoirs
- Understand the geometry and efficiency of typical open channels, how fluid energy is lost in pipes
- Apply dimensional analysis to solve hydraulic and other engineering problems
- Use the Hazen-Williams and the Darcy-Weisbach equations to calculate friction losses in pipes
- Calculate major and minor (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements) friction losses in pipes, flow characteristics in pipes-in-series and in pipes-in-parallel networks
- Select appropriate pumps for specific hydraulic needs

#### Course Contents

*Basic Hydrologic Principles*

o Hydrologic Cycle & Water Budgets

o Geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a watershed

o Precipitation

§ Formation & types

§ Rainfall measurement & analysis

§ Rainfall losses

o Evaporation & Transpiration

§ Mechanisms of evaporation & Estimation of evapotranspiration

o Soil Moisture & Infiltration

§ Characteristics & Mechanisms of soil infiltration

§ Infiltration survey & formulas

· *Groundwater and Well Hydraulics*

o Aquifer and groundwater

o Flow in saturated aquifers

o Steady & Unsteady well hydraulics

o Characteristics of aquifer and groundwater flow

· *Rainfall-Runoff Analysis*

o Time of concentration, Hydrograph analysis, Rational formula, Unit hydrograph, Synthetic unit hydrograph

· *Urban Hydrology*

o Characteristics of urban hydrology

*, *Sewer system hydraulics

*, *Method for quantity analysis

*, *Control options

· *Hydrology Statistics and Frequency Analysis*

o Theories of Hydrology Statistics & Frequency Analysis

o Choosing a suitable frequency distribution

· *Measurements in Hydrology*

o Rainfall, Water Level, Flow Velocity, Discharge

· *Design Issues in Hydrology*

o Design rainfall

o Small watershed design

o Detention pond design

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Appreciate the most significant hydrological issues for society and the role of hydrological knowledge in securing safe and sustainable water supplies
- Develop quantitative approaches for answering questions in engineering hydrology, as well as creative thinking and basic research skills through independent and team assignments and projects
- Understand the hazard associated with spatially / temporally uneven water inputs, in a wide range of environments where hydrology and water resources become important environmental issues, understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Estimate flows for a variety of civil engineering design problems, including, 1) urban storm-water analysis, 2) floodplain mapping, and 3) groundwater aquifer characterization.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Basic construction materials and their applications. Most common ways of materials loading. Basic units used in the material science.

**Material Properties:** Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of construction materials. Terms of Bearing Capacity, Density, Specific Gravity and Modulus of Elasticity. Principle of the probabilistic assessment of properties. Atomic structure of materials. Types of atomic bonds and special lattices. Terms of micro- and macro-structures.

**Cements:** Concept of Hydraulic Cements and give emphasis to Portland cement. Process of manufacture of Portland cement. Chemical composition of Portland cement. Process of hydration of cement. Structure of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP). Factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste.

**Aggregates:** Types of aggregates and the most common classification methods. Role of their shape and texture in the properties of a concrete mix. Evaluate their role as fillers. Terms of size gradation, sieve analysis and grading curves. Strength and durability of aggregates and most common tests.

**Concrete:** Concrete constituent materials. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete and most common tests. Chemical admixtures used in concrete technology. Principles of developing High Strength Concrete mixtures. Durability principles and durability properties of concrete. Testing procedures of fresh and hardened material on site. Concrete mix design. Concrete applications.

**Metals:** Types of metals used in construction industry. Properties of metals and most common tests of steel. Steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material. Durability issues of steel and maintenance methods. Aluminium properties and alloys, and their applications.

**Timber:** Types of timber and most common classification methods. Properties of timber and most common tests. Applications of timber as a structural material. Durability issues of timber and the required maintenance applications. Principles of timber processing in order to be used as a construction material.

**Masonry:** Primary masonry materials used in construction. Properties of stone and the most common classification methods. Properties of bricks and the most common classification methods. Properties of concrete masonry units (CMU) and the most common classification methods. Advantages and disadvantages of masonry construction and the structural behaviour. Properties of masonry materials and the most common testing methods.

**Bituminous:** Constituent materials of bituminous mixes. Properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state. Durability issues of bituminous materials. Testing methods of fresh and hardened material. Methods of production and principles of mix design. Fundamental applications of bituminous materials.

**Introduction to Modern Materials: **Recent trends of research in construction materials. Applications of modern construction materials. Importance of the development and use of sustainable construction materials.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the basic construction materials and their applications, describe the physical and mechanical properties of construction materials and analyse the atomic structure of materials.
- Describe the concept of Hydraulic Cements, give emphasis to Portland cement, and evaluate the factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste. Also describe the types of aggregates and the most common classification methods.
- Define concrete constituent materials, analyse the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, describe the most common tests, and evaluate the chemical admixtures used in concrete technology.
- Describe the types of metals used in construction industry, analyse the properties of metals and describe the most common tests of steel. Evaluate steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material, and describe aluminium properties and alloys, and analyse their applications.
- Describe the types of timber the most common classification methods, and explain the properties of timber and describe the most common tests.
- Describe the primary masonry materials used in construction, analyse the properties of stone, bricks and concrete masonry units, and the most common classification methods.
- Analyse the constituent materials of bituminous mixes, describe the properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state, and describe the testing methods of fresh and hardened material.
- Describe the recent trends of research in construction materials, the applications of modern construction materials, and analyse the importance of the development and use of sustainable construction materials.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Strength of Materials **

Explain the importance and review the material related to the development of correct free body diagrams. Then define the terms stress and strain and differentiate between normal stress, shear stress and bending stress. Explain the mechanical properties and their role to the strength of materials. Introduce the philosophy behind design and each design approach and also the role and the importance of the safety factor. Finally explain thermal effects and strain energy.

**Tension, Compression and Shear**

Understand general concept on Strength of Materials (Tension, Compression). Explain in detail the concept of normal stress and strain. Define the term Linear Elasticity and discuss in detail the Stress-Strain curve. Present the Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and distinguish the Ductile and brittle materials. Define the Poisson’s ratio and explain its significance. Also present Shear Stress and Strain, Shear Stress and Strain Curve and the Shear modulus.

**Stress and Strain Analysis**

Analyse of Stresses and Strains in structures. Those include the Plane Stress, Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stresses. Present the Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress and the Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress. Finally present the concepts of Triaxial Stress and Plane Strain.

**Stresses in beams**

Get familiar with the method for analysing pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending. Present the Curvature of a Beam the Strains in Beams (Longitudinal, Normal , Shear) and also the Beams with Axial Loads.

**Torsion**

Know the definition of Torsional loads and determine the deformations of a Circular Bar. Present the Circular Bars of Linearly Elastic Materials, the Stresses and Strain in Pure Shear and also the Relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G.

**Buckling of Columns**

Understand the definition of Buckling and Stability for Columns with Pinned Ends and for Columns with different Support Conditions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concept of free body diagrams, describe notion of stress and strain.
- Analyse design considerations, explain thermal effects and introduce strain energy.
- Describe concepts of normal and shear stresses and strains, stress-strain curves, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and shear modulus.
- Explain the difference of ductile and brittle materials, and introduce Poisson’s ratio.
- Analyse the problem of stresses and strains in structures, describe plane stresses, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
- Explain Mohr’s Circle and Hooke’s Law for plane stress and introduce triaxial stress and plane strain.
- Understand the method for analysing pure bending and non-uniform bending, explain curvature of beams and strains in beams.
- Explain the definition of torsional loads, determine the deformations of a circular bar, explain relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G, and describe buckling and stability for columns.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Revise of essential material from course Construction Materials (CEM213).

**Recent Advances in Concrete Science:** Introduce special concretes and their applications. Explain the fundamental terminology related to mix design of concrete. Analyse the principles of mix design. Specify the most important properties of novel concretes. Provide the necessary quality assurance inspection. Analyse and develop solutions to everyday problems that are related to materials and mix proportioning.

**Modern Composite Construction Materials:** Analyse the importance of composite materials in construction industry. Explain the fundamental terminology of composite materials. Specify the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials. Provide examples and applications of composite construction materials.

**Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP): **Analyse the advantages of FRP composites. Explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix. Analyse the types of fibres used, specify their properties and explain the most common fibres classifications. Specify the matrix materials used, specify their properties and explain the most common matrices classifications. Explain the difference between thermoplastic and thermoset matrices and analyse the properties of each type. Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites. Describe the manufacturing techniques of FRP composites. Provide examples of applications of FRP composites in construction industry. Explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.

**High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCCs):** Identify the disadvantages of normal concrete and analyse the importance of dense microstructure in the behaviour of the material. Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites. Explain the properties and the role of silica fume and dispersing agents in HPFRCCs. Explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of HPFRCCs. Identify the role of the type of fibres, the volume fraction of fibres and the fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of HPFRCCs. Analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation. Identify the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of the most important HPFRCCs available. Describe the manufacturing techniques of HPFRCCs composites. Describe the constitutive model of HPFRCCs. Identify applications of HPFRCCs in construction industry.

**Modern Materials for Heat Insulation and Sound Isolation:** Identify the heat insulating and sound isolating materials and their properties. Analyse their importance and applications in construction industry. Describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures and identify artificial and natural noise barriers.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe special concretes and their applications, analyse the principles of mix design and specify the most important properties of novel concretes.
- Explain the concept of composite materials, describe the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials and list examples and applications of composite construction materials.
- Analyse the advantages of FRP composites, explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix, analyse the types of fibres and matrices used, and explain their properties.
- Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites, describe manufacturing techniques, list examples of their applications in construction industry and explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.
- Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites, explain the properties and role of silica fume and dispersing agents in UHPFRCCs, and explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of UHPFRCCs.
- Explain the role of the type of fibres, their volume fraction and fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of UHPFRCCs, analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation.
- Describe the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of UHPFRCCs, describe manufacturing techniques, explain the constitutive model of UHPFRCCs and identify applications of UHPFRCCs in construction industry.
- Identify heat insulating and sound isolating composite materials and explain their properties, analyse their importance and applications in construction industry, describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project where the students are allowed to choose a topic in the content of Civil Engineering and specifically in the area of Civil Engineering that they are interested in i.e. Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering etc. Normally the decision on the topic is decided after consultation of students with various faculties. In addition the student must form the supervisory committee for the project. The supervisory committee consists of a faculty advisor and also another two faculties.

With the Final Year Project proposal (CEP399) course, students must consult with the faculty advisor in order to specify the objectives, decide on the methodology to be followed and a tentative time plan for the successful completion of the project. The supervising committee participates in the assessment of the project.

The student, in consultation with his advisor/committee, should conduct the necessary background reading so as to obtain a deep understanding of the problem area and better appreciate the problems faced and goals set. Students should also investigate appropriate research methods where applicable.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department a project proposal report that includes the project proposal with the detailed objectives and contributions of the project, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology to be used, the expected results, and the planning for the implementation of the project. In this report, the students can include a description on the work already completed.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Develop management skills and ability to retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources.
- Analyze, synthesise, collect, interpret, understand, evaluate and assess information and employ logical thinking to solve an engineering problem.
- Work autonomously and manage available time.
- Acquire and summarize new knowledge, develop research skills and also demonstrate oral and written communication skills.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project in the content of Civil Engineering. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project which each student must complete with the supervision of a three member committee headed by the student faculty advisor. Each student is free to choose the topic of their project which has to be relevant to the area of Civil Engineering that the student is interested in. In addition the student must choose a faculty advisor and also two other faculties to serve on his supervisory committee.

With the Final Year Project (CEP400) course, students must implement the objectives specified in their project proposal in CEP399 according to the specified planning. In this second part of the project the students must perform the bulk of the project work. They have to create the required models, execute the analyses, conduct the necessary experiments, construct any experimental devices and complete the project.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department of Civil Engineering a project report that includes the project objectives and contributions, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology used and the results achieved. Finally, the students must present their project work to their supervisory committee, other faculty members and their classmates.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Review, retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources related to civil engineering applications, select and report important information related to the assigned project.
- Develop research skills to acquire new knowledge and demonstrate oral and written communication skills.
- Apply knowledge in practice and use the appropriate tools, methods and opportunities for problem solving.
- Assess, collect, interpret, order information and employ logical thinking to solve a problem.
- Formulate a time schedule for the project and plan its execution from start to finish.
- Conclude the project with a written report and defend the work in an oral presentation in front of peers and faculty.

#### Course Contents

**Civil engineering projects:** Main types of civil engineering projects in various industry sectors. Local examples of construction projects.

**Construction Project teams:** The role of civil engineer in typical construction projects. Pre-tender and post-tender duties and responsibilities. Roles of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor. Importance and variety of specialists in civil engineering with several examples in engineering projects.

**Legislation and Regulations:** Legislation about building and construction. Planning and construction licences. Regulations for building safety and protection of the environment. Professional organisations. Professionalism and Ethics. Importance of use of standards and codes in design, and employment of qualified personnel. Health and Safety regulations for construction. Health and Safety Co-ordinator.

**Basic principles of design:** SI unit system and conversion of units used in Civil Engineering. Different loading types, factor of safety and design codes including Eurocodes. Importance of different construction materials and explanation of the concepts of tension, compression and shear for structural members.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- List the main types of civil engineering projects and appreciate some local examples.
- Recognize the role of civil engineer in typical construction projects and define the role of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor.
- State the existence and outline importance of specialists in civil engineering with several examples.
- Describe the need for regulation for building safety and protection of the environment.
- Recognize the importance of use of standards in design and employment of qualified personnel.
- Recognize the importance of Health and Safety regulations for construction.
- Describe various load types, define factor of safety and relate to design codes.
- Identify different construction materials and define the concepts of tension, compression and shear.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Understand vectors and define the relation of vectors forces. Comprehend that the properties of the vectors can be used to model and manipulate forces. Define the different support types such as the free, the roller, the pin and the fixed support. Understand the physical meaning of each support and therefore reason the development of the reactions that are developed in each support.

**Equilibrium:** Present the Newton ’s laws, explain their physical meaning and how they are applied in engineering. Define particles and solve problems of equilibrium regarding particles using the equations for the summation of forces. Define rigid bodies and explain the concept of moment. Then solve equilibrium problems with rigid bodies including the equation for the moments.

**Beams:** Present “beams” in terms of their behaviour, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Show the different types of externally applied loads (concentrated loads, distributed loads) and relate to real scenarios. Explain the concept of determinate structures. Create determinate beam configurations, apply the external loads and analyze to calculate the reactions at the supports.

**Trusses:** Present “trusses” in terms of their element behaviour and interconnection, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Discuss the different truss configurations (simple truss, compound truss, complex truss). Explain the importance of the connection between the elements and discuss tension and compression. Present the methods of truss analysis (method of joints and method of sections (Ritter)). Analyze trusses to calculate element forces and support reactions.

**Centroids (Center of Mass):** Calculate the centroids of different shapes and sections using first principles or alternatively when possible calculate the centroids of sections by dividing them into simpler subsections with known geometrical properties.

**Moment of Inertia:** Present the concept of moment of inertia and its importance in engineering. Define “strong” and “weak” axis. Calculate the moment of inertia from first principles. Introduce the parallel axis theorem. Calculate the moment of inertia for different sections and about different axes.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the basic concepts and methods for the analysis and composition of forces, of particle equilibrium, summation of forces and moments, loading configurations, the importance of the Free Body Diagram, how to handle distributed loads, beam equilibrium, joint equilibrium.
- Construct free body diagrams and develop equations of equilibrium for simple models.
- Apply the principles of mechanics to the equilibrium of particles and beams, trusses, mechanisms, concepts of centroids and second moments of areas to the determination of properties of sections.
- Analyze trusses and mechanisms using the method of joints and the method of sections.
- Create structural models to simulate the behaviour of simple structures
- Calculate centroids and evaluate moment of inertias for different shapes and sections.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Introduce the difference between the externally applied loads and the internal forces and also the difference between pressure and stress. Define the internal forces: Axial force, Shear force and bending moment and explain the mechanism that the internal loads are developed. Identify the different structural elements (truss, beam, frame, plate, shell etc) and their use in the different structural forms. Concentrate on the definition of beams and frames and define their properties and behaviour.

**Shear and Bending Moment Equations:** Explain the concept of shear and bending moment. Explain how they are developed, their importance and use in structural analysis. Define the sign convention for the shear and bending moment and explain its significance. Write equations for shear and bending moment for different segments of beams.

**Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams:** Define the designer’s sign convention and explain the rules to draw the shear and bending moment diagrams. Define the slope of the shear and bending moment diagrams at a point based on the values of the load and the shear at the particular point. Draw shear diagrams based on the load curves and bending moment diagrams based on the areas of the shear curves.

**Deflections:** Present the importance of deflection calculation in engineering and explain the necessity for the calculation. Present different methods for the calculation of deflections in structural systems. Calculate deflections in beams using geometric (integration) methods. Calculate deflections in trusses and beams using energy methods (virtual work).

**Shear and Bending Stresses:** Define the longitudinal stresses (axial and bending stresses), explain how they are developed and their importance and use for beam design. Define the transverse (shear) stresses, explain how they are developed and explain their importance and use for the design of beams. Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses for various beam loading configurations.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of shear force, bending moment, slope and deflection, and their use in structural design.
- Explain the importance of sign conventions in order to write equations to describe the distributions of shear-force and bending-moment across beam elements.
- Construct bending moment and shear force diagrams.
- Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses due to bending moment and shear force, locate points of maximum stress and calculate slopes and deflection equations giving due regard to boundary conditions.
- Develop shear force and bending moment equations and use geometric and virtual work methods to calculate beam deformations from applied loads.
- Choose element sizes performing basic beam designs with regards to the applied external loads.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Define the term “Indeterminate structures” and differentiate between statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Determine the stability and determinacy of structures. Calculate the degree of indeterminacy and recognize the presence (if any) of geometrical instability. Also present the principle of superposition and its importance in the analysis of the indeterminate structures.

**Flexibility Method: **Present the concepts of the flexibility method and show the methodology for its use. Define the base structure as well as the redundant structures and draw their deflected shapes. Write compatibility equations in terms of the redundant forces, based on the support conditions and structural configuration using the principle of superposition. Define the influence of the presence of the elastic supports and how these affect the compatibility equations. Solve the compatibility equations to obtain the redundants and then use for the complete analysis of the structure. Present the Maxwell's reciprocal theorem, the definition of the flexibility coefficient and formulate the flexibility method in matrix form.

**Slope Deflection Method: **Present the concepts of the slope deflection method and identify the differences with the flexibility method. Show how to identify and sketch global degrees of freedom. Describe the methodology for the implementation of the slope deflection method. Develop the general slope deflection equations and also calculate the fixed end moments. Write equilibrium equations at joints and solve to calculate the global degrees of freedom. Based on the values of the degrees of freedom calculate element end moments, shears and eventually the reactions of the structure. Formulate the slope deflection y method in matrix form and emphasize on the importance of the displacement methods and their implementation in computer software.

**Moment Distribution:** Present the historical importance of the moment distribution and the general concept of the load distribution/redistribution in individual members. Calculate the element stiffness factors, the joint stiffness factors, the distribution factors and also the fixed end moments. Setup a table for the implementation of the moment distribution for continuous beams and frames with no sway and use the table to calculate element end moments. Extent the method to include sway and calculate the sway related force. Define the role of the sway force and calculate relevant fixed end forces. Setup a similar table to the one for the continuous frames and use to calculate additional moments related to sway. Finally calculate total element end moments, shears and external support reactions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and apply the principle of superposition for linearly elastic structures and its importance.
- Classify determinate, indeterminate stable and unstable structures.
- Apply the concepts of flexibility and stiffness for the analysis of statically indeterminate linearly elastic structures.
- Analyze models of beams, frames and trusses using the force method, the moment distribution method and the slope deflection method.
- Compare different methods of analysis of indeterminate structures, develop the methods in matrix form and create small computer algorithms for their implementation.
- Apprize the suitability of various methods of analysis of indeterminate structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Basic Concepts:** Use of linear algebra for the solution of linear equations. Introduction to displacement methods and differentiation from the force methods. Introduction to structural modelling including element behaviour loads and supports.

**Stiffness by Definition:** Define dependent, independent displacements and rigid body motion. Define the structural degrees of freedom and explain their role in the analysis of structures. Setup the stiffness matrix, the externally applied load vector and the displacement vector for various structural configurations using equations of slope deflection. Define the “stiffness coefficient” and its physical meaning in structural analysis. Calculate the stiffness coefficients and setup the global stiffness matrix of various structural configurations using the equations of slope deflection. Present and discuss the properties of the global stiffness matrix and the physical meaning of each property as that is referred to the real structures.

**Direct Stiffness Method**: Present the conditions for the validity of any structural analysis method (equilibrium, compatibility, constitutive laws). Explain the element by element approach for the analysis of structures and present the sign convention. Define element (local) coordinate system and structure (global) coordinate system. Setup the element information in the local system including the element stiffness matrix and the degrees of freedom. Define the “transformation matrix” and explain how it relates the local and the global coordinate systems. Draw the displaced shapes, and calculate the transformation matrix in one step, for different structural configurations. Use the element by element approach to setup the stiffness matrices with the use of the transformation matrix and solve the equations for the calculation of displacements and element forces. Present the solution strategy of structural analysis software (automated direct stiffness) and explain how to obtain the transformation matrix in two steps. Discuss the “location vector” and present its implementation in the structural analysis software programs. Analyze structures using the automated direct stiffness with the aid of MATLAB, MATHCAD or EXCEL.

**Structural Modelling:** Present the concept of structural modelling and relate to real structures. Discuss the modelling of supports based on the physical construction. Present the load paths and explain the choice of elements for the analysis using the direct stiffness method. Create models and analyse them.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of stiffness methods, stiffness coefficients, transformation matrices, external load and structural modelling.
- Generalize the formation of stiffness equations including the use of matrix notation and matrix algebra to systemize the computations of the stiffness method.
- Compute the stiffness terms, formulate and develop the stiffness matrix of a real structure.
- Analyze real structures using the stiffness method for the determination of displacements and stresses.
- Create models of real structures for linearly elastic frame structures.
- Justify the use of the direct stiffness method for the analysis of structural systems over other methods of analysis.

#### Course Contents

**Analysis of Work Relationships: **Artisan–Master Vs. Professional Status. Characteristics of Professional Status. The growth and development of Professionalism. The founding societies

**Role of the Engineer: **The Engineer’s Responsibilities. Public Vs Client Obligations. Values and professional Practice.

**Codes of Professional Contact: **Discussion for the need of a Code of Contact. Analysis of the Cyprus American and UK Codes. Examples.

**Professionalism and Current Ethical Dilemmas: **Case Studies relating to Environment Vs Technology. Ethical Dilemmas.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the importance of active participation in professional societies and organizations in professional practice.
- Develop an awareness of the impact of technology and engineering on society, including life safety and environmental issues.
- Describe the societal context of the civil engineering profession.
- Assess the ethical responsibilities of practicing engineers.
- Develop skills for communicating and defending ideas effectively, including oral and written communication and technical report writing skills.

#### Course Contents

**Revision of Engineering Software:** Review the basics of structural engineering software and present the basic features of common commercial programs. Explain the different analyses options (linear vs nonlinear, static vs dynamic) and how are those implemented in the engineering software.

**Direct Stiffness Method:** Setup systems of linear equations and solve using Gauss elimination. Create stiffness matrices and external load vectors of structural systems and solve to obtain displacements. Use the displacements to calculate element forces and draw shear and bending moment diagrams.

**Computer Programming / Use of MATLAB:** Explain the important rules for the development of computer programs. State the importance of creating modular programs and use available MATLAB scripts that are applied to civil engineering applications. Take advantage of the MATLAB available commands and create simple script files and function files to solve specific problems.

**Introduction to Finite Elements:** Present the basics of the finite element method (discretization, meshing, assembly of equations, applied loads) and discuss the similarities and differences with the direct stiffness method. Explain the behaviour of the most common finite elements (membrane, plate, shell, solid) and discuss their application. Discuss the assessment of mesh correctness.

**Structural Modeling:** Explain the importance of creating correct structural models to predict the actual structural behaviour and present modelling techniques for various support conditions, applied loading, symmetry and antisymmetry. Discuss the behaviour of example structures, identify the appropriate elements and create structural models.

**Use of Available Software (SAP):** Explain the procedure followed by commercial structural analysis programs. Discuss structural modelling and explain the use of structural elements and supports. Use SAP to create models of structural systems and analyze. Assess the validity of the results based on hand calculations and enhance intuition.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe various structural systems and recognize the appropriate elements to be used for the analysis.
- Review the principles of the direct stiffness method as that applies to the analysis of structures and explain the similarities and differences with the finite element method.
- Construct structural models and use programming techniques to develop simple engineering algorithms to solve engineering problems.
- Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of engineering software and select the most appropriate for the application to civil engineering problems.
- Make use engineering software related to the analysis and design of structures including their foundations. Study the output and verify the results.
- Analyze models of real structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction **

Introduce the principles of Codes of practice. Explain limit state design. Explain Characteristic Strengths of materials. Explain Characteristic loads. Explain Design Loads.

**Analysis of Structures **

Describe the process and methods of Analysis of structures at the Ultimate Limit State . Specify Favourable and Unfavourable Loading Effects. Explain Critical Load Combinations. Specify the importance of Moment Envelope Curves.

**Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Sections **

Explain states of stress and strain in reinforced concrete sections. Derive design equations.** **

**Serviceability** ** Limit State ** ** **

Specify the importance of Serviceability Limit State . Describe the problems of excessive deflection, cracking, vibration. Introduce the concept of span to depth ratios.

**Design of Rectangular Sections **

Introduce singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections. Analyse the principles and methods of design of beams and slabs for flexure. Explain the concept and process of design of sections for shear. Highlight the importance of punching shear.

**Design of Columns**

Describe Short and Slender Columns. Analyse the phenomenon of column buckling and biaxial bending of columns. Explain the procedure of design of columns.

**Foundations and Retaining Walls **

Analyse the principles and methods of design of different kinds of foundations and retaining walls.

**Composite Construction **

Introduce the problem and of design of different kinds of composite structures.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the principles of codes of practice, Limit State Design, characteristic and design values of actions and materials strengths.
- Analyse the process and methods of analysis of sections and structures.
- Analyse the method of design of beams and slabs for flexure.
- Explain the importance of Serviceability Limit State of deflection.
- Describe the methods of analysis and design of two-way slabs for bending and shear.
- Analyse the principles and procedure of design of columns.
- Explain the principles and procedures of design of several types of foundations and retaining walls.
- Introduce the problem of design of composite structures.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:**The sources of structural loads are identified and the relevant loads for the type of structure are presented according to the relevant codes. The codes and specifications relating to steel structural analysis and design are presented and identified. Identify the material properties of steel. Identify various shapes associated with steel members and their typical applications. List the various types of steel member connections. Identify design principles such as factor of safety, working stress and Ultimate Limit State Design. Identify basic principles for the performance of structural analysis of steel structures. Apply code provisions for global analysis and imperfections. Determine cross section classification according to code.**Tension Members:**Identify tension member behaviour. List cases for using tension members. List tension member modes of failure. Analyze and design tension members according to code provisions. Identify and list tension member connection types. Analyze and design tension member connections for shearing in bolts, bearing of bolts, tension strength of connection plates, shearing of welds, tension strength of welds etc.**Compression Members:**Define compression member behaviour and modes of failure such as buckling. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for axial compressive loads. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for combined axial compressive loads and uniaxial or biaxial bending.**Flexural Members:**Define flexural member behaviour and modes of failure. Identify stress distribution in flexural members at different loading stages. Differentiate between elastic and plastic analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze bending stresses in flexural members. Define section modulus. Calculate stresses due to biaxial bending in flexural members. Identify and draw shear stresses in elastic thin-walled open beam cross-sections. Define plastic analysis of beams. Identify the mechanisms of plastic hinge formation and identify possible collapse mechanisms due to plastic hinge formation in beams. Describe the procedure for the analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze and design flexural members according to code provisions for the ultimate limit state (axial, bending, and shear etc).**Beam Columns:**Define beam-column behaviour and modes of failure. Analyze beam-columns for bending and axial compression. Define biaxial bending in beam-columns. Verify capacity of beam-column under combined bending and axial compression according to code provisions.**Steel Connections:**List types of steel connections for steel structures. Identify bolt strength class, types of holes and spacing requirement according to code. Analyze and design bolted connections according to code requirements. Calculate number of bolts required for the connection. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in combined shear and tension. Identify types of joints and welds for steel connections. Identify weld symbols and dimensional requirements for welds. Calculate fillet, plug and slot weld strength. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear and tension. Analysis classification and modelling of steel connection.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Outline the principles and concepts of modern design codes appropriate for different applications of steel and relate to the analysis and design stages.
- Distinguish between working stress and Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methods of analysis and design.
- Apply & use code provisions in the determination of loads, application of appropriate load factors in the analysis of structures and design code provisions for serviceability and ultimate limit states.
- Analyse and design beams, columns, and connections under various loading configurations.
- Prepare detail construction drawings and specifications for construction.
- Predict changes in the behaviour of the structure due to changes in usage and recommend course of action.

#### Course Contents

1. Single Degree of Freedom Systems, natural frequency, damping ratio, free response, impulse response, logarithmic decrement for evaluating damping.

2. Response to Harmonic Loading, resonance, frequency response function, dynamic amplification factor, transmissibility, sensors, beats, Fourier series.

3. Response to Impulsive Transient Loading, impulse and step response, convolution in time and frequency, shock spectra.

4. Application to SDOF Systems, Base Isolation, and Soil-Structure Interaction, Foundations for Vibrating Machinery.

5. Two Degree of Freedom System, tuned mass dampers.

6. Multiple Degree of Freedom Systems. matrix assembly; general eigen-value problem; mode shapes, orthogonality property, diagonalization, modal superposition.

7. Response Spectrum Method for Earthquake Response and application to earthquake Engineering.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the underlying concepts of structural dynamics such as periods, modes and spectral values.
- Relate the general arrangement of structural configurations to their dynamic behaviour.
- Explain the effects of dynamic loads including earthquakes on civil engineering structures.
- Implement structural dynamics in the analysis and design of structures and their components.
- Demonstrate knowledge on the use and effects of modern mechanical devices on the dynamic behaviour of structures.
- Evaluate current methods of dynamics and explain their advantages and limitations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to special topics of Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering:**

Understand the role of the lithospheric plates and active tectonic faults on the creation of earthquakes.

Understand the role of the geological and soil conditions to the transmission of seismic waves and to the strong ground motion.

Estimate the Magnitude of the Earthquake by a recorded signal from a seismograph.

Distinguish the duration of the strong ground motion and the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) by a recorded signal from an accelerograph.

Understand the “Attenuation of PGA” and the influence of soil conditions to that.

Understand the main issue of the seismic hazard study and read the information given by a seismic map.

Understand the causes of seismicity and the Seismic Hazard of Cyprus.

**Seismic behaviour of structures:**

Understand the seismic response of the structures as dynamic response.

Write the differential equation of motion of SDOF and MDOF structures.

Understand the role of the mass, the damping ratio, the stiffness and the earthquake excitation to the response of the structures.

Determine the frequency and period of a SDOF system and planar MDOF frame structures.

Understand the elastic and inelastic behavior of materials and structural elements.

Distinguish the elastic and inelastic behaviour of structures.

Introduction to Duhamel’s Integral and determination of the response to earthquake excitation.

Draw the earthquake elastic response spectrum.

Understand this method as an equivalent static method to determine the maximum earthquake response of SDOF structures.

**Effects of Earthquakes to the soil and the existing structures – Intensity of Earthquakes:**

Know the possible effects of earthquakes to the soil and existing structures.

Distinguish the various types and the intensity of failure of structural elements and structures due to earthquake actions.

Use Modified Mercalli scale to describe the observed Intensity.

Draw the Intensity Map of an earthquake and the relation between the Intensity and the distance from the epicentre of the earthquake.

**History of Seismic Codes and Philosophy of Modern Seismic Codes:**

Distinguish the different between the Codes and Guidelines.

Know the history of the Seismic Codes.

Be familiar with the main scope of Modern Seismic Codes (protection of human life, limitation of damage, operation of important structures after earthquake).

Be able to apply the basic principles of conceptual design (structural simplicity, symmetry, redundancy, bi-directional and torsional resistance and stiffness, diaphragmatic behaviour, adequate foundation).

Distinguish the regular and irregular structures in plan and in elevation.

Distinguish the structural types of R/C structures.

Understand the philosophy of the ductility class and decide about that during the design.

Estimate the important factor (?i) the behaviour factor (q) and the allowed simplification according to the EC8.

**Estimation of Seismic Loading and Analysis of R/C Building structures according to the provisions of EC8:**

Evaluate the ground type, the seismic zone and design of Elastic Response Spectrum.

Estimate and draw the Design spectrum for elastic analysis.

Simulate the structure and find the fundamental periods.

Estimate the seismic actions and distribute them to the story levels.

Combination of seismic actions with other actions.

Take in the account the torsional effects.

Evaluate the numerical results from the structural analysis (2nd order effects, inter-story drift etc.)

**Detailing of structural elements (according to the provisions of EC2 & Ec8):**

Evaluate the results from the numerical analysis (axial and shear forces and bending moments).

Know the materials requirements related to the Ductility Class of the structure.

Understand the role of the transverse reinforcement in critical regions and the confinement of concrete core.

Estimate and draw the detailing of earthquake resistance elements (column, shear walls, beams and joints of beams and columns).

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify special topics on Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.
- Describe the effects of earthquakes to the civil engineering structures.
- Produce a preliminary study of Earthquake Resistance Design of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.
- Analyse and compare various structural systems to support earthquake loads.
- Explain the seismic behaviour of structures and the philosophy of modern Seismic Codes.
- Validate Earthquake Resistance Designs of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction.**

Structural systems

**Floor Systems**

Equivalent Frame Method

Design as per EN1992. EN1998 Considerations

Discretization and Finite Element analysis of Floor Systems.

**Lateral Force Systems**

Design of Moment resisting frames as per EN1992 and EN1998 Considerations.

Design of Shear Walls.

**Design Foundation Systems**

Various Foundation Systems

Loads on Foundation Systems.

Individual Footings to EN1998-5

Raft foundation design

Design of Retaining Walls

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Ability to integrate topics from various civil engineering disciplines in the design of buildings.
- Be Able to Design Structural Systems
- Understand the behaviour of structural systems in terms of stability and determinacy, load distribution and redistribution
- Have the required expertise to be able to carry out a computer-assisted analysis and be able to determine if values reported by a commercial program are good or invalid.
- Develop critical thinking skills necessary to handle open-ended design problems, including analyzing and assessing multiple building configurations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Surveying and Accuracy of Measurements:**

Introduction to Land Surveying Science and the art of measurement. Understanding of the relevance of Surveying in Civil Engineering projects and description of the basic principles of surveying. Description of decimal places and significant numbers. Review of related mathematics and trigonometry commonly used in surveying calculations. Description of main types and sources of errors in surveying work. Accuracy and Precision of measurements.

**Distance Measurement:**

Introduction to distance measurement. Units of measurement and conversion of units. Drawing to scale. Offset and construction of angles using distance measurement. Distance measurement using pacing, chaining and taping. Field application of distance measurement methods for flat and sloping ground. Identification and correction of systematic errors occurring in distance measurement. Distance measurement when obstacles (rivers, lakes etc.) are present but points are visible. Production of drawings and plans based on related field work.

**Levelling Principles and Applications:**

Introduction to Height measurement and levelling. Definition of benchmarks and temporary benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles. Identification and corrections of common sources of errors in levelling. Collimation error and the two peg test. Operation of an optical level instrument for recording heights. Booking and reduction of levelling data, obtained from field work, using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods. Applications of levelling for construction setting out, the creation of longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measurement of headroom of bridges and slabs (reciprocal levelling).

**Modern Surveying equipment (EDM, GPS and Total Station):**

Introduction to modern surveying equipment. Basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and Global Positioning System (GPS). Solution of problems using field data obtained from EDM and GPS measurements. Description of the various uses of the GPS. Identification of the sources of errors in GPS measurements. Introduction and application of total station for measurement of distances and angles.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the use and importance of surveying in engineering and define basic principles of surveying.
- Define, understand and apply slope, scale conversions, decimal places and significant numbers in surveying work.
- Describe types and sources of errors in surveying work and distinguish between accuracy and precision of measurements.
- Understand and apply on the field various methods of distance measurement for flat and sloping ground.
- Understand the definition of benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles and identify common sources of errors in levelling.
- Book and reduce levelling data using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods and produce plan, longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measuring headroom of bridges and slabs.
- Understand and apply the basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM), Global Positioning System (GPS) and operate the Total Station for angle and distance measurements.
- Solve problems for soil volume calculation for earthworks

#### Course Contents

** Introduction: ** Description of general concepts related to transport engineering

Transport in society: Present the need of transport and also why public transport is needed. Explain modal split and several transport engineering concepts.

__Physical__

__components of transport:__Infrastructure; terminal; of carriage and motive power; Characteristics of a transport system; Overview of major transportation systems.

__Air Transport:__Characteristics of air transport. Operational, meteorological, physical, environmental, economic factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport. Basic requirements of technical buildings. Factors affecting location, length and direction of runways. Parking, Importance of accessibility and connection with other means of transport. Describe different types of airport: centralized and decentralized.

**Different categories of road transport data for the planning, design and management of transport systems. Categories of data include: journey characteristics, traffic characteristics, parking studies, accidents studies. Methods for data collection for each category. Solution of home interview problems. Solution of problems of speed surveys and evaluation of results**

__Data Collection:__** Road Transport: **Use of the forecasting model and solution of problems using: trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice, trip assignment methods using different algorithms. Factors affecting: (a) trip generation (income, household size), (b) trip distribution (distance between zones, socioeconomic factor), (c) mode choice (cost, time) and (d) trip assignment (traffic, distance, time, signals, type of road). Description of road network and classes of road with characteristics for each class. Types of junctions and advantages disadvantages for each one. Different types of pavement.

** Traffic Signals: **Definitions related to traffic signals (red time, phase, intergreen period, change interval, all red, cycle length, etc). Suitability of junctions for traffic signal. Solution of problems related to traffic signal design and evaluation of results

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand general concepts related to transport engineering
- Describe factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport.
- Describe categories of terminal buildings of airports and factors affecting the decision making.
- Identify categories of road transport data and their importance for road planning, maintenance and management
- Solve problems of speed surveys and evaluate results
- Solve forecasting model (trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and trip assignment) problems using different algorithms.
- Describe road network, classes of road and junctions
- Perform traffic signal design and evaluate results

#### Course Contents

**Highway Planning and Design:**Road Network and Hierarchy. Road Classes, Cross Sections and associated Road Capacity. The procedures and stages in the development of road schemes. The concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards.**Road Alignment Design:**-Design Speed / Sight Distance / Superelevation / transitions. Horizontal and Vertical alignment, Roundabout Design, Priority Junctions, Layouts of Grade Separated Junctions.**Highway Economics and Finance:**An introduction to the Economic evaluation of a road scheme. How the results of an economic evaluation are expressed. Cost Benefit Analysis.**Roadside Features / Road Safety:**Street furniture and fencing (traffic signs, guardrails, safety barriers, anti-dazzle fences, crash cushions) and associated road safety.**Highway Soil Engineering:**Methods of determining the subgrade strength for pavement design. Materials used for capping layer / backfilling / filter drains. Methods of subgrade stabilisation. Expansive clays in Cyprus and associated pavement failures. Safe cut / fill slopes and methods of stabilising cut surfaces.**Highway Drainage and Hydraulics:**How surface water is conveyed, diverted and removed from the highway corridor. Different types of drainage facilities / structures. Distinction between open channel and closed conduit drainage.**Flexible Pavement Design:**Methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement and relevant regulations.**Concrete Pavement Design:**The alternative to asphalt pavement. Its advantages and pitfalls**Pavement Maintenance:**The testing of the pavement and restoration techniques. Traffic Mgmt during construction / maintenance works.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards, justify the selection of an appropriate Road Class, Cross Section, and assess the Design Speed for a given road alignment.
- Determine suitable geometric design parameters including horizontal and vertical curvature, transition lengths, superelevation, for a given Design Speed.
- Summarise the available junction types, justify the selection of an appropriate Junction type for given traffic conditions / environment, justify the selection of an appropriate roundabout type and apply the normal roundabout design checks.
- List the available street furniture and fencing, explain the importance of the above features with regards to road safety, and apply appropriate clauses of a European Standard in order to select an appropriate safety fencing.
- Summarise the methods for determining the subgrade strength for road pavement design, list the methods of subgrade stabilisation and explain the effect of moisture changes in expansive clays encountered in Cyprus, and its importance with regards to pavement failures.
- Assess the sizing of closed storm sewers, gulley spacing and the sizing of cross drainage structures.
- Justify the selection of appropriate pavement materials, apply the methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement as per the DMRB requirements and compare them with the PWD Pavement Design Manual design requirements.
- Summarise the pavement testing and restoration techniques.

#### Course Contents

Module A - Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)

- Chemical composition

- Combustion of fuels

- Exhaust gases, gas emissions (NOx, SO2)

- Purification

Module B - Combustion Thermodynamics

- Enthalpy and free energy of reaction

- Spontaneous reactions

- Complete and incomplete combustion reactions

- Lower Calorific value (LCV) and Higher Calorific Value (HCV)

Module C - Oil & Gas exploration (Onshore and Offshore)

- Geological surveys, Onshore and offshore seismology, Magnetometers, Gravimeters

Module D - Oil & Gas drilling and pipelines

- Drilling Methods

- Upstream production

- NG pipelines

Module E - Oil & Gas refining

- Downstream production facilities

- Natural Gas refining and production

Module F – Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

- LNG production (Liquefaction)

- LNG storage

- LNG transportation

- LNG re-gasification and distribution

Module G – Oil & Gas Exploitation

- Oil distillation

- Oil products (asphalts, heavy fuel, gasoline, diesel, LPG)

- Petrochemicals (polyethylene, Methanol, Ammonia, LTG)

- Hydrogen production by NG reforming and water gas shift reaction

- Other petroleum products

Module H – Oil & Gas Applications

- Power generation (Electricity and Heat)

- Transportation

- Hydrogen and NG Fuel Cells

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Acquire a broad knowledge of Fossil Fuels and know their gas emissions (CO2, NOx, etc)
- Know the thermodynamic principles of fuel combustion, be able to write combustion reactions of fuels and calculate their calorific value
- Know about Oil & Gas offshore and Onshore exploration
- Know about Oil & Gas drilling methods and piping and upstream production
- Know about Oil & Gas refining and products, their applications in the energy sector and in the petrochemical industry
- Know about Natural Gas (NG) processing, liquefaction (LNG), storage, re-gasification, distribution and use in the energy sector and the petrochemical industry

#### Course Contents

1. Oil & Gas Offshore and Onshore Drilling

- Drilling preparations

- Oil & Gas Rings

- Drilling methods (conventional and new)

2. Reservoir Engineering

- Reservoir mapping

- Reserves estimation

- Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

- Water-flooding / gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery

- Cost effective reservoir depletion schemes

3. Oil & Gas extraction

- Process Overview

- Onshore Facilities

- Offshore Facilities

- Main Process Sections (Wellheads, Manifolds, Oil/Gas/Water Separation, Gas Compression)

- Metering, Storage and Export

4. Oil & Gas Offshore Processing

- Platform Oil Processing

- Platform Gas Processing

- Oil & Gas Offshore Pipelining

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Know about Oil & Gas onshore and offshore drilling operations and methods
- Understand Reservoir engineering and Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR) methods
- Know about Oil & Gas onshore and offshore extraction
- Understand Offshore processing and pipelining

#### Course Contents

**Contracts:** Types of procurement methods and under which circumstances each one is used (traditional tendering, design and build, public private partnership). Contract Procedure and Administration, parties involved in a project, contract between Employer and Engineer and contract between Employer and Contractor. Nature of Contracts, Contract documents.

**Tender Administration:** Forms of Contract, cost reimbursable, fixed price contracts, advantages, disadvantages. Invitation and selection of tenders, site supervision, the role of the Engineer, Contractor, Contractor’s site staff, Types of Contracts (FIDIC, JCT).

**Conditions of Contract:** Conditions of Contract, Engineer’s authority, engineer’s representative, Contractor’s agent, payment and certification, retention, sub-contractors, provisional sums and prime cost items.

**Site Supervision:** Importance of inspection control, Methods for Sampling Procedures, Methods for Inspection of row and composite materials, Methods for Inspection of finish products, Testing of Materials, Compliance of Materials with specification Products, Tolerances.

**Specifications:** Specifications, general requirements, specification of workmanship and materials.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify inspection methods and procedures, health and safety, and quality control.
- Use correctly procurement methods and tendering procedures.
- Analyze several alternative supervising procedures and systematic process controls as well as sampling and testing procedures.
- Evaluate and perform inspection methods and procedures to the prompt completion of an engineering project.
- Analyse the role of the different parties in a contract: client, engineer, contractor.

#### Course Contents

**Marine Soils: **Introduction to marine soils and sediments. Topographical features of seafloor. Origin, classification and behaviour of marine soils. Typical geotechnical profiles. Shear strength and consolidation properties. Scour and erosion.

**Marine Site Investigations: **Phases and Planning of a marine site investigation. Geophysical surveys, bathymetry and seafloor topography. Drilling and sampling procedure. In-situ testing and on-board testing.

**Soil behaviour under cyclic loading: **Cyclic behaviour of soils. Drained and Undrained cyclic loading. Effects of drainage. Constitutive modelling. Laboratory tests for sands and clays. Liquefaction phenomena. Liquefaction potential and analysis.

**Lateral loading of piles: **Driven and Bored piles. Pile behaviour under lateral load. Essential soil and pile parameters. Ultimate lateral resistance and deflection of single piles and pile groups. Design recommendations using Eurocode 7. Simplified and complex methods of analyses.

**Marine slope stability and seabed anchors: **Seafloor stability and mechanisms of instability. Stability analysis of drained, undrained and partially submerged soil slopes. Analysis under gravity and wave effects. Earthquake effects and liquefaction hazard. Types and load capacity of anchors.

**Types of Foundations for Marine and Offshore Structures: **Foundations for gravity platforms and jack up rigs. Offshore pile foundations. Design loads and design considerations. Calculation of bearing capacity and settlement. Construction and installation techniques. Prediction of performance.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify marine soils according to their origin and behaviour.
- Organise the sequence and main phases of a marine site investigation.
- Describe the cyclic behaviour of soils under drained and undrained conditions and recognize the importance of liquefaction phenomena.
- Apply simplified and complex methods of analyses for calculating the ultimate lateral resistance and deflection of single piles and pile groups.
- Assess the stability of drained, undrained and partially submerged marine soil slopes.
- Calculate the pull-out capacity of seabed anchors for different loading conditions.
- Compute the bearing capacity, settlement and rotation for different types of marine and offshore foundations.
- Develop skills for relating geotechnical applications in marine and offshore engineering to oil and gas exploration in seas and oceans.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Revise essential material from course Geotechnical Design (CEG334).

**Site investigation and monitoring**: methods of measuring soil stiffness in situ and laboratory: seismic method, pressuremeter, penetration methods; local measurement on triaxial specimens. Site monitoring methods by total station, precise levelling, wall inclinometers.

**Analysis methods**: p-y analysis, subgrade reaction method and finite element analysis applied to shallow foundations, piles and retaining walls.

**Allowable settlement**: empirical and analysis methods of determining sensitivity of structures to distortions, combined analysis of structure and ground. Estimating allowable settlement values.

**Structural design of foundations**: using outputs of structural forces from analyses in structural design in accordance with Eurocodes 2 and 3.

**Design projects**: application of all techniques into design projects, using real information where possible.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe soil stiffness measurement techniques in laboratory and in-situ, non-linear stiffness.
- Understand soil-structure interaction analysis methods: p-y analysis, subgrade reaction, finite element analysis.
- Select and critically appraise appropriate methods for various geotechnical analyses.
- Assess vulnerability of various structure types (new and old) to foundation distortions.
- Assess allowable settlement of various buildings.
- Apply the outputs of soil-structure interaction analyses to the design of pads, rafts, piles, pile caps, basement walls and struts.
- Apply techniques learned in course to prepare and defend a designed solution for a foundation and a retaining wall.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction**: review of assumptions and limitations of saturated soil mechanics, introduction to arid environment phenomena: unsaturated soil, expansive, collapsible and calcareous soils.

**Principles of unsaturated soil mechanics**: physical properties, interfacial equilibrium, capillarity, states of stress.

**Suction measurement**: in situ and laboratory methods of suction measurement: tensiometers, electrical probes, filter paper techniques.

**Expansive soils**: effect of moisture content changes, assessing volume changes, designing soil improvement and foundation design techniques.

**Collapsible soils**: formation and characteristics of collapsible soils, identifying at-risk soils, mitigation measures.

**Calcareous soils**: formation and characteristics of calcareous soils, engineering in calcareous sediments, use as fill material.

**Geotechnical design**: modifications to shear strength criteria, design of shallow foundations, retaining walls and slopes in unsaturated soil.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Appreciate assumptions and limitations of saturated soil mechanics in arid environments
- Define physical properties of unsaturated soils in terms of interfacial equilibrium, capillarity and states of stress.
- Select and critically appraise in situ and laboratory methods of suction measurement: tensiometers, electrical probes, filter paper techniques.
- Predict moisture content changes due to weather conditions or man’s activities, and resulting volume changes.
- Design soil improvement and other foundation mitigation techniques.
- Describe formation and characteristics of collapsible soils, identify at-risk soils
- Describe formation and characteristics of calcareous soils and challenges to engineering in calcareous sediments.

#### Course Contents

**Environmental Pollution and Public Health:**** **Basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering. Important issues that relate to environmental pollution. Important sources of environmental pollution. Relationship between pollutants and the corresponding contributing sources. Possible scenarios of public health manifestations of environmental pollution sources and events.

**Solid Waste Management:**** ** Key terms and concepts relating to municipal solid waste production, transport, selection and final disposal. Calculation of municipal solid waste quantities and characteristics. Key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Alternative final disposal methods for municipal solid waste (i.e. incineration, composting, recycling).

**Air Pollution:** Key terms and concepts relating to air pollution engineering (sources, characteristics, and control methods). Key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog). Air pollution control methods (i.e. cyclones, baghouse filters, wet scrubbers, etc.)

**Ecological Engineering: ** Key terms and concepts relating to Ecological Engineering and Sustainable Development & Technologies in environmental engineering (i.e. treatment methods). Introduction to "green technologies" such as constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define key terms and concepts relating to: municipal solid waste production, transport, selection and final disposal, as well as key terms and concepts relating to air pollution engineering (sources, characteristics, and control methods)
- Calculate municipal solid waste quantities and characteristics
- Describe the key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill
- Identify alternative final disposal methods for municipal solid waste (i.e. incineration, composting, recycling)
- Discuss key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog)
- Identify air pollution control methods (i.e. cyclones, baghouse filters, wet scrubbers, etc.)
- Propose options for Green Technologies as these apply in the field of Environmental and Civil Engineering.

#### Course Contents

Introduction

The “systems” approach

Challenges in addressing water management problems

Systems to be examined

Engineered systems, (e.g. Water supply blending, Wastewater treatment plant operation)

Regional systems (i.e. watersheds) managed through regulatory programs

Search methods

Manual

Graphical

Mathematical programming [e.g. Linear programming (LP), Nonlinear programming (NLP), Integer programming (IP), Global search methods overview]

Analysis

Sensitivity analysis

Multi-objective methods (e.g. Generating trade-off curves)

Alternatives generation (i.e. Modelling to generate alternatives)

Uncertainty analysis (i.e. Monte Carlo methods)

Alternative regulatory programs, e.g.

Command and control

Charges

Transferable discharge permits

Overview of decision support tools

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Evaluate the complex processes (biological, chemical, geological, physical) governing the cycling of water at the regional scale and the factors affecting the process.
- Discuss the science and policy influencing the availability of water resources on a global, national and local scale.
- Appraise the variables to be considered in scientific and policy decision-making.
- Recognize the analytical techniques used in developing management strategies and scenarios.
- Highlight the limitations of current water resource management strategies to provide opportunities for considerations of alternative strategies.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction (Water, Wastewater principles, terms, and concepts):**** **Basic terms and concepts relating to potable water and wastewater engineering. Important issues that relate to potable water and various types of wastewater. Various wastewater streams and their characteristics. The root causes of water supply issues that we are facing in Cyprus . Discussion of possible scenarios of public health manifestations of environmental pollution sources and events.

**Potable Water Supply and Treatment:**** **Key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment. Identify key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water. Various potable water treatment designs and scenarios. Design of the main components of a potable water treatment plant. Calculation of the basic operational parameters and chemical doses used in a potable water treatment plant

**Wastewater Treatment: ** Key terms and concepts relating to wastewater production and treatment. Estimate wastewater quantity production from municipal and industrial sources. Key wastewater characteristics (BOD, COD, TS, TN, TP). Different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Continuous flow, Sequencing Batch Reactors, Constructed Wetlands). Introduction to the key unit processes in an Activated Sludge Plant (aeration, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection). Design parameters of the main components (unit processes) of an Activated Sludge wastewater treatment plant. Calculation of the basic operational parameters (i.e. HRT, SRT, Recycling Rates, Sludge Production rates, aeration time) and chemical (i.e. chlorine) doses used in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts relating to potable water and wastewater engineering.
- Differentiate among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics
- Recognize key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment, as well as wastewater production and treatment
- Identify key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water, key wastewater characteristics (BOD, COD, TS, TN, TP), and key unit processes (aeration, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of wastewater.
- Formulate possible solutions to various potable water and wastewater treatment scenarios.
- Associate different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources
- Design the main components (unit processes) of an Activated Sludge wastewater treatment plant

#### Course Contents

**Fundamental Concepts and Review of Elasticity:**** **States of stress and strain. Hooke’s Law. Strain energy.

**Failure Theories:**** **Failure theories for ductile materials. Failure theories for brittle materials.

**Non-Symmetrical Bending of Beams:**** **Principal moments of inertia. Analysis of non-symmetric bending.

**Bending of Curved Beams:**** **Crane Hooks & Chains

**Shear Centers for Unsymmetrical Thin-Walled Sections:**** **Shear center in thin-walled sections

**Torsion of Non-Circular Members:**** **St. Venant’s classical theory of torsion. Warping function. Soap film analogy.

**Introduction to Plasticity Theory: **Yield criteria. Flow rules. Rigid – Perfectly plastic bodies.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the fundamental concepts of elasticity theory. Analyse states of stresses and strains, describe Hooke’s law and describe the strain energy concept.
- Analyse failure theories for brittle and ductile materials.
- Describe the problem of non-symmetrical bending of beams, analyse principal moments of inertia and explain the analysis of non-symmetric bending.
- Explain the problem of bending of curved beams and analyse crane hooks and chains.
- Describe the concept of shear centers for unsymmetrical thin-walled sections.
- Analyse torsion of non-circular members, describe the St. Venant’s classical theory of torsion, describe warping function and soap film analogy.
- Explain plasticity theory, describe yield criteria, list flow rules and analyse rigid – perfectly plastic bodies.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Fracture Mechanics:** Analyse the concept of categorization of engineering materials: brittle, ductile and quasi-brittle. Explain the fundamental concepts of Energy-based failure theory and describe the correlation between cracks and stresses.

**LEFM: Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics:** Explain the limits of applicability of LEFM. Describe the Griffith ’s theory of brittle fracture and the Irwin’s theory of brittle fracture and also analyse the possible modes of failure. Provide the fundamental idea and concept of Stress Intensity Factor (*K*) and describe methods for evaluating SIF. Moreover, the concept of the Critical Stress Intensity Factor or Fracture Toughness (*K**Ic*) will be analysed, and explain the correlation between Griffith’s and Irwin’s failure criteria. Finally, the Barenblatt’s cohesive crack model will be introduced.

**FPZ: Fracture Process Zone:** Explain the tension softening behaviour of certain materials, describe and explain the mechanisms responsible for the development and the size of FPZ. Analyse the concept of FPZ of cement-based materials and explain the size-effect on concrete strength, based on the FPZ concept.

**NLFM: Non-Linear Fracture Mechanics:**** **Explain the limits of applicability of NLFM. Analyse the principles of the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM) and describe the concept and methods of calculation of the Specific Fracture Energy (*G**F*). In addition, describe the concept and methods of calculation of the Characteristic Length (*l**ch*) and analyse the principles of the Crack Band Model (CBM). Finally, explain which Fracture parameters are required for the application of the NLFM.

**Fracture Mechanics Applications to Engineering Problems:** Describe how Fracture Mechanics principles are applied in metallic, ceramic and cement-based materials and structures.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse the concept of categorization of engineering materials: brittle, ductile and quasi-brittle, explain the fundamental concepts of energy-based failure theory, and describe the correlation between cracks and stresses.
- Explain the limits of applicability of LEFM, describe the Griffith’s and Irwin’s theories of brittle fracture, explain the correlation between Griffith’s and Irwin’s failure criteria and analyse the possible modes of failure.
- Explain the fundamental idea and concept of Stress Intensity Factor (K), describe methods for evaluating SIF, analyse the concept of Critical Stress Intensity Factor or Fracture Toughness (KIc) and introduce the Barenblatt’s cohesive crack model.
- Explain the tension softening behaviour, describe and explain the mechanisms responsible for the development and size of FPZ, analyse the concept of FPZ of cement-based materials and explain the size-effect on concrete strength, based on the FPZ concept.
- Describe the concept and methods of calculation of the Characteristic Length (lch), analyse the principles of the Crack Band Model (CBM) and explain which Fracture parameters are required for the application of the NLFM.
- Describe how Fracture Mechanics principles are applied in metallic, ceramic and cement-based materials and structures.

#### Course Contents

**Cement**: Introduce Portland cement and analyse its chemical composition. Describe the hydration process, introduce calcium silicate hydrates and explain the mechanism of hydration. Analyse the setting process and describe the microstructure of hydrates. Specify the appropriate tests on physical properties of cement. Review of the several types of cements, including blended cements.

**Additions to Concrete**: Review of the types of additions, giving emphasis to silica fume, ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) and pulverised fuel ash (pfa). Explain the origins and manufacture methods of such materials and analyse their chemical composition. Describe the physical characteristics and their effects on the properties of concretes and mortars Specify the applications of additions and the production of mixed blends (e.g. ternary blends).

**Aggregates**: Describe the methods of classification of aggregates. Explain the importance of particle shape and texture. Analyse the bond, strength and other mechanical properties of aggregates. Explain the terms of specific gravity, bulk density, porosity, adsorption and moisture content of aggregate and analyse their importance. Analyse the soundness test of aggregate and the importance of the alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactions of aggregates. Describe sieve analysis method, the fineness modulus and the grading curves. Explain the importance of the grading curves of fine and coarse aggregates and the effect of the maximum aggregate size. Describe the production methods and uses of artificial aggregates.

**Admixtures**: Review the types of admixtures and highlight their applications and benefits. Identify the major types of admixtures. Explain the effects of admixtures on the properties of concretes. Describe the methods and the limitations of using of aggregates.

**Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete**: Define workability and explain the need for sufficient workability. Analyse the factors affecting workability. Explain the methods of measurement of workability by different tests. Describe the effect of time and temperature on workability and explain the phenomena of segregation and bleeding. Explain the importance of proper mixing and vibration of concrete. Highlight the importance of water/cement ratio and also describe the term of porosity. Analyse strength in tension and compression, describe the failure modes and explain the factors affecting strength. Explain the maturity concept and identify the relation between compression and tensile strength. Highlight the importance of curing regimes. Describe the microcracking phenomenon of concrete and the mitigation measures. Analyse the phenomena of creep, and shrinkage of concrete and the mitigation measures.

**Durability of Concrete**: Explain the durability concept and highlight the causes of inadequate durability. Describe the pore structure and analyse the transport processes of fluids in concrete. Define the terms of absorption, water permeability, carbonation, acid and sulphate attack on concrete and alkali-silica reaction. Analyse reinforcement corrosion, fire resistance, frost damage and delayed ettringite formation. Provide methods of achieving durable concrete.

**Test Methods and Equipment**: Describe the main tests of fresh and hardened concrete. Explain the concept of reference testing and describe the accelerated testing methods. Analyse method of core drilling and testing and partially destructive and non-destructive testing.

**Special Concretes**: Introduce special types of concretes, such as lightweight aggregate concrete, cellular concrete, high density concrete, fibre reinforced concrete, polymer concrete, high performance concrete, self-compacting concrete, self-cleaning concrete, self-healing concrete, cementless concrete, high strength concrete, recycled concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, foamed concrete. Highlight the possible applications of special types of concrete.

**Quality Control**: Examine the problems involved in the quality of mixed concrete. Describe control techniques and explain the principles for selection of the appropriate control procedure. Describe the methods for check of the quality of finished product.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Analyse chemical composition of Portland cement, describe the hydration process and mechanism, explain the microstructure of hydrates, and specify the appropriate tests on physical properties of cement.
- Analyse of the types of additions in concrete (e.g. ggbs, pfa), explain the origins and manufacture methods of such materials, analyse their chemical composition, describe the physical characteristics and their effects on the properties of concretes and mortars.
- Analyse strength in tension and compression, describe the failure modes, explain the factors affecting strength, explain the maturity concept and identify the relation between compression and tensile strength.
- Describe the microcracking phenomenon of concrete and the mitigation measures, and analyse the phenomena of creep, and shrinkage of concrete and the mitigation measures.
- Explain the durability concept, highlight the causes of inadequate durability, describe the pore structure and analyse the transport processes of fluids in concrete, define the terms of absorption, water permeability, carbonation, acid, sulphate attack and alkali-silica reaction.
- Analyse reinforcement corrosion, fire resistance, frost damage and delayed ettringite formation, and provide methods of achieving durable concrete.
- Describe the main tests of concrete, explain the concept of reference testing, describe the accelerated testing methods, and partially destructive and non-destructive testing.
- Analyse the problems involved in the quality of mixed concrete, describe control techniques, explain the principles for selection of the appropriate control procedure, and finally describe the methods for check of the quality of finished product.

#### Course Contents

· **Introduction:** Identify sources of structural damage to concrete, steel, wood and masonry structural elements and structures. Identify methods for accessing the damage level to various structures. List methods of repairs for various types of damages. Identify codes and specifications relating to repair and strengthening/retrofitting of structures.

· **Materials, Material Properties and Manufacturing:** List materials used for repair or retrofitting for various structures. Identify and list the properties of repair/retrofitting materials and how these properties are effective in repairing and or strengthening of a structure. Identify appropriateness of a material as a repair material or strengthening material for the different types of structures and damages. Identify manufacturing techniques for repair materials such as Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Identify the methods of manufacturing of FRP composites and identify the advantages of each technique. Identify the effect of the manufacturing method on the properties of the FRP composite and its durability.

· **Analysis Methods:** Present appropriate analysis methods and introduce the concept of pushover analysis for the assessment of the capacity of elements/structure.

· **Methods and Techniques of Repair:** Identify methods or techniques for repair retrofitting of structural elements or structures. Differentiate between aesthetic repair and structural repairs and strengthening. List methods of repair for cracks (injections), concrete spalling, reinforcement corrosion etc. Identify protection and preventing measures for limiting or minimizing further damage. List structural repair and strengthening methods such as steel cages, FRP strengthening etc. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each repair strengthening method.

· **Repair and Strengthening Codes:** Identify available codes and standards for repair and retrofitting of structures. Understand the principles of repair and strengthening design codes. Identify differences between European and US codes and Standards.

· **Repair Strengthening Design with FRP Composites (EC8):** Analyse and design individual member repair or strengthening using FRP composites according to Eurocode 8 (EC8) part 3 requirements. Design and analyse shear strengthening for beams or columns using FRP wraps according to EC8. Design and analyse flexural strengthening of beams, slabs and columns using FRP wraps according to EC8.

· **Repair Strengthening Design with FRP Composites (ACI440):** Analyse and design individual member repair or strengthening using FRP composites according to American Concrete Institute (ACI 440) requirements. Design and analyse shear strengthening for beams or columns using FRP wraps according to ACI440. Design and analyse flexural strengthening of beams, slabs and columns using FRP wraps according to ACI440.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the principles and concepts of modern design codes appropriate for different repair or strengthening methods.
- Identify and distinguish between available materials and methods for repair and strengthening and select the appropriate material/method.
- Apply, interpret & use code provisions for the determination of the appropriate amount of strengthening materials.
- Assess the structural capacity of the structure after the application of the strengthening mechanism.
- Analyse and design beams, columns, and connections and determine the capacity of the member after repairing.
- Propose alternative repair schemes for the same structure.
- Propose alternative repair schemes for the same structure.

#### Course Contents

**General:** Finite element concepts; modeling; discretization; element selection; testing; model validation. Matrix operations, numeric integration (Gauss-quadrature), and MATLAB.

**Line elements (1-D):** Axial line element (bar); C0 shape functions (interpolation functions); element matrix formulation; integration; loads; assembly of global matrices; solution; force recovery; coordinate transformations. Element matrix formulation techniques: virtual work; method of weighted residuals; variational methods; strong form; weak form; essential and natural boundary conditions; Galerkin method; Rayleigh-Ritz method. Flexural line element (beam); C1 shape functions (interpolation functions); element matrix formulation; integration; loads; assembly of global matrices; solution; force recovery; coordinate transformations

**Surface (area) elements (2-D):** Shape functions; strain-displacement relationships; constitutive relationships (stress-strain relationships, material models). Plane-stress, plane-strain, and axi-symmetric analysis using rectangular elements; locking; full vs. reduced integration; spurious modes; incompatible modes; stress recovery; interpretation of analysis results (principal stress, effective stress). Isoparametric surface element formulations; shape functions; consistent loads; effects of element distortion; stress recovery, extrapolation, and smoothing. Plate bending elements; Kirchoff vs. Mindlin formulations; constitutive relationships; interpretation of analysis results (principal moments and shears). Flat shell elements; superposition of membrane and plate bending; drilling DOF. Axisymmetric elements

**Volume (solid) elements (3-D):** Isoparametric volume (solid brick) elements; shape functions; constitutive relationships

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the fundamental concepts of the finite element method for the analysis of structures.
- Assess the structural behaviour of a real structure and construct structural models to simulate the response.
- Develop the element stiffness for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D elements.
- Solve basic and complex problems for different civil engineering applications.
- Assess the mesh correctness and explain and validate the results

#### Course Contents

· ** Introduction:** Define prestress concrete concept. Identify key historical points in the development of modern prestress concrete structures. Identify and list codes and specifications for prestressed concrete. Identify and define the basic principles of prestressed concrete. Identify the material properties of pre-stressing steels such the stress-strain behaviour. Identify the material properties of concrete for prestressed construction (strength, creep, shrinkgage etc).

· ** Prestressing and Postensioning Systems:** List and discuss prestressing and postensioning systems. Discuss and list basic differences. Identify the basic methods for calculating stresses in prestress concrete members (stress superposition, C-line method etc). Calculate stresses at release of prestress and after prestress losses. Identify stress limitations based on code requirements for prestress members. Identify and list losses of prestress in pre-tensioning and post tensioning systems. Identify code provisions relating to prestress losses. Calculate prestress losses due to elastic shortening of concrete, steel relaxation, friction, creep and shrinkage etc.

· ** Analysis of Sections for Flexure:** Present the method of transformed section for determining the exact theoretical solution for both pre-tensioned and post-tensioned concrete members. Calculate stresses for both pre-tensioned and post-tensioned concrete members using the exact theoretical solution and compare with the approximate solution. Identify the development of stresses in steel due to loads in prestress concrete and compare with stresses in steel for reinforced concrete.

· ** Cracking Moment in Prestress Concrete Members:** Identify and list design assumptions. Identify code provisions for calculating the flexural tensile strength of concrete in the extreme fiber. Identify and explain kern points and how they are associated with the location of the center of compression C. Calculate cracking moment for prestressing concrete sections.

· ** Ultimate Moment Capacity:** Present and discuss typical loading history and stress distribution across the depth for typical prestress concrete members. Identify typical load displacement history for typical prestress concrete members. Identify conditions for using the C-line method to determine the ultimate moment capacity of prestressed sections with bonded tendons. Identify and list modes of failure for prestress concrete members. Identify code provision relating to the design of prestressed members (Ultimate moment capacity). Identify code provisions for the termination of prestressing steel and concrete material properties at the ultimate limit state. Calculate ultimate moment capacity of rectangular and tee sections according to code provisions for sections with regular and prestress reinforcement.

· ** Moment Curvature Analysis: **Define the term curvature and how it relates to ductility of structural members. Identify and list the assumptions made for the performance of a moment curvature analysis. Identify stress strain relationship of steel and concrete for the analysis. Identify the analysis procedure and its stages (prior to cracking and after cracking). Calculate and plot the moment curvature response of rectangular sections.

· ** Indeterminate Prestressed Structures:** Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of continuous prestressing systems. Identify the elastic analysis of prestress continuity (Support displacement method). Present post tensioned concrete bridges and construction methods and design. Identify transverse post tensioning and its advantages and applications.

· ** Identify prestressed slab systems:** (one directional and two directional). Present standard sections available and design according to PCI design tables and guidelines.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define the principle of prestressed concrete and its applications and list methods of prestressing and appropriate design codes.
- Analyse the differences and similarities between design codes for prestressed concrete.
- Associate different systems with the construction of specific prestressed structures
- Apply appropriate code provisions for the design of prestressed concrete beams and slabs.
- Create detailed construction drawings of the design structure.
- Explain how size standardization and mass production influences the economic viability of prestressed concrete.
- Explain how size standardization and mass production influences the economic viability of prestressed concrete.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction**

Types of Modern Bridges in Highway Construction.

Geotechnical Considerations.

Inception and conceptual aspects of Bridge Engineering.

**Highway Loading**

Highway Loading to BS5400 and EC1.

**Analysis of Bridges**

Review of Influence Lines and the placement of Loads for maximum effects.

Soil-Structure Interaction and the modelling of soil and pile foundations.

Modelling of bearings.

**Design Considerations to EC2 and EC8 for bridges**

General Arrangement.

Earthquake Design and articulation systems.

Component design.

Various design important issues.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Integrate topics from various civil engineering disciplines in the design of bridges.
- Explain the effects of dynamic loads including earthquakes on bridges.
- Implement structural dynamics in the analysis and design of bridges and their components.
- Demonstrate knowledge on the use and effects of modern mechanical devices on the dynamic behaviour of bridges.
- Describe the current state of the art methods of bridge construction.
- Handle open-ended design problems, including analyzing and assessing multiple bridge alternatives.

#### Course Contents

· Introduction

o The “systems” approach

§ Building models

§ Systems optimization

§ Rules of modelling

o The form of a mathematical program

§ Example mathematical programs

· Search methods

o Manual

o Graphical

o Mathematical programming [e.g. Linear programming (LP), Nonlinear programming (NLP), Integer programming (IP), Global search methods overview]

· Analysis

o Sensitivity analysis

o Multi-objective methods (e.g. Generating trade-off curves)

o Alternatives generation (i.e. Modelling to generate alternatives)

o Uncertainty analysis (i.e. Monte Carlo methods)

· Systems to be examined

o Engineered systems, (e.g. Water resources planning, Wastewater treatment plant operation, transportation engineering, construction management, structures, and environmental engineering)

· Overview of decision support tools

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the various applications of systems analysis and solution methods.
- Provide an introduction into the nature and rules of modelling, as well as the forms of mathematical programs.
- Recognize the variables to be considered in decision-making.
- Build a basic linear, an integer, a dynamic, or a nonlinear program
- Assess how different search methods are applied in different civil engineering systems (i.e. water resources, transportation, construction, structures, and environmental).
- Use the analytical techniques used in developing management strategies and scenarios (i.e. Sensitivity analysis, Multi-objective methods, Alternatives generation, Uncertainty analysis).
- Appreciate the strengths and limitations of decision support tools and how these may enhance the development of resource management strategies to provide opportunities for considerations of alternative strategies in a civil engineering project).

#### Course Contents

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Energy transfer principles

- Fundamentals of energy transfer mechanisms

- Parameters affecting energy transfer mechanisms from and to the building envelope

- Quantification of energy losses – worked examples

Module 2: Indoor thermal comfort

- Energy interaction between building user and building envelope

- The Fanger model – worked examples

- Quantification of thermal comfort indexes (PMV, PPD)

- The psychrometric chart – worked examples

Module 3: Building elements thermal behavior

- Definition of the overall heat transfer coefficient of building elements

- Calculation of energy losses from building elements consisting of several layers

- Definition of thermal bridges and calculation of energy losses

- Best practices in selection and application of buildings thermal insulation

- Minimum legislative requirements in buildings thermal insulation

Module 4: Buildings energy performance certification

- Fundamentals of calculation buildings heating and cooling loads

- Building services contribution to buildings energy consumption

- Definition of the operational and asset rating

- Energy classification rationale – the reference building

- Definition of buildings energy class – worked examples

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic principles that govern the energy transfer from and to the building envelope
- Identify the parameters that affect the indoor thermal comfort and calculate the relative indoor comfort indexes
- Be aware of the best practices in building’s thermal insulation
- Perform standard calculations for the overall heat transfer coefficient of building elements
- Quantify the building losses from vulnerable building elements such as the glazed areas and the thermal bridges
- Be aware of the principles related to the energy performance certification(EPCs) in process and be in position to issue EPCs

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Retrofit Fundamentals

- Terminology

- Earthquake resistant structures

- The goals and objectives of retrofit

- Identification of sources for structural damage

- Identification methods for accessing the damage level

- Codes and specifications for the strengthening/retrofitting of structures

Module 2: Structural Retrofit Philosophy

- Retrofit at the element level

- Retrofit at the structure level

- Selective techniques

Module 3: Seismic Retrofit of Existing Structures

- The steps for seismic retrofit

- Retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings

- Retrofit of steel buildings

- Retrofit of historical buildings

Module 4: Retrofitting and Energy Upgrades

- Energy upgrade of buildings shell

- Techniques, materials and practices in the energy upgrade of building

- Installation of renewable energy technologies into renovated buildings shell

- Decision making for buildings energy upgrade

- The role of building services into buildings energy upgrade

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts and familiarize the student with the terminology related to the retrofitting of structures
- Identify the sources of structural damage and present the methods for their assessment
- Present the overall philosophy of structural retrofitting and understand the various methods that are available
- Present the concept and the relevant codes for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings
- To provide all the required feedback to students to be in position of take a decision whether to renovate or not a building based on energy criteria

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Renewable energy technologies fundamentals

- Renewable energy technologies fundamentals

- Classification of renewable energy technologies

- National action plan for the penetration of renewable energy technologies in national energy mixture

- Licensing procedure for renewable energy projects

Module 2: On ground renewable energy structures

- PV tracker

o Single axis trackers

o Dual axis trackers

- Wind tower

o Consisting parts

o Guyed Tower

o Lattice tower

o Tubular tower

- Anaerobic digestion reactor

Module 3: Coastal renewable energy structures

- Tidal generator

o Concept and basic prototypes

- Off shore wind tower

o Bottom-mounted axial turbines

o A cable tethered turbine

Module 4: Underground renewable energy structures

- Drilling equipment, methods and technology, advanced drilling techniques, design of wells and casing programs, cementing techniques.

- Borehole geology and stratigraphy interpretation of drill cuttings and cores

- Cleaning and repair of production wells, well maintenance.

- Stress orientation and characterization, hydraulic fracturing.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts of renewable energy sources applications.
- Be aware of large structures deemed necessary for the proper operation of renewable energy sources power plants.
- Present and analyze the structures related to on ground renewable energy technologies applications (solar trackers, wind tower, anaerobic digestion reactor).
- Present and analyze the structures related to coastal renewable energy technologies applications (tidal turbines, off shore wind towers).
- Present and analyze the structures related to underground renewable energy technologies applications (geothermal heat exchanger).

#### Course Contents

**Module A - BasicConcepts**

- Basic concept ofEIA

- Elements of EIA

- Factorsaffecting EIA Impact evaluation and analysis

- Preparation ofBaseline studies

**Module B - Proceduresand Law **

- EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Process in the European / Cyprus Context

- Roles andResponsibilities of Groups Involved in the EIA System

- Laws and RegulatoryFrameworks for Environmental Impact Assessment

- European Union Directives
- National Laws and Standards

**Module C - TechnicalComponents of Environmental Impact Assessment**

- Impactprediction

- Assessment ofImpact significance

- Identificationand Incorporation of mitigation measures

**Module D - EIAMethodological Approaches**

- EIA Methodologies:introduction

- Criteria for theselection of EIA Methodology

- EIA Methods

- predictive methods
- environmental risk assessment
- economic methods

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts, methodological approaches, and technological components of an Environmental Impact Assessment.
- Identify all applicable European Norms, National Codes and Standards concerning the environment and sustainable development.
- Exhibit knowledge and understanding of the way that an EIA is conducted within the framework of the energy sector in Cyprus and in the EU.
- Coordinate an Environmental Impact Assessment, including team-building and scoping of a project.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to angle measurement: **Definition of angles and angle measurement, whole circle bearings, Eastings and Northings, Departure and Latitude. Operation of the total station for horizontal and vertical angle measurements and distance measurements.

**Angle Measurement: **Measurement of horizontal and vertical angles using the total station. Booking and reduction of angle measurement data in tabular format. Open and closed Traverse surveys. Calculation of bearings and coordinates. Triangulation surveys and calculation of bearings, station coordinates and reduced levels. Correction of angle and distance misclosure errors in traverse surveys.

**Theory of Errors: **Introduction to theory and analysis of errors. Analysis of measurements and identification of errors. Correction and adjustment of errors using statistical distributions and statistical parameters. Definition and computation of mean, residual and standard deviation of observations. Computation of most probable value for observations using the least squares method. Definition and explanation of the theory of combinations of errors and weighted observations.

**Volumes and Earthworks: **Introduction to area and volume calculation. Area and Volume calculation for areas bounded by straight lines (trapeziums etc.) or irregular lines (using Trapezium rule and Simpson’s rule). Computation of earthworks volumes from cross sections by the methods of mean areas and end areas. Computation of volumes from contour lines and spot levels. Excavation volumes and basic costs based on formation level of excavation. Applications in road sections. Effects of curvature and Pappu’s theorem. Definition and explanation of mass-haul diagrams and their use for determining costs. Computation of volumes along curved road sections.

**Road curves: **Introduction to setting out of road curves. Methods for setting out horizontal and vertical curves in road construction. Setting out of a circular curve from tangent points and control points. Construction of vertical curve passing through certain points and transition between two circular curves. Applications of road curve techniques in civil engineering projects.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the definition of angular measurement, whole circle bearings, azimuth, Eastings and Northings.
- Measure horizontal and vertical angles using the total station.
- Perform open and closed Traverse and Triangulation surveys and calculate bearings, point coordinates and reduced levels.
- Correct angle and distance misclosure errors in traverse surveys.
- Analyze measurements and apply adjustments to errors using statistical distributions and parameters, and the method of least squares.
- Compute earthworks volumes from cross sections by methods of mean areas and end areas.
- Compute volumes along curved road sections and also for cuttings and embankments and compute cut and fill volumes for excavations.
- Set out circular curves from tangent points and control points and construct vertical curve passing through certain point and transition between two circular curves.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Use basic concepts of remote sensing. Identify Energy Sources and Radiation Principles. Use the Global Positioning System.

**Satellite Remote Sensing:** Identify remote sensing platforms and sensors (spatial, spectral, temporal resolution). Describe different types of sensors for different applications, advantages and disadvantages. Define Electronic and Multiband Imaging.

**Image Pre-Processing:** Define geometric correction, radiometric correction. Apply corrections for missing scan lines, de-stripping, terrain effects and sensor calibration. Describe and apply atmospheric correction methods. Create Image Rectification and Restoration.

**Digital Image Processing: **Explain the Fundamentals of Visual Image Interpretation. Apply Unsupervised Classification method. Identify training sites. Apply classification algorithms: parallelepiped classifier, centroid k means, maximum likelihood. Describe vegetation Indices and their use in satellite remote sensing. Evaluate image classification results.

**Geographical Information Systems:** Describe Geographical Information Systems, explain its importance and describe applications. Describe spatial analysis and separation of map features as different layers for the representation and display of the results. Analyse and apply different types of layer (point, line, polygon) and different type of data.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts and definition of remote sensing, energy sources, radiation principles and the Global Positioning System.
- Identify remote sensing platforms and sensors and describe the characteristics of sensors related to their spatial, spectral and temporal resolution.
- Describe and apply geometric correction, radiometric correction and atmospheric correction algorithms on satellite imagery using ERDAS Imagine software.
- Apply Unsupervised Classification method using different algorithms.
- Identify training sites and apply supervised classification using algorithms: parallelepiped classifier, centroid k means, maximum likelihood
- Describe vegetation Indices and their use in satellite remote sensing.
- Describe Geographical Information Systems, explain its importance and describe applications.
- Analyse and apply different types of layer (point, line, polygon) and different type of data.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to petroleum geology: the Earth as a dynamic body. Origin, formation and age. Importance of geological time and geological periods. Long-term geological evolution.

- Stratigraphic principles and geological maps: Stratigraphy and paleontology. Deformation of geological structures. Geological maps, construction of cross-sections maps and applications of sub-surface mapping for sedimentary basins and petroleum reservoirs.

- Sedimentology: sedimentary basin analysis, siliciclastic and carbonate lithologies, significance of internal structures in sedimentary rocks. Source, reservoir and seal rocks.

- Basic principles for reservoir characterization: Darcy’s law. Reservoir rock and fluid properties including compressibility, viscosity, capillary pressures, absolute and relative permeability.

- Basic techniques for reservoir characterization: Material balance concept, phase behaviour of hydrocarbons, multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, flow regimes, fluid saturations, fluid coning and water influx. Reservoir types, reservoir monitoring and drive mechanisms of a reservoir.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the process of oil & gas formation and position in the overall petroleum system.
- Appreciate the potential of sedimentary rocks as source, reservoir or seal rocks.
- Integrate data from a variery of sources to establish the geological history of an area.
- Understand fundamental reservoir properties and familiarize with phase behaviour of hydrocarbon systems and mutli-phase flow of fluids.
- Appreciate different reservoir types and the importance of reservoir monitoring.

#### Course Contents

- Basic geodynamics (Plate tectonics, Earth’s structure, Earthquake generation)

- Earthquakes as point and finite source (Earthquake generation and location, Earthquake source and focal mechanisms, Earthquake magnitude scales, fault ruptures and models, Earthquake spectrum)

- Origin of seismic waves (Fundamentals of wave propagation, Seismic wave attenuation, Basic measures of seismic motions)

- Introduction to seismic hazard assessment (Basic principles, Role of uncertainties)

- Ground-motion prediction relations and its use for seismic hazard assessment (GMPE forms and their use, basic deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand basic geodynamics and their role, both regarding the earthquake generation process, as well as for its control on the shallow and deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system.
- Obtain a clear and comprehensive idea regarding the earthquake generation process, the main source characteristics and their role for elastic wave propagation, as well as the main properties of seismic waves.
- Examine in a theoretical and practical manner, through appropriate calculations and software, the fundamental issues that affect seismic hazard assessment and its uncertainties.
- Assess the suitability and applicability of seismic and non-seismic geophysical methods for geophysical-geotechnical soil characterization in applied problems.

#### Course Contents

** Introduction:** Analyse the nature of schedule and cost control, and analyse why we need schedule and cost control. Introduction to the project life cycle.

** Customer Requirements and Work Breakdown:** Identify and develop customer requirements and introduce the concept of work breakdown structure. Analyse the baseline development.

** Scheduling:** Analyse the key steps in developing schedules and present the techniques for compressing schedule and levelling resources. Explain the Gantt and milestone charts.

** Cost and Estimating**: Analyse cost categories and explain the fundamentals of resource planning. Present methods for the determination of the budget and consider the types of estimates. Identify the program evaluation and review techniques and finally explain the method for collecting cost data with the integrated work breakdown.

** Planning and implementing the project:** Explain the terms of schedule planning, cost estimating, resource planning, risk planning, subsidiary management plans and project plan. Identify the implementation stage of the project and analyse the methods for the monitor and control of the project.

** Monitoring and control:** Analyse methods of controlling schedule and cost. Introduce the concepts of earned value management and earned value analysis. Introduce methods for estimating the percent complete and project change process. Introduce the ideas of change management process, project change control and change control management. Determination of project completion. Exit strategy process.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify and develop customer requirements.
- Distinguish the nature of schedule and cost control.
- Assess Baseline development.
- Develop techniques for compressing schedule and levelling resources.
- Schedule planning.
- Determine program evaluation and review technique.
- Compile cost data with the integrated work breakdown.
- Setup subsidiary management plans.

#### Course Contents

**Elements of risk: **Concepts of risk in real estate management. Elements of risk in a real estate development.

**Management of risk: **Risk management techniques for specific tasks. Strategic management in real estate. Business process analysis in simple real estate problems.

**IT in real estate management: **Software applications in real estate risk management. Advantages, limitations and possible pitfalls of such software.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concept of risk in real estate management.
- Identify elements of risk in a real estate development.
- Select risk management techniques for specific tasks.
- Analyse significance of strategic management in real estate.
- Apply business process analysis to simple real estate problems.
- Describe software applications in real estate risk management.

#### Course Contents

**Economics**:

In depth knowledge and understanding of economics. Description of methods of comparing alternatives, present value and internal rate of return. Description of principles and techniques for identifying economic trends.

**Real Estate Design and Feasibility Study:**

Introduction to feasibility study and their importance. Description of intra-metropolitan growth patterns, urban morphology, environmental constraints, engineering constraints, planning constraints. Description of theories of land use, land value and rents.

Market and location analysis: site analysis, demographic analysis, gravity modeling, absorption analysis.

**Economic Trends and technoeconomic analysis:**

Effect of volatile economic and market conditions, identification of trends in rents and market prices. Technoeconomic analysis for development projects.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe methods of comparing alternatives, present value and internal rate of return.
- Understand the principles and techniques for identifying economic trends.
- Understand urban morphology, environmental issues and theories of land use, land value and rents within the context of feasibility studies.
- Perform feasibility studies for development projects.
- Apply technoeconomic knowledge to make informed decisions on investments.
- Analyse economic trends.
- Evaluate methods of comparing alternatives.
- Plan and design technoeconomic studies for development projects.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to Computers: Computers and Peripherals, Software and Hardware, Input and Output Devices, Memory, Difference between Main Memory (RAM) and Secondary Memory (Hard Disk), Central Processing Unit, Units of Storage and Speed, Operating Systems, Graphical User Interface and File Management.

- Systems Analysis and Design: Systems Analysis and Design principles, Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), SDLC Diagram, Development models sequential and iterative.

- Algorithms and Flowcharts: Algorithms, Flowcharts, Pseudocode Algorithms and Statements, Pseudocode and Variables, Testing, and Debugging Algorithms and Flowcharts.

- Introduction to Programming: About Programming and Program Execution, Programming Steps, Learning to Program, Integrated Development Environment, “Hello World!” Program, Program Explanations.

- Variables and Arithmetic Expressions: Simple Programs, Program Explanations, Arithmetic Operations, Program Explanations, Data Types (Dim … as Integer, Double, Char, String, Boolean) and Memory Allocation, Further Program Explanations, and Examples.

- Input/Output in VB .Net: Converting Input (CInt, CDbl, CChar, CDec, CStr, CBool) Formatted Output (Console.Write("…"), Console.WriteLine("…")), Examples, Formatted Input (x = Console.ReadLine(), Console.ReadKey()), Examples, and Program Explanations.

- Types, Operators and Expressions: Variables, Constants, Examples, Arithmetic Operators ( , -, *, /), Example, Relational Operators, Math Library, Example, Logical Operators (NOT, AND, OR), Example, Assignment Operator, Example, Control Flow (If … Then …, If … Then … Else, If … Then … Else if … Else …, and Select Case …, Case …, Select Case …, Case 1 To 10 …, Case Else …), and Examples.

- Iteration: VB .Net syntax, While loop, For loop, Do – While loop, Examples, Debugging Loops, and Avoiding Infinite Loops.

- Arrays: Visual Basic arrays, One Dimensional Array, Array Indexing, Using Arrays, Arrays, Examples, Multi-dimensional Arrays, Using Multi-dimensional Arrays, Strings, String Functions, String Example, and Examples. Initializing arrays, Storing values, Process the array, and Print the results on screen. Array sorting using Bubble sort.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the components that constitute a computer system both in terms of hardware and software and effectively use core operations of a modern operating system
- Distinguish the advantages of imperative programming and object oriented programming using a language such as VB .Net and being able to comprehend programs of small and medium size complexity.
- Demonstrate the ability to express elementary algorithms using the syntax of a programming language thus choosing the appropriate data types, applying the correction operations, and forming the necessary statements.
- Analyse simple engineering problems, and construct algorithms to programmatically solve them.
- Illustrate the ability to formulate programs using selective, iterative, and sequential statements and implement them using a programming language.

#### Course Contents

Linear and other Inequalities in one Variable. Absolute Values and their Properties.

Exponents, roots and their properties. The concept of the logarithm and its properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Basic trigonometric functions and their graphs (sinx, cosx, tanx, cotx, secx, cscx) and basic identities of trigonometric functions including trigonometric functions of sums and differences of two angles.

Real valued functions of one variable: functions**, **operations of functions, inverse functions, logarithmic and exponential functions and their properties, parametric equations. Graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limits and continuity: introduction to calculus, limits, and continuity.

Differentiation: The derivative as a function, the derivative as a rate of change and as the slope of a graph, techniques of differentiation, chain rule, derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, and differentials.

Applications of differentiation: related rates, increase, decrease, and concavity, relative extrema, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching, absolute minimum and maximum values of functions, applied maximum and minimum value problems.

Introduction to the concept of integration.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a function of a real variable, define the absolute value function, state and use its properties and sketch the graph of linear, quadratic, and absolute value functions.
- Solve inequalities with absolute values, quadratic inequalities by factorizing and considering the two linear terms, rational inequalities and illustrate a geometric interpretation of the above inequalities by sketching the graph of the corresponding function.
- Define, sketch the graph, and describe the properties of the exponential function, the logarithmic function and the basic trigonometric functions.
- Explain the notion of limits and continuity of functions, identify and verify limits and points of discontinuity from a graph.
- Describe the derivative as a limit of finite differences, find the derivative of specific categories of functions, state and apply the general rules of differentiation to calculate derivatives, use the first and second derivative of a function to find its local extrema , points of inflection, and regions in which it is increasing, decreasing, concaving upwards or downwards.
- Apply the knowledge of derivatives in the field of engineering and in optimization problems.
- Explain in broad terms the concept of the integral of a function of a real variable.

#### Course Contents

**Definite and Indefinite integrals: **The notions of definite and indefinite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

**Applications of the Definite Integral:** Areas between two curves, volumes by the methods of slices and cylindrical shells, and areas of surfaces of revolution.

**Techniques of Integration:** Method of u-substitution, Integration by Parts, partial fraction decomposition. Trigonometric integrals, inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions: their derivatives and integrals, integrals of powers of sines, cosines, tangents and secants by using reduction formulae, trigonometric substitutions.

**Introduction to Partial Derivatives and Double Integrals.**

**Series:** Infinite series, Power Series, Taylor and MacLaurin Series, tests of convergence.

**Polar Coordinates:** Polar coordinates and conversion of Cartesian to Polar coordinates. Areas in polar coordinates.

**An introduction to complex numbers:** Geometric interpretation, Polar form, Exponential form, powers and roots.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of definite and indefinite integrals, state and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
- Solve simple definite and indefinite integrals of polynomials, functions involving rational powers of the variable, exponential, trigonometric, and rational functions.
- Solve more complicated integrals by using the methods of integration by parts, u-substitution, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric substitution.
- Explain the concept of functions of two variables, find partial derivatives,
- Explain the concept of infinite series, state Taylor’s and MacLaurin’s Theorems, and expand simple functions in such series.
- Explain the notion of complex numbers, evaluate simple expressions involving complex numbers, and express complex numbers in polar form.
- Apply definite integration in order to compute areas between curves, and volumes of solids of revolution by using the methods of slices and cylindrical shells.

#### Course Contents

**Vectors and Linear spaces.** Vector concept, operations with vectors, generalization to higher dimensions, Euclidean space, basis, orthogonal basis: linear dependence, Cartesian products, vector products, vector transformations, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, vector spaces and subspaces. Geometric examples.

**Matrices and Determinants.** Matrix concept, operations with matrices, Special matrices, definition of a determinant and its properties, determinant of a product, inverse matrix, properties and computation.

**Linear Transformations.** Definition of linear transformations, properties, elementary transformations, rank and determinants.

**Simultaneous Linear Equations.** Cramer’s rule, Gaussian elimination, Gauss-Jordan elimination, homogeneous linear equations, geometric interpretation.

**Quadratic forms and Eigenvalue Problem.** Quadratic forms, definitions, Normal form, eigenvalue problem, characteristic equation, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition.

**MATLAB Applications.** Basic matrix algebra, the determinant of a matrix of n-order, solving simultaneous equations with n unknowns with a number of techniques, finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Elementary vector manipulation, finding linear dependence. Linear Transformations, plotting transforms on the x-y plane.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a matrix, including its transpose, identify the properties of special types of matrices and perform different matrix operations.
- Generate determinants of any order using minors, compute 2x2, 3x3 determinants directly and find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors.
- Use Cramer’s Rule for solving square linear systems with the aid of determinants, employ Gaussian Elimination for solving systems of linear equations, perform elementary row matrix reduction to echelon form and back substitution to obtain the solution of the system, apply Gaussian Elimination to find the inverse of a square matrix using augmentation, execute Gauss-Jordan elimination and implement a readily available inverse of the matrix of coefficients to solve a square linear system.
- Explain the notion of multiplicity of roots of the characteristic equation, employ these concepts to various applications and compute eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of square matrices.
- Defend the notion of vectors in two, three and higher dimensions, perform operations with vectors including dot/Cartesian and vector products, outline the concept of an orthogonal basis of the Euclidean space as well as the geometric structure of linearly independent vectors, show vector linear transformations in concrete geometric examples and exploit the properties of vector spaces and subspaces.
- Define linear transformations, perform elementary transformations available, rank and determinants and apply these concepts to real-life examples identifying their geometric implications.
- Employ the computer programming language Matlab to solve different matrix operations and systems of linear equations, to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors, to execute elementary vector manipulation, to exhibit linear transformations and to construct plots.

#### Course Contents

**First Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification of differential equations. Separable, linear with integrating factor, exact, and homogeneous ordinary differential equations, Applications of First-Order Differential Equations.

**Second and nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Linear homogeneous with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous with constant coefficients. The method of reduction of order, the method of undetermined coefficients, and the method of variation of parameters. Initial value problems and applications of second order linear ordinary differential equations.

**Series of Solutions: **Definition and properties, convergence, and solution of linear differential equations with constant and non constant coefficients.

**Laplace Transform:** Definition and properties, partial fractions, Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification. Introduction to separation of variables.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB: **Calculation of solutions with readily available codes and analysis of results.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and explain the concept of an ordinary differential equation, employ the appropriate method to solve Separable, Linear, Homogeneous, and Exact first-order differential.
- Define the concept of second order linear ordinary differential equations, describe the general method of their solution, and calculate the general solution of second-order homogeneous differential equations with constants coefficients.
- Describe the method of Reduction of Order in the solution of second order homogeneous differential equations, and employ the method to obtain the second linearly independent solution.
- Describe the Methods of Undetermined Coefficients, and Variation of Parameters, use these methods to find the general solution of second-order non-homogeneous differential equations, and compare the two methods identifying their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the concept of Power Series expansions as solutions of linear differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of non-homogeneous differential equations that arise in applied engineering problems, and compare the method with the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.
- Identify the importance of the method of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of important differential equations, and compare the results with the ones given by previous methods wherever this is possible.
- Define partial differential equations, and apply the method of Separation of Variables on partial differential equations to deduce a system of ordinary differential equations.
- Use readily available Matlab codes to calculate solutions of differential equations that arise in Applied Engineering Problems, and compare the results with the analytic solutions obtained with the techniques learned in the course.

#### Course Contents

**Descriptive Statistics:** Introduction to Statistics, Data Collection, Describing and Summarizing Data, Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Skewness, Tables, Charts, Exploratory Data Analysis.

**Probability:** Sample Spaces and Events. Introduction to set theory and relations in set theory. Definitions of Probability and properties. Conditional probability.

**Discrete Random Variables:** Probability Distribution Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson.

**Continuous Random Variables:** Probability density Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Uniform, Normal Distribution. Approximations for Discrete Distributions.

**Sampling distributions:** Properties of sample distributions: Unbiasedness and minimum variance. The central limit theorem.

**Estimation: **Confidence Internal Estimation for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions. Sample size determination.

**Hypothesis** **Testing:** Hypothesis Testing for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions.

**Introduction to regression: **Simple Linear Regression and Correlation

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Use descriptive statistics to present data by constructing Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Histograms and Box Plots.
- Explain and apply measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode, measures of Dispersion such as Range, IQR, Variance and standard deviation and the coefficients of Variation and Skewness to different types of data.
- Describe the notion of sample space for an experiment, describe events as subsets of the sample space and construct events by using set theoretic operations and with the use of Venn diagrams.
- Construct the probability function on the space of events with its properties, define conditional probability and calculate probabilities of events in simple problems.
- Describe the concepts of discrete and continuous random variables as functions from the sample space to the set of real numbers and explain and use the probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function to calculate simple probabilities.
- Calculate the expected number, variance and standard deviation of a random variable and use discrete and continuous distributions in examples to calculate probabilities in real life problems.
- Calculate point estimators and construct confidence intervals for means and proportions of one and two populations.
- Test hypothesis for means, proportions and difference of means, apply hypothesis testing to real life problems and construct linear models for a given set of data using linear regression.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Use of mathematical modelling in engineering problem solving; Overview of modern engineering tools used in engineering practice (such as MATLAB); Approximations of errors.

**Roots of Equations:** Bracketing Methods(Graphical, Bisection and False Position Methods), Open Methods(Fixed-Point Iteration, Newton-Rapson and Secant Methods, Multiple Roots and Systems of Nonlinear Equations), Roots of Polynomials(Conventional, Muller’s, and Bairstow’ Methods).

**Curve Fitting:** Interpolation Methods, Least-Squares Regression.

**Numerical Integration:** Newton-Cotes Integration Formulas (Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules, Integration with unequally spaced data, Open Integration Formulas), Integration of Equations (Newton-Cotes Algorithms for Equations, Romberg Integration, Gauss Quadrature).

**Numerical Differentiation:** High-Accuracy Differentiation Formulas, Richardson Extrapolation, Derivatives of Unequally Spaced Data.

**Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:** Initial value problems, single and multiple step problems, convergence and stability. Boundary value problems, finite difference methods using simple routines. The Euler Method, the Runge-Kutta Methods, and Multi-step Methods.

**Numerical solution of field problems:** Finite difference methods, applications using simple routines.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB**

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the various methods for finding approximation of roots of nonlinear equations, employ these methods to solve applied engineering problems, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method through the solutions.
- Define the concept of interpolation and least squares for curve fitting, employ the two methods to obtain the interpolation polynomials for given data sets and various functions, and generate a set of criteria that allow the use of each method.
- Describe the concept of numerical integration, apply different techniques for the calculation of integral approximations, and identify when the relative errors become minimal.
- Explain the need for approximation of derivatives of any order, define the important approximation formulas and employ various methods to calculate approximate solutions of first and second order differential equations.
- Analyse approximate solutions and based on the analysis classify the different methods based on their order of approximation.
- Explain the concept of finite difference methods in two dimensions and relate to simple problems that arise in Engineering.
- Employ a computer programming language (Matlab) to solve applied engineering problems discussed throughout the course, and compare the approximate solutions with the ones obtained by hand.

#### Course Contents

**Kinematics in one dimension:** Motion along a straight line, motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, graphical representations, motion with constant deceleration, motions due to gravity (Free Fall, Fall with initial velocity, objects thrown upward).

**Dynamics:** Newton ’s Laws of motion, type of forces, free-body diagrams, adding forces graphically, static and kinetic friction, inclines.

**Work and energy:** Work done by a constant force, kinetic energy, work-energy principle, potential energy due to position and due to a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, dissipative forces.

**Linear Momentum:** Momentum and forces, conservation of linear momentum in one and two dimensions, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse, energy and momentum in collisions.

**Oscillations:** Simple harmonic motion, conservation of mechanical energy, simple pendulum.

**Rigid Body:** Moments, equilibrium of a rigid body, kinematics of a rigid body (motion and rotation about a fixed axis), dynamics of a rigid body (torque, work, energy and power in rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum).

**Waves:** Wave motion, superposition, sound waves, speed of sound, Doppler effect).

**Ideal gas:** density, ideal gas law, temperature scales.

**Laboratory Work:** General Laboratory Instructions and Error Analysis-Error bars are initially covered. Small group experiments on: Measurement of the Acceleration of Gravity, Force of Equilibrium, Newton 's Second Law, Kinetic Friction, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Conservation of Linear Momentum, Collision – Impulse, and Simple Pendulum.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe with equations and graphically the motion along a straight line, the motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, and the motion due to gravity, distinguish and analyse motions to solve problems.
- Explain and apply the Newton’s Laws of motion to write the equations of motions, draw forces, solve problems by adding forces using free-body diagrams, and experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity, investigate the Newton’s Second Law, the factors effecting kinetic friction and force equilibrium.
- Define and apply the concepts of work by a constant force, the kinetic energy, the potential energy due to the position and a spring, the work-energy principle, to solve problems with conservation of mechanical energy with/out dissipative forces, and experimentally determine the spring constant and investigate the conservation of mechanical energy.
- Identify the concept of linear momentum and its relation to forces, define the concept of impulse, explain the circumstances under which momentum is a conserved quantity, distinguish elastic and inelastic collisions, solve problems that involve elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions using the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and experimentally investigate the impulse and the conservation of linear momentum in elastic collisions.
- Describe simple harmonic motion, apply conservation of mechanical energy on problems with simple harmonic oscillators, determine under what circumstances a simple pendulum resembles simple harmonic motion, calculate and experimentally investigate its period and frequency.
- Define the concept of moments and the circumstances that a rigid body is in equilibrium, determine the rotation of a body about a fixed axis, calculate its torque, work, energy and power, and solve problems involving the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
- Describe with equations and graphically the wave motion, define the types of waves and the concept of superposition (overlapping waves), describe the characteristics of sound waves, define Doppler effect, use the abovementioned terms and concepts to solve associated problems.
- Describe the characteristics of ideal gas, determine under what circumstances the ideal gas law is valid, and solve associated problems using different temperature scales.

#### Course Contents

**Review: **Basic concepts of electricity, atomic structure.** **

**Electrostatics: **Coulomb’s Law, electric field intensity due to one or more point charges, electric potential, motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field.

**Further electrostatics: **Gauss Law and applications, capacitors and combination of capacitors, electrostatic energy of charged capacitors, dielectrics.

**Dynamic electricity: **Electric current, resistance and Ohm's Law, resistivity of conductors, combination of resistances.** **

**Direct Current Circuits: **Electromotive force (EMF), Kirchhoff’s rules, power, potential across resistors, RC circuits.

**Magnetism: **Definition of magnetic field, magnetic field at a point due to current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Ampere’s Law), magnetic forces on current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field.

**Optics: **The nature of light, measurement of the speed light, Huygen's principle, reflection, refraction, and polarization.

**Geometrical Optics: **Convex and concave** **mirrors, thin lenses, optical instruments.

**Laboratory Work: **Small group experiments on: Electrostatic Charge, Ohm’s Law, Exploratory Study of Resistance, Resistances in Circuits, EMF, Kirchhoff's Rules, Resistor – Capacitor Network, Wheatstone Bridge, Law of Reflection, Law of Refraction.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate graphically and calculate the forces experienced on a charged particle by other charged particles, the electric field intensity and the electric potential due to several point charges at a particular point, describe and solve problems of charged particles motion in a uniform electric field.
- Explain and apply the Gauss law to evaluate the electric field intensity in problems where spherical or cylindrical or translational symmetry exists
- Define the electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor with/out dielectrics, describe and experimentally investigate the resistance’s and the Ohm’s Law variables, explain and experimentally measure the electromotive force.
- Develop skills to solve problems with circuits including several capacitors, several resistors, and resistors-capacitors, experimentally investigate the equations in Wheatstone Bridge and RC circuits, and experimentally demonstrate the Kirchhoff's Rules in electrical circuits.
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic field at a point due to one or more current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Amperes Law),
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic forces on two current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, and the path of a charged particle motion in a constant magnetic field.
- Describe and experimentally demonstrate the laws of reflection and refraction, show with appropriate drawings how these laws apply to light rays at plane and spherical surfaces (mirrors, thin lenses), and solve associated problems.

#### Course Contents

**Overview of the Construction Industry**

Who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.

‘Project-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to the main contracts and procurement methods emphasizing on the economic side.

Pre-contract project economics: preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, tender preparation, tender evaluation.

Post-contract project economics: estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.

Other project economic issues: development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.

**‘Company-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics**

Introduction to Accounting and Finance issues like: financial statements (the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement), financial ratios.

‘Industry-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to micro- and macro-economics: micro-economics (supply, demand, equilibrium, elasticity), macro-economics (Governmental policies, unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.
- Review main ‘project-level’ economics issues like contract types and procurement methods with emphasis on their economic side.
- Carry out ‘pre-contract’ economic exercises like preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, and evaluate tender preparation and tender evaluation methods.
- Carry out ‘post-contract’ economic exercises like estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.
- Carry out other economic exercises like development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.
- Prepare and analyse financial statements like the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement and interpret them using financial ratios.
- Define micro-economic issues like demand, supply, equilibrium, and elasticity as well as and macro-economic issues like unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates.

#### Course Contents

__MODULE 1 (Introduction to Sustainable Development):__

· *Basic Concepts and Vocabulary (Definitions of Sustainability, Quantification Methods of Sustainability)*

· *Ethics and Sustainability*

· *Major Environmental and Resource Concerns*

· *Defining Sustainable Construction (The Green Building Movement)*

__MODULE 2 (Sustainable Sites):__

· *Site Selection*

· *Development Density & Community Connectivity*

· *Alternative Transportation: Public Transportation Access & facilities*

· *Site Development: Open Space 17*

· *Stormwater Design: Quantity & Quality Control*

__MODULE 3 (Water Efficiency):__

· *Water Efficient Landscaping*

· *Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation*

· *Innovative Wastewater Technologies*

· *Water Use Reduction*

__MODULE 4 (Energy & Atmosphere):__

· *Optimize Energy Performance*

· *On-Site Renewable Energy*

__MODULE 5 (Materials & Resources):__

· *Storage & Collection of Recyclables*

· *Building Reuse*

· *Construction Waste Management*

· *Materials Reuse*

· *Recycled Content*

· *Regional Materials*

__MODULE 6 (Indoor Environmental Quality):__

· *Minimum IAQ Performance*

· *Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control*

· *Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring*

· *Ventilation*

· *Construction IAQ Management Plan*

· *Low-Emitting Materials (e.g. Adhesives, Sealants, Paints, Coatings, Carpet Systems)*

· *Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control*

· *Controllability of Systems: Lighting & Thermal Comfort*

· *Daylight & Views*

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify major problems facing the planet earth and human society.
- Explain the concept of Sustainability, and how building green is good for Cyprus and the World.
- Describe primary components of a sustainable engineering system.
- Explain design and construction principles for developing green structures.
- List roles that a civil engineer has in implementing a sustainable construction/development project.
- Perform detail evaluation of new and existing buildings based on LEED standards.
- Classify various technologies aimed at achieving global sustainability.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Discuss the basic concepts of construction management. Present historic projects and explain the basic terms such as quality management, contracts, Tenders etc.

**Quality Management: **Quality Control and Inspection. Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management.

**Preparing of Bid Package:** Decision to Bid. Explain the general and supplementary conditions and define the importance of technical specifications. Describe the documents and material that has to be included in a bid.

**Construction Contracts:** Present the major construction contract types. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of competitively bid contracts, the unit-price contracts, the negotiated contracts, the design-build contracts and the construction management contracts. Identify the key issues upon the decision of using any of the above types of contracts.

**Time Planning/Control:** Explain the importance of timely execution of construction works. Describe the problems that are created from bad management of the works. Explain project time control, project planning, activity durations and critical path. Calculate early and late event times.

**Project Funding:** Explain the construction financing process. Present the different financing schemes including the mortgage loan commitment, the construction loan and owner financing using bonds.

**Construction Operations:** Plan and model construction operations. Develop building process models and the structure of construction operations.

**Estimating Process:** Define the importance of the accurate estimating of the works and explain the estimating construction cost the types of estimates the quantity takeoff the methods of detail and the cost determination.

**Cost Control:** Describe the cost related issues such as project cost control systems, cost accounts, project cost code structure, data collection from payroll, project indirect costs, fixed overhead.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic principles that characterise and define construction management.
- Identify critical path networks and resource allocation. Evaluate quality assurance. Identify the importance of health and safety and codes of practice and understand aspects of civil engineering management.
- Apply the knowledge of the above topics in carrying out associated analysis and planning.
- Analyze discipline-specific practical skills in using discounted cash flow techniques to assess the financial worth of construction projects.
- Evaluate basic planning methods used in construction.
- Create case study involving manipulation and interpretation of data; mathematical skills; project, time and resource management.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Basics of construction detailing. Identification of drawing equipment, construction lines, and line types. Presentation methods, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections. Undertaking and reading architectural and construction drawings. Work with drawing instruments.

**Staircases:** Different types of staircase parts, symbols, and structural details. Description of the geometric parameters including step width and height. Applications for the use of each type of staircase.

**Foundations and Retaining Walls:** Different types of foundation and retaining walls. Types of reinforcement and reinforcement sizes. Bar splicing and cover. Applications for the use of various types of foundations and retaining walls.

**Windows:** Different types of windows and demonstration of the use for each type of window. Symbols related to windows. Discussion on window elevations and sections. Drawing of parts of a window frame.

**Parapet Wall and Roof Details:** Types of parapet walls and their applications. Drawings of the symbols and parts of parapet walls. Discussion of the differences between flat and pitched roofs. Drawing of details for each type.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify drawing equipment, lines, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections
- Present and relate to architectural and construction drawings
- Show basic drawing skills in the drafting of elements in plan view, elevation view and sections.
- Reproduce the three dimensional nature of objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Show different presentation methods for engineering drawings.
- Arrange drawing elements to create drawings for case studies of a building project.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction: Introduction of CAD systems and presentation of the basic principles of CAD drawings. Introduction to the Autocad environment (Title line, Menu line, Command line, Drawing Area, Selection of toolboxes).

- “Draw” tools: Explanation of the “DRAW” toolbox and use of drawing commands in Autocad files. Understanding of the coordinate system. Application of facilities “SNAP”, “GRID”,”OSNAP”,”ORTHO”.

- “Modify” tools: Explanation and use of the “MODIFY” toolbox. Application of commands to prepare simple drawings.

- Organisation of Work: Explanation for creating and using “BLOCKS” and “LAYERS” to organize the work in the drawing file.

- View: Application of commands “ZOOM” and “PAN” to view drawings.

- Dimensions and Text: Different types of dimensions. Modification of dimension styles and insertion of dimensions in drawings. Use of various types of text. Modifications of text styles and insertion of text in drawings.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize AutoCAD layout, layers, various drawing commands, drawing layout, printing and plotting
- Manipulate AutoCAD drawings, apply corrections and modifications inside AutoCAD.
- Organise engineering drawings using suitable AutoCAD commands and facilities.
- Apply drawing skills in drawing plans, elevations and sections.
- Reproduce three dimensional objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Develop engineering drawings for building projects using AutoCAD.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Geology:** Earth Structure: Definition of Geology Science. Explanation of relevance to Civil Engineering projects. Presentation of Earth’s formation and origin. Description of Earth’s interior structure, including materials (core, mantle, crust) and zones (Mesosphere, Asthenosphere, Lithosphere). Geological History.

**Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes:** Definition of plate tectonics theory. Explanation of terms continental drift and ocean floor spreading. Description of different types and characteristics of plate boundaries (ridges, trenches and faults) and explanation on how these are related to earthquakes. Description of earthquake occurrence and effects on infrastructure. Definition of focus and epicentre, and description of scales of magnitude (Richter, Mercalli). Protection measures taken by civil engineers. Definition of Elastic Rebound theory.

**Earth Surface Processes:** Description of the major earth surface processes: weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition. Explanation on how these are related to the rock cycle. Definition of weathering and different types of weathering, namely physical (or mechanical), chemical and biological. Examples for all types of weathering and relevance to Cyprus. Definition of erosion and its effect on the natural environment. Description of erosion agents (rivers, sea, ice, wind). Description of transportation and deposition of sediments and their relation to formation of sedimentary rocks.

**Minerals and Rocks:** Definitions of minerals and mineralogy science. Presentation of different mineral groups and examples of common minerals. Description of mineral properties used for the identification of minerals. Moh’s scale of hardness. Definition of cleavage and symmetry of minerals. Description of primary classification and modes of formation of igneous rocks, extrusive and intrusive (major and minor). Description of primary classification and modes of formation of sedimentary rocks. Usage of sedimentary deposits in the construction industry. Definition of local and regional metamorphic rocks. Presentation of actual rock examples and explanation of the rock cycle. Identification of rocks. Presentation of Cyprus geological zones.

**Site Investigation and Groundwater:** Definition and purpose of a site investigation in civil engineering projects. Presentation and discussion of all main stages in a site investigation. Explanation of desk study and presentation of methods for sub-surface investigations, in-situ testing and laboratory testing. Importance of geotechnical reports and construction monitoring. Discussion of case studies from the instructor’s personal experience. Importance of groundwater conditions and hydrological cycle. Definition of groundwater table, saturated soils, porosity, aquifers and aquicludes. Fluctuations of groundwater level and their effects in structures.

**Geological hazards:** Description and identification of geological hazards. Description of different types of slope failure and landslides. Explanation of trigger mechanisms and protection measures (retaining walls etc.). Description of hazards like sand liquefaction and excessive settlements and explanation of methods of protection (piled foundations etc.). Description of other natural geological hazards such as volcanoes and earthquakes.

**Structural Geology: **Definition of structural geology and the three main types, namely faults, folds and joints. Description of the components of geological structures. Types of faults, folds and joints. Discussion on relevant examples in Cyprus.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the relevance of geology to civil engineering projects.
- Describe the interior structure of the Earth and distinguish between different forms of Earth’s surface processes.
- Define the theory of plate tectonics and relate to the effects of earthquakes on the built environment.
- Identify different types of soils and rocks and differentiate between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
- List the geological zones of Cyprus and describe the geological features and rock formations for each zone.
- Describe the main stages of a site investigation and recognize the importance of groundwater level in construction projects.
- Explain the main geological hazards present in Cyprus and describe measures for protection.

#### Course Contents

** Introduction**: review of material from Soil Mechanics I and II courses.

** Site investigations**: In-situ testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters. Laboratory testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters.

** Design to Eurocode 7**: Introduction to Eurocode programme. Definitions. Partial factors, design approach.

** Spread foundation resistance**: Soil parameters needed for foundation design. Derivation of design values of actions, including inclined loads and moments. Bearing capacity equations and factors. Derivation of design resistance values and safety check.

** Settlement of foundations**: Immediate and consolidation settlement and their estimation. Derivation of settlement estimates from laboratory and in-situ tests. Shallow foundation types and their application.

** Deep foundation resistance**: Pile design in accordance with EC7 for vertical loads in clays and in sands. Derivation of design resistances and safety checks. Design principles and modes of failure for laterally loaded piles. Design of pile groups.

** Retaining walls**: Design of supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls according to EC7.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify methods of site investigation, foundation and retaining wall types and understand the geotechnical design process from site investigation, interpretation, design and monitoring.
- Apply design techniques for shallow foundations with complex loads, RC cantilever and gravity retaining walls.
- Analyze site investigation data for the selection of appropriate shallow and deep foundation types or retaining wall types and calculation of factors of safety on stability for complex cases.
- Evaluate degree of certainty and hence degree of conservatism, need for further investigation, need for monitoring.
- Create design calculations for shallow foundation with complex loads and soil conditions, supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls.

#### Course Contents

**Properties of Fluids:**** **Basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility. Relationships and interconnections between various concepts. Basic problem solving using fluids terms and concepts.

**Fluid Statics:**** **Atmospheric and Gage Pressure. Characteristics of pressure. Pascal’s Paradox. Variation of pressure. Equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack). Measurement of pressure. Barometers. Manometer (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers). Hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), Reservoir Dams. Piezometric Head. Archimedes Principle (buoyancy and stability).

**Fluid Motion: ** Motion of Fluids and the Bernoulli’s Equation. Fluid Flow Rates and the Continuity Equation. Variation of flow parameters in time and space. The Venturi meter and other closed systems with unknown velocities. Toricelli’s Theorem Flow due to a falling head

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility.
- Differentiate among various basic fluid properties, atmospheric and gage pressure
- Describe the principles behind the measurement of pressure and the function of barometers
- Understand the theory governing the flow (motion of fluids) and Bernoulli’s Equation, and the variation of flow parameters in time and space
- Solve problems pertaining to the variation of pressure, the equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack), manometer problems (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers), and numerical problems that make use of the Bernoulli Equation principles
- Calculate the hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), reservoir dams
- Apply Archimedes principle of buoyancy and stability
- Use the Venturi meter and other closed systems to measure pressure under schemes of unknown velocities.

#### Course Contents

**Environmental Pollution and Public Health:**** **Basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering. Important issues that relate to environmental pollution. Important sources of environmental pollution. Relationship between pollutants and the corresponding contributing sources. Possible scenarios of public health manifestations of environmental pollution sources and events.

**Water Supply and Treatment:**** **Key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment. Key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water. The root causes of water supply issues that we are facing in Cyprus . Possible solutions to various potable water treatment scenarios. Conceptual design of a water treatment plant

**Wastewater Treatment: ** Key terms and concepts relating to wastewater production and treatment. Estimation of wastewater quantity production from municipal and industrial sources. Identify key wastewater characteristics (BOD, COD, TSS, TN, TP, etc.). Differentiation among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics. Conceptual design of an Activated Sludge wastewater treatment plant. Key elements of various unit processes (sedimentation / clarification, filtration, aeration, and disinfection) involved in the biological treatment of municipal wastewater. Different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Continuous flow, Sequencing Batch Reactors, Constructed Wetlands)

**Solid Waste Management:**** ** Key terms and concepts relating to municipal solid waste production, transport, selection and final disposal. Calculation of municipal solid waste quantities and characteristics. Key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Alternative final disposal methods for municipal solid waste (i.e. incineration, composting, recycling).

**Air Pollution:** Key terms and concepts relating to air pollution engineering (sources, characteristics, and control methods). Key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog). Air pollution control methods (i.e. cyclones, baghouse filters, wet scrubbers, etc.)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering.
- Recognize key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment, wastewater production and treatment
- Identify key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water, key wastewater characteristics
- Differentiate among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics
- Associate different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources
- Describe the key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill
- Argue for / against incineration and / or landfilling as final disposal options for municipal solid waste.
- Discuss key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog)

#### Course Contents

**Momentum Equation:**** **Forces due to fluids in motion. Momentum Equation. Force Equation.

**Open Channels:**** **Types of Open Channels. Laminar and Turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Uniform steady flow in open channels. Geometry and efficiency of typical open channels. Hydraulic jump.

**Dimensional Analysis:** Application of dimensional analysis in hydraulics and in other engineering problems

**Flow in Pipes:** Energy loss in pipes. Hazen-Williams equation. Darcy-Weisbach equation Major and Minor (friction) losses in pipes (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements).

**Pipe Networks:** Pipes in series. Pipes in parallel. Systems with two branches. Systems with three or more branches

**Hydraulic Systems:** Interconnected reservoirs. Quasi-steady flow. Pumps.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe relationships and interconnections between various concepts involved in the Momentum Equation that refers to forces due to fluids in motion
- Differentiate between the Force Equation and the Momentum Equation, laminar and turbulent flow and the concept of Reynolds number
- Solve problems that utilize the principles of the Momentum Equation, problems of systems with two branches and systems with three or more branches, numerical problems that calculate the hydraulic regime that describes interconnected reservoirs
- Understand the geometry and efficiency of typical open channels, how fluid energy is lost in pipes
- Apply dimensional analysis to solve hydraulic and other engineering problems
- Use the Hazen-Williams and the Darcy-Weisbach equations to calculate friction losses in pipes
- Calculate major and minor (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements) friction losses in pipes, flow characteristics in pipes-in-series and in pipes-in-parallel networks
- Select appropriate pumps for specific hydraulic needs

#### Course Contents

· *Basic Hydrologic Principles*

o Hydrologic Cycle & Water Budgets

o Geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a watershed

o Precipitation

§ Formation & types

§ Rainfall measurement & analysis

§ Rainfall losses

o Evaporation & Transpiration

§ Mechanisms of evaporation & Estimation of evapotranspiration

o Soil Moisture & Infiltration

§ Characteristics & Mechanisms of soil infiltration

§ Infiltration survey & formulas

· *Groundwater and Well Hydraulics*

o Aquifer and groundwater

o Flow in saturated aquifers

o Steady & Unsteady well hydraulics

o Characteristics of aquifer and groundwater flow

· *Rainfall-Runoff Analysis*

o Time of concentration, Hydrograph analysis, Rational formula, Unit hydrograph, Synthetic unit hydrograph

· *Urban Hydrology*

o Characteristics of urban hydrology

*, *Sewer system hydraulics

*, *Method for quantity analysis

*, *Control options

· *Hydrology Statistics and Frequency Analysis*

o Theories of Hydrology Statistics & Frequency Analysis

o Choosing a suitable frequency distribution

· *Measurements in Hydrology*

o Rainfall, Water Level, Flow Velocity, Discharge

· *Design Issues in Hydrology*

o Design rainfall

o Small watershed design

o Detention pond design

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Appreciate the most significant hydrological issues for society and the role of hydrological knowledge in securing safe and sustainable water supplies
- Develop quantitative approaches for answering questions in engineering hydrology, as well as creative thinking and basic research skills through independent and team assignments and projects
- Understand the hazard associated with spatially / temporally uneven water inputs, in a wide range of environments where hydrology and water resources become important environmental issues, understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Estimate flows for a variety of civil engineering design problems, including, 1) urban storm-water analysis, 2) floodplain mapping, and 3) groundwater aquifer characterization.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Basic construction materials and their applications. Most common ways of materials loading. Basic units used in the material science.

**Material Properties:** Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of construction materials. Terms of Bearing Capacity, Density, Specific Gravity and Modulus of Elasticity. Principle of the probabilistic assessment of properties. Atomic structure of materials. Types of atomic bonds and special lattices. Terms of micro- and macro-structures.

**Cements:** Concept of Hydraulic Cements and give emphasis to Portland cement. Process of manufacture of Portland cement. Chemical composition of Portland cement. Process of hydration of cement. Structure of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP). Factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste.

**Aggregates:** Types of aggregates and the most common classification methods. Role of their shape and texture in the properties of a concrete mix. Evaluate their role as fillers. Terms of size gradation, sieve analysis and grading curves. Strength and durability of aggregates and most common tests.

**Concrete:** Concrete constituent materials. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete and most common tests. Chemical admixtures used in concrete technology. Principles of developing High Strength Concrete mixtures. Durability principles and durability properties of concrete. Testing procedures of fresh and hardened material on site. Concrete mix design. Concrete applications.

**Metals:** Types of metals used in construction industry. Properties of metals and most common tests of steel. Steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material. Durability issues of steel and maintenance methods. Aluminium properties and alloys, and their applications.

**Timber:** Types of timber and most common classification methods. Properties of timber and most common tests. Applications of timber as a structural material. Durability issues of timber and the required maintenance applications. Principles of timber processing in order to be used as a construction material.

**Masonry:** Primary masonry materials used in construction. Properties of stone and the most common classification methods. Properties of bricks and the most common classification methods. Properties of concrete masonry units (CMU) and the most common classification methods. Advantages and disadvantages of masonry construction and the structural behaviour. Properties of masonry materials and the most common testing methods.

**Bituminous:** Constituent materials of bituminous mixes. Properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state. Durability issues of bituminous materials. Testing methods of fresh and hardened material. Methods of production and principles of mix design. Fundamental applications of bituminous materials.

**Introduction to Modern Materials: **Recent trends of research in construction materials. Applications of modern construction materials. Importance of the development and use of sustainable construction materials.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the basic construction materials and their applications, describe the physical and mechanical properties of construction materials and analyse the atomic structure of materials.
- Describe the concept of Hydraulic Cements, give emphasis to Portland cement, and evaluate the factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste. Also describe the types of aggregates and the most common classification methods.
- Define concrete constituent materials, analyse the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, describe the most common tests, and evaluate the chemical admixtures used in concrete technology.
- Describe the types of metals used in construction industry, analyse the properties of metals and describe the most common tests of steel. Evaluate steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material, and describe aluminium properties and alloys, and analyse their applications.
- Describe the types of timber the most common classification methods, and explain the properties of timber and describe the most common tests.
- Describe the primary masonry materials used in construction, analyse the properties of stone, bricks and concrete masonry units, and the most common classification methods.
- Analyse the constituent materials of bituminous mixes, describe the properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state, and describe the testing methods of fresh and hardened material.
- Describe the recent trends of research in construction materials, the applications of modern construction materials, and analyse the importance of the development and use of sustainable construction materials.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Strength of Materials **

Explain the importance and review the material related to the development of correct free body diagrams. Then define the terms stress and strain and differentiate between normal stress, shear stress and bending stress. Explain the mechanical properties and their role to the strength of materials. Introduce the philosophy behind design and each design approach and also the role and the importance of the safety factor. Finally explain thermal effects and strain energy.

**Tension, Compression and Shear**

Understand general concept on Strength of Materials (Tension, Compression). Explain in detail the concept of normal stress and strain. Define the term Linear Elasticity and discuss in detail the Stress-Strain curve. Present the Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and distinguish the Ductile and brittle materials. Define the Poisson’s ratio and explain its significance. Also present Shear Stress and Strain, Shear Stress and Strain Curve and the Shear modulus.

**Stress and Strain Analysis**

Analyse of Stresses and Strains in structures. Those include the Plane Stress, Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stresses. Present the Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress and the Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress. Finally present the concepts of Triaxial Stress and Plane Strain.

**Stresses in beams**

Get familiar with the method for analysing pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending. Present the Curvature of a Beam the Strains in Beams (Longitudinal, Normal , Shear) and also the Beams with Axial Loads.

**Torsion**

Know the definition of Torsional loads and determine the deformations of a Circular Bar. Present the Circular Bars of Linearly Elastic Materials, the Stresses and Strain in Pure Shear and also the Relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G.

**Buckling of Columns**

Understand the definition of Buckling and Stability for Columns with Pinned Ends and for Columns with different Support Conditions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concept of free body diagrams, describe notion of stress and strain.
- Analyse design considerations, explain thermal effects and introduce strain energy.
- Describe concepts of normal and shear stresses and strains, stress-strain curves, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and shear modulus.
- Explain the difference of ductile and brittle materials, and introduce Poisson’s ratio.
- Analyse the problem of stresses and strains in structures, describe plane stresses, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
- Explain Mohr’s Circle and Hooke’s Law for plane stress and introduce triaxial stress and plane strain.
- Understand the method for analysing pure bending and non-uniform bending, explain curvature of beams and strains in beams.
- Explain the definition of torsional loads, determine the deformations of a circular bar, explain relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G, and describe buckling and stability for columns.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Revise of essential material from course Construction Materials (CEM213).

**Recent Advances in Concrete Science:** Introduce special concretes and their applications. Explain the fundamental terminology related to mix design of concrete. Analyse the principles of mix design. Specify the most important properties of novel concretes. Provide the necessary quality assurance inspection. Analyse and develop solutions to everyday problems that are related to materials and mix proportioning.

**Modern Composite Construction Materials:** Analyse the importance of composite materials in construction industry. Explain the fundamental terminology of composite materials. Specify the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials. Provide examples and applications of composite construction materials.

**Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP): **Analyse the advantages of FRP composites. Explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix. Analyse the types of fibres used, specify their properties and explain the most common fibres classifications. Specify the matrix materials used, specify their properties and explain the most common matrices classifications. Explain the difference between thermoplastic and thermoset matrices and analyse the properties of each type. Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites. Describe the manufacturing techniques of FRP composites. Provide examples of applications of FRP composites in construction industry. Explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.

**High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCCs):** Identify the disadvantages of normal concrete and analyse the importance of dense microstructure in the behaviour of the material. Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites. Explain the properties and the role of silica fume and dispersing agents in HPFRCCs. Explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of HPFRCCs. Identify the role of the type of fibres, the volume fraction of fibres and the fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of HPFRCCs. Analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation. Identify the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of the most important HPFRCCs available. Describe the manufacturing techniques of HPFRCCs composites. Describe the constitutive model of HPFRCCs. Identify applications of HPFRCCs in construction industry.

**Modern Materials for Heat Insulation and Sound Isolation:** Identify the heat insulating and sound isolating materials and their properties. Analyse their importance and applications in construction industry. Describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures and identify artificial and natural noise barriers.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe special concretes and their applications, analyse the principles of mix design and specify the most important properties of novel concretes.
- Explain the concept of composite materials, describe the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials and list examples and applications of composite construction materials.
- Analyse the advantages of FRP composites, explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix, analyse the types of fibres and matrices used, and explain their properties.
- Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites, describe manufacturing techniques, list examples of their applications in construction industry and explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.
- Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites, explain the properties and role of silica fume and dispersing agents in UHPFRCCs, and explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of UHPFRCCs.
- Explain the role of the type of fibres, their volume fraction and fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of UHPFRCCs, analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation.
- Describe the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of UHPFRCCs, describe manufacturing techniques, explain the constitutive model of UHPFRCCs and identify applications of UHPFRCCs in construction industry.
- Identify heat insulating and sound isolating composite materials and explain their properties, analyse their importance and applications in construction industry, describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project where the students are allowed to choose a topic in the content of Civil Engineering and specifically in the area of Civil Engineering that they are interested in i.e. Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering etc. Normally the decision on the topic is decided after consultation of students with various faculties. In addition the student must form the supervisory committee for the project. The supervisory committee consists of a faculty advisor and also another two faculties.

With the Final Year Project proposal (CEP399) course, students must consult with the faculty advisor in order to specify the objectives, decide on the methodology to be followed and a tentative time plan for the successful completion of the project. The supervising committee participates in the assessment of the project.

The student, in consultation with his advisor/committee, should conduct the necessary background reading so as to obtain a deep understanding of the problem area and better appreciate the problems faced and goals set. Students should also investigate appropriate research methods where applicable.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department a project proposal report that includes the project proposal with the detailed objectives and contributions of the project, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology to be used, the expected results, and the planning for the implementation of the project. In this report, the students can include a description on the work already completed.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Develop management skills and ability to retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources.
- Analyze, synthesise, collect, interpret, understand, evaluate and assess information and employ logical thinking to solve an engineering problem.
- Work autonomously and manage available time.
- Acquire and summarize new knowledge, develop research skills and also demonstrate oral and written communication skills.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project in the content of Civil Engineering. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project which each student must complete with the supervision of a three member committee headed by the student faculty advisor. Each student is free to choose the topic of their project which has to be relevant to the area of Civil Engineering that the student is interested in. In addition the student must choose a faculty advisor and also two other faculties to serve on his supervisory committee.

With the Final Year Project (CEP400) course, students must implement the objectives specified in their project proposal in CEP399 according to the specified planning. In this second part of the project the students must perform the bulk of the project work. They have to create the required models, execute the analyses, conduct the necessary experiments, construct any experimental devices and complete the project.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department of Civil Engineering a project report that includes the project objectives and contributions, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology used and the results achieved. Finally, the students must present their project work to their supervisory committee, other faculty members and their classmates.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Review, retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources related to civil engineering applications, select and report important information related to the assigned project.
- Develop research skills to acquire new knowledge and demonstrate oral and written communication skills.
- Apply knowledge in practice and use the appropriate tools, methods and opportunities for problem solving.
- Assess, collect, interpret, order information and employ logical thinking to solve a problem.
- Formulate a time schedule for the project and plan its execution from start to finish.
- Conclude the project with a written report and defend the work in an oral presentation in front of peers and faculty.

#### Course Contents

**Civil engineering projects:** Main types of civil engineering projects in various industry sectors. Local examples of construction projects.

**Construction Project teams:** The role of civil engineer in typical construction projects. Pre-tender and post-tender duties and responsibilities. Roles of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor. Importance and variety of specialists in civil engineering with several examples in engineering projects.

**Legislation and Regulations:** Legislation about building and construction. Planning and construction licences. Regulations for building safety and protection of the environment. Professional organisations. Professionalism and Ethics. Importance of use of standards and codes in design, and employment of qualified personnel. Health and Safety regulations for construction. Health and Safety Co-ordinator.

**Basic principles of design:** SI unit system and conversion of units used in Civil Engineering. Different loading types, factor of safety and design codes including Eurocodes. Importance of different construction materials and explanation of the concepts of tension, compression and shear for structural members.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- List the main types of civil engineering projects and appreciate some local examples.
- Recognize the role of civil engineer in typical construction projects and define the role of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor.
- State the existence and outline importance of specialists in civil engineering with several examples.
- Describe the need for regulation for building safety and protection of the environment.
- Recognize the importance of use of standards in design and employment of qualified personnel.
- Recognize the importance of Health and Safety regulations for construction.
- Describe various load types, define factor of safety and relate to design codes.
- Identify different construction materials and define the concepts of tension, compression and shear.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Understand vectors and define the relation of vectors forces. Comprehend that the properties of the vectors can be used to model and manipulate forces. Define the different support types such as the free, the roller, the pin and the fixed support. Understand the physical meaning of each support and therefore reason the development of the reactions that are developed in each support.

**Equilibrium:** Present the Newton ’s laws, explain their physical meaning and how they are applied in engineering. Define particles and solve problems of equilibrium regarding particles using the equations for the summation of forces. Define rigid bodies and explain the concept of moment. Then solve equilibrium problems with rigid bodies including the equation for the moments.

**Beams:** Present “beams” in terms of their behaviour, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Show the different types of externally applied loads (concentrated loads, distributed loads) and relate to real scenarios. Explain the concept of determinate structures. Create determinate beam configurations, apply the external loads and analyze to calculate the reactions at the supports.

**Trusses:** Present “trusses” in terms of their element behaviour and interconnection, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Discuss the different truss configurations (simple truss, compound truss, complex truss). Explain the importance of the connection between the elements and discuss tension and compression. Present the methods of truss analysis (method of joints and method of sections (Ritter)). Analyze trusses to calculate element forces and support reactions.

**Centroids (Center of Mass):** Calculate the centroids of different shapes and sections using first principles or alternatively when possible calculate the centroids of sections by dividing them into simpler subsections with known geometrical properties.

**Moment of Inertia:** Present the concept of moment of inertia and its importance in engineering. Define “strong” and “weak” axis. Calculate the moment of inertia from first principles. Introduce the parallel axis theorem. Calculate the moment of inertia for different sections and about different axes.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the basic concepts and methods for the analysis and composition of forces, of particle equilibrium, summation of forces and moments, loading configurations, the importance of the Free Body Diagram, how to handle distributed loads, beam equilibrium, joint equilibrium.
- Construct free body diagrams and develop equations of equilibrium for simple models.
- Apply the principles of mechanics to the equilibrium of particles and beams, trusses, mechanisms, concepts of centroids and second moments of areas to the determination of properties of sections.
- Analyze trusses and mechanisms using the method of joints and the method of sections.
- Create structural models to simulate the behaviour of simple structures
- Calculate centroids and evaluate moment of inertias for different shapes and sections.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Introduce the difference between the externally applied loads and the internal forces and also the difference between pressure and stress. Define the internal forces: Axial force, Shear force and bending moment and explain the mechanism that the internal loads are developed. Identify the different structural elements (truss, beam, frame, plate, shell etc) and their use in the different structural forms. Concentrate on the definition of beams and frames and define their properties and behaviour.

**Shear and Bending Moment Equations:** Explain the concept of shear and bending moment. Explain how they are developed, their importance and use in structural analysis. Define the sign convention for the shear and bending moment and explain its significance. Write equations for shear and bending moment for different segments of beams.

**Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams:** Define the designer’s sign convention and explain the rules to draw the shear and bending moment diagrams. Define the slope of the shear and bending moment diagrams at a point based on the values of the load and the shear at the particular point. Draw shear diagrams based on the load curves and bending moment diagrams based on the areas of the shear curves.

**Deflections:** Present the importance of deflection calculation in engineering and explain the necessity for the calculation. Present different methods for the calculation of deflections in structural systems. Calculate deflections in beams using geometric (integration) methods. Calculate deflections in trusses and beams using energy methods (virtual work).

**Shear and Bending Stresses:** Define the longitudinal stresses (axial and bending stresses), explain how they are developed and their importance and use for beam design. Define the transverse (shear) stresses, explain how they are developed and explain their importance and use for the design of beams. Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses for various beam loading configurations.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of shear force, bending moment, slope and deflection, and their use in structural design.
- Explain the importance of sign conventions in order to write equations to describe the distributions of shear-force and bending-moment across beam elements.
- Construct bending moment and shear force diagrams.
- Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses due to bending moment and shear force, locate points of maximum stress and calculate slopes and deflection equations giving due regard to boundary conditions.
- Develop shear force and bending moment equations and use geometric and virtual work methods to calculate beam deformations from applied loads.
- Choose element sizes performing basic beam designs with regards to the applied external loads.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Define the term “Indeterminate structures” and differentiate between statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Determine the stability and determinacy of structures. Calculate the degree of indeterminacy and recognize the presence (if any) of geometrical instability. Also present the principle of superposition and its importance in the analysis of the indeterminate structures.

**Flexibility Method: **Present the concepts of the flexibility method and show the methodology for its use. Define the base structure as well as the redundant structures and draw their deflected shapes. Write compatibility equations in terms of the redundant forces, based on the support conditions and structural configuration using the principle of superposition. Define the influence of the presence of the elastic supports and how these affect the compatibility equations. Solve the compatibility equations to obtain the redundants and then use for the complete analysis of the structure. Present the Maxwell's reciprocal theorem, the definition of the flexibility coefficient and formulate the flexibility method in matrix form.

**Slope Deflection Method: **Present the concepts of the slope deflection method and identify the differences with the flexibility method. Show how to identify and sketch global degrees of freedom. Describe the methodology for the implementation of the slope deflection method. Develop the general slope deflection equations and also calculate the fixed end moments. Write equilibrium equations at joints and solve to calculate the global degrees of freedom. Based on the values of the degrees of freedom calculate element end moments, shears and eventually the reactions of the structure. Formulate the slope deflection y method in matrix form and emphasize on the importance of the displacement methods and their implementation in computer software.

**Moment Distribution:** Present the historical importance of the moment distribution and the general concept of the load distribution/redistribution in individual members. Calculate the element stiffness factors, the joint stiffness factors, the distribution factors and also the fixed end moments. Setup a table for the implementation of the moment distribution for continuous beams and frames with no sway and use the table to calculate element end moments. Extent the method to include sway and calculate the sway related force. Define the role of the sway force and calculate relevant fixed end forces. Setup a similar table to the one for the continuous frames and use to calculate additional moments related to sway. Finally calculate total element end moments, shears and external support reactions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and apply the principle of superposition for linearly elastic structures and its importance.
- Classify determinate, indeterminate stable and unstable structures.
- Apply the concepts of flexibility and stiffness for the analysis of statically indeterminate linearly elastic structures.
- Analyze models of beams, frames and trusses using the force method, the moment distribution method and the slope deflection method.
- Compare different methods of analysis of indeterminate structures, develop the methods in matrix form and create small computer algorithms for their implementation.
- Apprize the suitability of various methods of analysis of indeterminate structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Basic Concepts:** Use of linear algebra for the solution of linear equations. Introduction to displacement methods and differentiation from the force methods. Introduction to structural modelling including element behaviour loads and supports.

**Stiffness by Definition:** Define dependent, independent displacements and rigid body motion. Define the structural degrees of freedom and explain their role in the analysis of structures. Setup the stiffness matrix, the externally applied load vector and the displacement vector for various structural configurations using equations of slope deflection. Define the “stiffness coefficient” and its physical meaning in structural analysis. Calculate the stiffness coefficients and setup the global stiffness matrix of various structural configurations using the equations of slope deflection. Present and discuss the properties of the global stiffness matrix and the physical meaning of each property as that is referred to the real structures.

**Direct Stiffness Method**: Present the conditions for the validity of any structural analysis method (equilibrium, compatibility, constitutive laws). Explain the element by element approach for the analysis of structures and present the sign convention. Define element (local) coordinate system and structure (global) coordinate system. Setup the element information in the local system including the element stiffness matrix and the degrees of freedom. Define the “transformation matrix” and explain how it relates the local and the global coordinate systems. Draw the displaced shapes, and calculate the transformation matrix in one step, for different structural configurations. Use the element by element approach to setup the stiffness matrices with the use of the transformation matrix and solve the equations for the calculation of displacements and element forces. Present the solution strategy of structural analysis software (automated direct stiffness) and explain how to obtain the transformation matrix in two steps. Discuss the “location vector” and present its implementation in the structural analysis software programs. Analyze structures using the automated direct stiffness with the aid of MATLAB, MATHCAD or EXCEL.

**Structural Modelling:** Present the concept of structural modelling and relate to real structures. Discuss the modelling of supports based on the physical construction. Present the load paths and explain the choice of elements for the analysis using the direct stiffness method. Create models and analyse them.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of stiffness methods, stiffness coefficients, transformation matrices, external load and structural modelling.
- Generalize the formation of stiffness equations including the use of matrix notation and matrix algebra to systemize the computations of the stiffness method.
- Compute the stiffness terms, formulate and develop the stiffness matrix of a real structure.
- Analyze real structures using the stiffness method for the determination of displacements and stresses.
- Create models of real structures for linearly elastic frame structures.
- Justify the use of the direct stiffness method for the analysis of structural systems over other methods of analysis.

#### Course Contents

**Analysis of Work Relationships: **Artisan–Master Vs. Professional Status. Characteristics of Professional Status. The growth and development of Professionalism. The founding societies

**Role of the Engineer: **The Engineer’s Responsibilities. Public Vs Client Obligations. Values and professional Practice.

**Codes of Professional Contact: **Discussion for the need of a Code of Contact. Analysis of the Cyprus American and UK Codes. Examples.

**Professionalism and Current Ethical Dilemmas: **Case Studies relating to Environment Vs Technology. Ethical Dilemmas.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the importance of active participation in professional societies and organizations in professional practice.
- Develop an awareness of the impact of technology and engineering on society, including life safety and environmental issues.
- Describe the societal context of the civil engineering profession.
- Assess the ethical responsibilities of practicing engineers.
- Develop skills for communicating and defending ideas effectively, including oral and written communication and technical report writing skills.

#### Course Contents

**Revision of Engineering Software:** Review the basics of structural engineering software and present the basic features of common commercial programs. Explain the different analyses options (linear vs nonlinear, static vs dynamic) and how are those implemented in the engineering software.

**Direct Stiffness Method:** Setup systems of linear equations and solve using Gauss elimination. Create stiffness matrices and external load vectors of structural systems and solve to obtain displacements. Use the displacements to calculate element forces and draw shear and bending moment diagrams.

**Computer Programming / Use of MATLAB:** Explain the important rules for the development of computer programs. State the importance of creating modular programs and use available MATLAB scripts that are applied to civil engineering applications. Take advantage of the MATLAB available commands and create simple script files and function files to solve specific problems.

**Introduction to Finite Elements:** Present the basics of the finite element method (discretization, meshing, assembly of equations, applied loads) and discuss the similarities and differences with the direct stiffness method. Explain the behaviour of the most common finite elements (membrane, plate, shell, solid) and discuss their application. Discuss the assessment of mesh correctness.

**Structural Modeling:** Explain the importance of creating correct structural models to predict the actual structural behaviour and present modelling techniques for various support conditions, applied loading, symmetry and antisymmetry. Discuss the behaviour of example structures, identify the appropriate elements and create structural models.

**Use of Available Software (SAP):** Explain the procedure followed by commercial structural analysis programs. Discuss structural modelling and explain the use of structural elements and supports. Use SAP to create models of structural systems and analyze. Assess the validity of the results based on hand calculations and enhance intuition.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe various structural systems and recognize the appropriate elements to be used for the analysis.
- Review the principles of the direct stiffness method as that applies to the analysis of structures and explain the similarities and differences with the finite element method.
- Construct structural models and use programming techniques to develop simple engineering algorithms to solve engineering problems.
- Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of engineering software and select the most appropriate for the application to civil engineering problems.
- Make use engineering software related to the analysis and design of structures including their foundations. Study the output and verify the results.
- Analyze models of real structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction **

Introduce the principles of Codes of practice. Explain limit state design. Explain Characteristic Strengths of materials. Explain Characteristic loads. Explain Design Loads.

**Analysis of Structures **

Describe the process and methods of Analysis of structures at the Ultimate Limit State . Specify Favourable and Unfavourable Loading Effects. Explain Critical Load Combinations. Specify the importance of Moment Envelope Curves.

**Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Sections **

Explain states of stress and strain in reinforced concrete sections. Derive design equations.** **

**Serviceability** ** Limit State ** ** **

Specify the importance of Serviceability Limit State . Describe the problems of excessive deflection, cracking, vibration. Introduce the concept of span to depth ratios.

**Design of Rectangular Sections **

Introduce singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections. Analyse the principles and methods of design of beams and slabs for flexure. Explain the concept and process of design of sections for shear. Highlight the importance of punching shear.

**Design of Columns**

Describe Short and Slender Columns. Analyse the phenomenon of column buckling and biaxial bending of columns. Explain the procedure of design of columns.

** **

**Foundations and Retaining Walls **

Analyse the principles and methods of design of different kinds of foundations and retaining walls.

**Composite Construction **

Introduce the problem and of design of different kinds of composite structures.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the principles of codes of practice, Limit State Design, characteristic and design values of actions and materials strengths.
- Analyse the process and methods of analysis of sections and structures.
- Analyse the method of design of beams and slabs for flexure.
- Explain the importance of Serviceability Limit State of deflection.
- Describe the methods of analysis and design of two-way slabs for bending and shear.
- Analyse the principles and procedure of design of columns.
- Explain the principles and procedures of design of several types of foundations and retaining walls.
- Introduce the problem of design of composite structures.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:**The sources of structural loads are identified and the relevant loads for the type of structure are presented according to the relevant codes. The codes and specifications relating to steel structural analysis and design are presented and identified. Identify the material properties of steel. Identify various shapes associated with steel members and their typical applications. List the various types of steel member connections. Identify design principles such as factor of safety, working stress and Ultimate Limit State Design. Identify basic principles for the performance of structural analysis of steel structures. Apply code provisions for global analysis and imperfections. Determine cross section classification according to code.**Tension Members:**Identify tension member behaviour. List cases for using tension members. List tension member modes of failure. Analyze and design tension members according to code provisions. Identify and list tension member connection types. Analyze and design tension member connections for shearing in bolts, bearing of bolts, tension strength of connection plates, shearing of welds, tension strength of welds etc.**Compression Members:**Define compression member behaviour and modes of failure such as buckling. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for axial compressive loads. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for combined axial compressive loads and uniaxial or biaxial bending.**Flexural Members:**Define flexural member behaviour and modes of failure. Identify stress distribution in flexural members at different loading stages. Differentiate between elastic and plastic analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze bending stresses in flexural members. Define section modulus. Calculate stresses due to biaxial bending in flexural members. Identify and draw shear stresses in elastic thin-walled open beam cross-sections. Define plastic analysis of beams. Identify the mechanisms of plastic hinge formation and identify possible collapse mechanisms due to plastic hinge formation in beams. Describe the procedure for the analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze and design flexural members according to code provisions for the ultimate limit state (axial, bending, and shear etc).**Beam Columns:**Define beam-column behaviour and modes of failure. Analyze beam-columns for bending and axial compression. Define biaxial bending in beam-columns. Verify capacity of beam-column under combined bending and axial compression according to code provisions.**Steel Connections:**List types of steel connections for steel structures. Identify bolt strength class, types of holes and spacing requirement according to code. Analyze and design bolted connections according to code requirements. Calculate number of bolts required for the connection. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in combined shear and tension. Identify types of joints and welds for steel connections. Identify weld symbols and dimensional requirements for welds. Calculate fillet, plug and slot weld strength. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear and tension. Analysis classification and modelling of steel connection.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Outline the principles and concepts of modern design codes appropriate for different applications of steel and relate to the analysis and design stages.
- Distinguish between working stress and Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methods of analysis and design.
- Apply & use code provisions in the determination of loads, application of appropriate load factors in the analysis of structures and design code provisions for serviceability and ultimate limit states.
- Analyse and design beams, columns, and connections under various loading configurations.
- Prepare detail construction drawings and specifications for construction.
- Predict changes in the behaviour of the structure due to changes in usage and recommend course of action.

#### Course Contents

1. Single Degree of Freedom Systems, natural frequency, damping ratio, free response, impulse response, logarithmic decrement for evaluating damping.

2. Response to Harmonic Loading, resonance, frequency response function, dynamic amplification factor, transmissibility, sensors, beats, Fourier series.

3. Response to Impulsive Transient Loading, impulse and step response, convolution in time and frequency, shock spectra.

4. Application to SDOF Systems, Base Isolation, and Soil-Structure Interaction, Foundations for Vibrating Machinery.

5. Two Degree of Freedom System, tuned mass dampers.

6. Multiple Degree of Freedom Systems. matrix assembly; general eigen-value problem; mode shapes, orthogonality property, diagonalization, modal superposition.

7. Response Spectrum Method for Earthquake Response and application to earthquake Engineering.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the underlying concepts of structural dynamics such as periods, modes and spectral values.
- Relate the general arrangement of structural configurations to their dynamic behaviour.
- Explain the effects of dynamic loads including earthquakes on civil engineering structures.
- Implement structural dynamics in the analysis and design of structures and their components.
- Demonstrate knowledge on the use and effects of modern mechanical devices on the dynamic behaviour of structures.
- Evaluate current methods of dynamics and explain their advantages and limitations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to special topics of Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering:**

Understand the role of the lithospheric plates and active tectonic faults on the creation of earthquakes.

Understand the role of the geological and soil conditions to the transmission of seismic waves and to the strong ground motion.

Estimate the Magnitude of the Earthquake by a recorded signal from a seismograph.

Distinguish the duration of the strong ground motion and the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) by a recorded signal from an accelerograph.

Understand the “Attenuation of PGA” and the influence of soil conditions to that.

Understand the main issue of the seismic hazard study and read the information given by a seismic map.

Understand the causes of seismicity and the Seismic Hazard of Cyprus.

**Seismic behaviour of structures:**

Understand the seismic response of the structures as dynamic response.

Write the differential equation of motion of SDOF and MDOF structures.

Understand the role of the mass, the damping ratio, the stiffness and the earthquake excitation to the response of the structures.

Determine the frequency and period of a SDOF system and planar MDOF frame structures.

Understand the elastic and inelastic behavior of materials and structural elements.

Distinguish the elastic and inelastic behaviour of structures.

Introduction to Duhamel’s Integral and determination of the response to earthquake excitation.

Draw the earthquake elastic response spectrum.

Understand this method as an equivalent static method to determine the maximum earthquake response of SDOF structures.

**Effects of Earthquakes to the soil and the existing structures – Intensity of Earthquakes:**

Know the possible effects of earthquakes to the soil and existing structures.

Distinguish the various types and the intensity of failure of structural elements and structures due to earthquake actions.

Use Modified Mercalli scale to describe the observed Intensity.

Draw the Intensity Map of an earthquake and the relation between the Intensity and the distance from the epicentre of the earthquake.

**History of Seismic Codes and Philosophy of Modern Seismic Codes:**

Distinguish the different between the Codes and Guidelines.

Know the history of the Seismic Codes.

Be familiar with the main scope of Modern Seismic Codes (protection of human life, limitation of damage, operation of important structures after earthquake).

Be able to apply the basic principles of conceptual design (structural simplicity, symmetry, redundancy, bi-directional and torsional resistance and stiffness, diaphragmatic behaviour, adequate foundation).

Distinguish the regular and irregular structures in plan and in elevation.

Distinguish the structural types of R/C structures.

Understand the philosophy of the ductility class and decide about that during the design.

Estimate the important factor (?i) the behaviour factor (q) and the allowed simplification according to the EC8.

**Estimation of Seismic Loading and Analysis of R/C Building structures according to the provisions of EC8:**

Evaluate the ground type, the seismic zone and design of Elastic Response Spectrum.

Estimate and draw the Design spectrum for elastic analysis.

Simulate the structure and find the fundamental periods.

Estimate the seismic actions and distribute them to the story levels.

Combination of seismic actions with other actions.

Take in the account the torsional effects.

Evaluate the numerical results from the structural analysis (2nd order effects, inter-story drift etc.)

**Detailing of structural elements (according to the provisions of EC2 & Ec8):**

Evaluate the results from the numerical analysis (axial and shear forces and bending moments).

Know the materials requirements related to the Ductility Class of the structure.

Understand the role of the transverse reinforcement in critical regions and the confinement of concrete core.

Estimate and draw the detailing of earthquake resistance elements (column, shear walls, beams and joints of beams and columns).

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify special topics on Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.
- Describe the effects of earthquakes to the civil engineering structures.
- Produce a preliminary study of Earthquake Resistance Design of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.
- Analyse and compare various structural systems to support earthquake loads.
- Explain the seismic behaviour of structures and the philosophy of modern Seismic Codes.
- Validate Earthquake Resistance Designs of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction.**

Structural systems

** **

**Floor Systems**

Equivalent Frame Method

Design as per EN1992. EN1998 Considerations

Discretization and Finite Element analysis of Floor Systems.

** **

**Lateral Force Systems**

Design of Moment resisting frames as per EN1992 and EN1998 Considerations.

Design of Shear Walls.

** **

**Design Foundation Systems**

Various Foundation Systems

Loads on Foundation Systems.

Individual Footings to EN1998-5

Raft foundation design

Design of Retaining Walls

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Ability to integrate topics from various civil engineering disciplines in the design of buildings.
- Be Able to Design Structural Systems
- Understand the behaviour of structural systems in terms of stability and determinacy, load distribution and redistribution
- Have the required expertise to be able to carry out a computer-assisted analysis and be able to determine if values reported by a commercial program are good or invalid.
- Develop critical thinking skills necessary to handle open-ended design problems, including analyzing and assessing multiple building configurations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Surveying and Accuracy of Measurements:**

Introduction to Land Surveying Science and the art of measurement. Understanding of the relevance of Surveying in Civil Engineering projects and description of the basic principles of surveying. Description of decimal places and significant numbers. Review of related mathematics and trigonometry commonly used in surveying calculations. Description of main types and sources of errors in surveying work. Accuracy and Precision of measurements.

**Distance Measurement:**

Introduction to distance measurement. Units of measurement and conversion of units. Drawing to scale. Offset and construction of angles using distance measurement. Distance measurement using pacing, chaining and taping. Field application of distance measurement methods for flat and sloping ground. Identification and correction of systematic errors occurring in distance measurement. Distance measurement when obstacles (rivers, lakes etc.) are present but points are visible. Production of drawings and plans based on related field work.

**Levelling Principles and Applications:**

Introduction to Height measurement and levelling. Definition of benchmarks and temporary benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles. Identification and corrections of common sources of errors in levelling. Collimation error and the two peg test. Operation of an optical level instrument for recording heights. Booking and reduction of levelling data, obtained from field work, using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods. Applications of levelling for construction setting out, the creation of longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measurement of headroom of bridges and slabs (reciprocal levelling).

**Modern Surveying equipment (EDM, GPS and Total Station):**

Introduction to modern surveying equipment. Basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and Global Positioning System (GPS). Solution of problems using field data obtained from EDM and GPS measurements. Description of the various uses of the GPS. Identification of the sources of errors in GPS measurements. Introduction and application of total station for measurement of distances and angles.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the use and importance of surveying in engineering and define basic principles of surveying.
- Define, understand and apply slope, scale conversions, decimal places and significant numbers in surveying work.
- Describe types and sources of errors in surveying work and distinguish between accuracy and precision of measurements.
- Understand and apply on the field various methods of distance measurement for flat and sloping ground.
- Understand the definition of benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles and identify common sources of errors in levelling.
- Book and reduce levelling data using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods and produce plan, longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measuring headroom of bridges and slabs.
- Understand and apply the basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM), Global Positioning System (GPS) and operate the Total Station for angle and distance measurements.
- Solve problems for soil volume calculation for earthworks

#### Course Contents

** Introduction: ** Description of general concepts related to transport engineering

Transport in society: Present the need of transport and also why public transport is needed. Explain modal split and several transport engineering concepts.

__Physical__

__components of transport:__Infrastructure; terminal; of carriage and motive power; Characteristics of a transport system; Overview of major transportation systems.

__Air Transport:__Characteristics of air transport. Operational, meteorological, physical, environmental, economic factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport. Basic requirements of technical buildings. Factors affecting location, length and direction of runways. Parking, Importance of accessibility and connection with other means of transport. Describe different types of airport: centralized and decentralized.

**Different categories of road transport data for the planning, design and management of transport systems. Categories of data include: journey characteristics, traffic characteristics, parking studies, accidents studies. Methods for data collection for each category. Solution of home interview problems. Solution of problems of speed surveys and evaluation of results**

__Data Collection:__** Road Transport: **Use of the forecasting model and solution of problems using: trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice, trip assignment methods using different algorithms. Factors affecting: (a) trip generation (income, household size), (b) trip distribution (distance between zones, socioeconomic factor), (c) mode choice (cost, time) and (d) trip assignment (traffic, distance, time, signals, type of road). Description of road network and classes of road with characteristics for each class. Types of junctions and advantages disadvantages for each one. Different types of pavement.

** Traffic Signals: **Definitions related to traffic signals (red time, phase, intergreen period, change interval, all red, cycle length, etc). Suitability of junctions for traffic signal. Solution of problems related to traffic signal design and evaluation of results

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand general concepts related to transport engineering
- Describe factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport.
- Describe categories of terminal buildings of airports and factors affecting the decision making.
- Identify categories of road transport data and their importance for road planning, maintenance and management
- Solve problems of speed surveys and evaluate results
- Solve forecasting model (trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and trip assignment) problems using different algorithms.
- Describe road network, classes of road and junctions
- Perform traffic signal design and evaluate results

#### Course Contents

**Highway Planning and Design:**Road Network and Hierarchy. Road Classes, Cross Sections and associated Road Capacity. The procedures and stages in the development of road schemes. The concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards.**Road Alignment Design:**-Design Speed / Sight Distance / Superelevation / transitions. Horizontal and Vertical alignment, Roundabout Design, Priority Junctions, Layouts of Grade Separated Junctions.**Highway Economics and Finance:**An introduction to the Economic evaluation of a road scheme. How the results of an economic evaluation are expressed. Cost Benefit Analysis.**Roadside Features / Road Safety:**Street furniture and fencing (traffic signs, guardrails, safety barriers, anti-dazzle fences, crash cushions) and associated road safety.**Highway Soil Engineering:**Methods of determining the subgrade strength for pavement design. Materials used for capping layer / backfilling / filter drains. Methods of subgrade stabilisation. Expansive clays in Cyprus and associated pavement failures. Safe cut / fill slopes and methods of stabilising cut surfaces.**Highway Drainage and Hydraulics:**How surface water is conveyed, diverted and removed from the highway corridor. Different types of drainage facilities / structures. Distinction between open channel and closed conduit drainage.**Flexible Pavement Design:**Methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement and relevant regulations.**Concrete Pavement Design:**The alternative to asphalt pavement. Its advantages and pitfalls**Pavement Maintenance:**The testing of the pavement and restoration techniques. Traffic Mgmt during construction / maintenance works.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards, justify the selection of an appropriate Road Class, Cross Section, and assess the Design Speed for a given road alignment.
- Determine suitable geometric design parameters including horizontal and vertical curvature, transition lengths, superelevation, for a given Design Speed.
- Summarise the available junction types, justify the selection of an appropriate Junction type for given traffic conditions / environment, justify the selection of an appropriate roundabout type and apply the normal roundabout design checks.
- List the available street furniture and fencing, explain the importance of the above features with regards to road safety, and apply appropriate clauses of a European Standard in order to select an appropriate safety fencing.
- Summarise the methods for determining the subgrade strength for road pavement design, list the methods of subgrade stabilisation and explain the effect of moisture changes in expansive clays encountered in Cyprus, and its importance with regards to pavement failures.
- Assess the sizing of closed storm sewers, gulley spacing and the sizing of cross drainage structures.
- Justify the selection of appropriate pavement materials, apply the methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement as per the DMRB requirements and compare them with the PWD Pavement Design Manual design requirements.
- Summarise the pavement testing and restoration techniques.

#### Course Contents

Module A - Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)

- Chemical composition

- Combustion of fuels

- Exhaust gases, gas emissions (NOx, SO2)

- Purification

Module B - Combustion Thermodynamics

- Enthalpy and free energy of reaction

- Spontaneous reactions

- Complete and incomplete combustion reactions

- Lower Calorific value (LCV) and Higher Calorific Value (HCV)

Module C - Oil & Gas exploration (Onshore and Offshore)

- Geological surveys, Onshore and offshore seismology, Magnetometers, Gravimeters

Module D - Oil & Gas drilling and pipelines

- Drilling Methods

- Upstream production

- NG pipelines

Module E - Oil & Gas refining

- Downstream production facilities

- Natural Gas refining and production

Module F – Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

- LNG production (Liquefaction)

- LNG storage

- LNG transportation

- LNG re-gasification and distribution

Module G – Oil & Gas Exploitation

- Oil distillation

- Oil products (asphalts, heavy fuel, gasoline, diesel, LPG)

- Petrochemicals (polyethylene, Methanol, Ammonia, LTG)

- Hydrogen production by NG reforming and water gas shift reaction

- Other petroleum products

Module H – Oil & Gas Applications

- Power generation (Electricity and Heat)

- Transportation

- Hydrogen and NG Fuel Cells

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Acquire a broad knowledge of Fossil Fuels and know their gas emissions (CO2, NOx, etc)
- Know the thermodynamic principles of fuel combustion, be able to write combustion reactions of fuels and calculate their calorific value
- Know about Oil & Gas offshore and Onshore exploration
- Know about Oil & Gas drilling methods and piping and upstream production
- Know about Oil & Gas refining and products, their applications in the energy sector and in the petrochemical industry
- Know about Natural Gas (NG) processing, liquefaction (LNG), storage, re-gasification, distribution and use in the energy sector and the petrochemical industry

#### Course Contents

1. Oil & Gas Offshore and Onshore Drilling

- Drilling preparations

- Oil & Gas Rings

- Drilling methods (conventional and new)

2. Reservoir Engineering

- Reservoir mapping

- Reserves estimation

- Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

- Water-flooding / gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery

- Cost effective reservoir depletion schemes

3. Oil & Gas extraction

- Process Overview

- Onshore Facilities

- Offshore Facilities

- Main Process Sections (Wellheads, Manifolds, Oil/Gas/Water Separation, Gas Compression)

- Metering, Storage and Export

4. Oil & Gas Offshore Processing

- Platform Oil Processing

- Platform Gas Processing

- Oil & Gas Offshore Pipelining

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Know about Oil & Gas onshore and offshore drilling operations and methods
- Understand Reservoir engineering and Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR) methods
- Know about Oil & Gas onshore and offshore extraction
- Understand Offshore processing and pipelining

#### Course Contents

Principles of Soil Behaviour and Soil Classification: Introduction in Soil Mechanics. Definition of saturated soils, water content, specific gravity, dry and bulk densities. Phase relationships with numerical examples. Classification of soils. Sieve analysis and grading curve for granular soils. Plasticity of cohesive soils, Atterberg limits. Plasticity Index. Soil description by visual inspection using standard methods. Laboratory work for phase relationships, sieve analysis and measurement of Atterberg limits.

Flow in porous media and groundwater flow: Flow in porous media: physical concepts and mathematical computations. Darcy’s law and fluid viscosity. Anisotropy of geological formations and importance of porosity and permeability. Flow of groundwater in soils. Total head and water pressure. Soil permeability, hydraulic gradient and rate of flow. Creation of flownets with flowlines and equipotentials and seepage calculation for flowrate and water pressure. Several examples of flownet calculations solved in class. Measurement of soil permeability in the laboratory using the constant head test.

Stresses in soils: Concepts of total stress, pore water pressure and effective stress explained and demonstrated through examples. Importance of groundwater level in the calculation of stresses. Stress changes calculated below the centre and corner of foundations, based on Fadum’s chart and Boussinesq’s formulae. Examples solved in class. Stress changes under the centre of circular footings.

Settlement and Consolidation: One-dimensional compression theory of soils. Soil stiffness and settlement of soils. Calculation of settlement based on elastic theory. Consolidation of clays. Consolidation settlement and consolidation time calculated through examples. Oedometer test in the laboratory and consolidation measurement. Use of oedometer test data to calculate actual consolidation in clays and solution of practical examples for estimating foundation settlements.

Site Improvement: Methods of site improvement for different site conditions, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Chemical Stabilization, Surface and Dynamic Compaction. Compaction of earthfill for engineering projects. Importance of field compaction and on-site control. Measurement of maximum dry density and optimum water content from compaction tests.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify different types of soils by recognizing their physical behaviour, use various phase relationships and describe methods of visual soil classification.
- Apply principles of flow in porous media and water flow in soils to construct flownets and calculate water flowrate and water pressures for specific engineering problems.
- Compute soil stresses, pore water pressure and stress changes due to external loads.
- Calculate soil stiffness, soil settlement and consolidation settlement based on oedometer test data.
- Assess suitability of methods for site improvement for various ground conditions and compute optimum water content and maximum dry density in compaction tests.
- Solve various geotechnical problems by appropriately categorizing these into soil mechanics formulations.
- Develop skills for measuring soil index properties, permeability, consolidation and compaction parameters in the laboratory.

#### Course Contents

Introduction: review of material from Soil Mechanics I course.

Soil strength: inter-particle friction as source of soil strength, its dependence on effective stress and hence pore water pressure; inter-dependency of soil strength and density, concepts of dilation and critical state strengths; effect of permeability on volume change of saturated soils and undrained and drained behaviour; laboratory measurement of shear strength of soils using shear box and triaxial cell.

Rock Mechanics: Introduction to rock mechanics, characterization and mechanical behaviour of rocks. Rock strength and important properties. Applications in the construction and petroleum industries e.g. for tunnels, excavations, shafts, oil and gas wells.

Shallow foundations: types of shallow foundations, derivation of bearing resistance equations and factors, verification of bearing resistance of example foundations.

Retaining walls: derivation of basic equations of active and passive earth pressure coefficients; verification of ultimate limits states of simple rc cantilever walls; types of retaining walls, their pros and cons and modes of failure.

Piled foundations: shaft friction and end bearing, negative shaft friction; types of piles and installation methods, pros and cons; situations where piled foundations are necessary.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the definition and nature of soil failure and identify examples of soil failure in the field. Ability to understand the mechanical behaviour of rocks.
- Explain the effect of pore water pressure on soil strength – use of effective stress, volume changes causing pore fluid flow and concept of drained and undrained behaviour.
- Perform a shear box test on dense and loose dry sand and derive internal friction angle.
- Perform consolidated undrained triaxial compression test with pore pressure measurement on clay and derive internal friction angle.
- Outline the derivation of the bearing resistance equations and factors for drained and undrained conditions, and outline the derivation of the basic active and passive earth pressure coefficients and the nature of active and passive failure.
- Describe the basic retaining wall types, their pros and cons and their modes of failure.
- Describe the situations where piled foundations are used, the basic pile types and installation methods and their pros and cons.

#### Course Contents

**Marine Soils: **Introduction to marine soils and sediments. Topographical features of seafloor. Origin, classification and behaviour of marine soils. Typical geotechnical profiles. Shear strength and consolidation properties. Scour and erosion.

**Marine Site Investigations: **Phases and Planning of a marine site investigation. Geophysical surveys, bathymetry and seafloor topography. Drilling and sampling procedure. In-situ testing and on-board testing.

**Soil behaviour under cyclic loading: **Cyclic behaviour of soils. Drained and Undrained cyclic loading. Effects of drainage. Constitutive modelling. Laboratory tests for sands and clays. Liquefaction phenomena. Liquefaction potential and analysis.

**Lateral loading of piles: **Driven and Bored piles. Pile behaviour under lateral load. Essential soil and pile parameters. Ultimate lateral resistance and deflection of single piles and pile groups. Design recommendations using Eurocode 7. Simplified and complex methods of analyses.

**Marine slope stability and seabed anchors: **Seafloor stability and mechanisms of instability. Stability analysis of drained, undrained and partially submerged soil slopes. Analysis under gravity and wave effects. Earthquake effects and liquefaction hazard. Types and load capacity of anchors.

**Types of Foundations for Marine and Offshore Structures: **Foundations for gravity platforms and jack up rigs. Offshore pile foundations. Design loads and design considerations. Calculation of bearing capacity and settlement. Construction and installation techniques. Prediction of performance.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify marine soils according to their origin and behaviour.
- Organise the sequence and main phases of a marine site investigation.
- Describe the cyclic behaviour of soils under drained and undrained conditions and recognize the importance of liquefaction phenomena.
- Apply simplified and complex methods of analyses for calculating the ultimate lateral resistance and deflection of single piles and pile groups.
- Assess the stability of drained, undrained and partially submerged marine soil slopes.
- Calculate the pull-out capacity of seabed anchors for different loading conditions.
- Compute the bearing capacity, settlement and rotation for different types of marine and offshore foundations.
- Develop skills for relating geotechnical applications in marine and offshore engineering to oil and gas exploration in seas and oceans.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to petroleum geology: the Earth as a dynamic body. Origin, formation and age. Importance of geological time and geological periods. Long-term geological evolution.

- Stratigraphic principles and geological maps: Stratigraphy and paleontology. Deformation of geological structures. Geological maps, construction of cross-sections maps and applications of sub-surface mapping for sedimentary basins and petroleum reservoirs.

- Sedimentology: sedimentary basin analysis, siliciclastic and carbonate lithologies, significance of internal structures in sedimentary rocks. Source, reservoir and seal rocks.

- Basic principles for reservoir characterization: Darcy’s law. Reservoir rock and fluid properties including compressibility, viscosity, capillary pressures, absolute and relative permeability.

- Basic techniques for reservoir characterization: Material balance concept, phase behaviour of hydrocarbons, multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, flow regimes, fluid saturations, fluid coning and water influx. Reservoir types, reservoir monitoring and drive mechanisms of a reservoir.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the process of oil & gas formation and position in the overall petroleum system.
- Appreciate the potential of sedimentary rocks as source, reservoir or seal rocks.
- Integrate data from a variery of sources to establish the geological history of an area.
- Understand fundamental reservoir properties and familiarize with phase behaviour of hydrocarbon systems and mutli-phase flow of fluids.
- Appreciate different reservoir types and the importance of reservoir monitoring.

#### Course Contents

- Basic geodynamics (Plate tectonics, Earth’s structure, Earthquake generation)

- Earthquakes as point and finite source (Earthquake generation and location, Earthquake source and focal mechanisms, Earthquake magnitude scales, fault ruptures and models, Earthquake spectrum)

- Origin of seismic waves (Fundamentals of wave propagation, Seismic wave attenuation, Basic measures of seismic motions)

- Introduction to seismic hazard assessment (Basic principles, Role of uncertainties)

- Ground-motion prediction relations and its use for seismic hazard assessment (GMPE forms and their use, basic deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand basic geodynamics and their role, both regarding the earthquake generation process, as well as for its control on the shallow and deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system.
- Obtain a clear and comprehensive idea regarding the earthquake generation process, the main source characteristics and their role for elastic wave propagation, as well as the main properties of seismic waves.
- Examine in a theoretical and practical manner, through appropriate calculations and software, the fundamental issues that affect seismic hazard assessment and its uncertainties.
- Assess the suitability and applicability of seismic and non-seismic geophysical methods for geophysical-geotechnical soil characterization in applied problems.

#### Course Contents

- Introduction to Computers: Computers and Peripherals, Software and Hardware, Input and Output Devices, Memory, Difference between Main Memory (RAM) and Secondary Memory (Hard Disk), Central Processing Unit, Units of Storage and Speed, Operating Systems, Graphical User Interface and File Management.

- Systems Analysis and Design: Systems Analysis and Design principles, Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), SDLC Diagram, Development models sequential and iterative.

- Algorithms and Flowcharts: Algorithms, Flowcharts, Pseudocode Algorithms and Statements, Pseudocode and Variables, Testing, and Debugging Algorithms and Flowcharts.

- Introduction to Programming: About Programming and Program Execution, Programming Steps, Learning to Program, Integrated Development Environment, “Hello World!” Program, Program Explanations.

- Variables and Arithmetic Expressions: Simple Programs, Program Explanations, Arithmetic Operations, Program Explanations, Data Types (Dim … as Integer, Double, Char, String, Boolean) and Memory Allocation, Further Program Explanations, and Examples.

- Input/Output in VB .Net: Converting Input (CInt, CDbl, CChar, CDec, CStr, CBool) Formatted Output (Console.Write("…"), Console.WriteLine("…")), Examples, Formatted Input (x = Console.ReadLine(), Console.ReadKey()), Examples, and Program Explanations.

- Types, Operators and Expressions: Variables, Constants, Examples, Arithmetic Operators ( , -, *, /), Example, Relational Operators, Math Library, Example, Logical Operators (NOT, AND, OR), Example, Assignment Operator, Example, Control Flow (If … Then …, If … Then … Else, If … Then … Else if … Else …, and Select Case …, Case …, Select Case …, Case 1 To 10 …, Case Else …), and Examples.

- Iteration: VB .Net syntax, While loop, For loop, Do – While loop, Examples, Debugging Loops, and Avoiding Infinite Loops.

- Arrays: Visual Basic arrays, One Dimensional Array, Array Indexing, Using Arrays, Arrays, Examples, Multi-dimensional Arrays, Using Multi-dimensional Arrays, Strings, String Functions, String Example, and Examples. Initializing arrays, Storing values, Process the array, and Print the results on screen. Array sorting using Bubble sort.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the components that constitute a computer system both in terms of hardware and software and effectively use core operations of a modern operating system
- Distinguish the advantages of imperative programming and object oriented programming using a language such as VB .Net and being able to comprehend programs of small and medium size complexity.
- Demonstrate the ability to express elementary algorithms using the syntax of a programming language thus choosing the appropriate data types, applying the correction operations, and forming the necessary statements.
- Analyse simple engineering problems, and construct algorithms to programmatically solve them.
- Illustrate the ability to formulate programs using selective, iterative, and sequential statements and implement them using a programming language.

#### Course Contents

Linear and other Inequalities in one Variable. Absolute Values and their Properties.

Exponents, roots and their properties. The concept of the logarithm and its properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Basic trigonometric functions and their graphs (sinx, cosx, tanx, cotx, secx, cscx) and basic identities of trigonometric functions including trigonometric functions of sums and differences of two angles.

Real valued functions of one variable: functions**, **operations of functions, inverse functions, logarithmic and exponential functions and their properties, parametric equations. Graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limits and continuity: introduction to calculus, limits, and continuity.

Differentiation: The derivative as a function, the derivative as a rate of change and as the slope of a graph, techniques of differentiation, chain rule, derivatives of trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions, higher derivatives, implicit differentiation, and differentials.

Applications of differentiation: related rates, increase, decrease, and concavity, relative extrema, first and second derivative tests, curve sketching, absolute minimum and maximum values of functions, applied maximum and minimum value problems.

Introduction to the concept of integration.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a function of a real variable, define the absolute value function, state and use its properties and sketch the graph of linear, quadratic, and absolute value functions.
- Solve inequalities with absolute values, quadratic inequalities by factorizing and considering the two linear terms, rational inequalities and illustrate a geometric interpretation of the above inequalities by sketching the graph of the corresponding function.
- Define, sketch the graph, and describe the properties of the exponential function, the logarithmic function and the basic trigonometric functions.
- Explain the notion of limits and continuity of functions, identify and verify limits and points of discontinuity from a graph.
- Describe the derivative as a limit of finite differences, find the derivative of specific categories of functions, state and apply the general rules of differentiation to calculate derivatives, use the first and second derivative of a function to find its local extrema , points of inflection, and regions in which it is increasing, decreasing, concaving upwards or downwards.
- Apply the knowledge of derivatives in the field of engineering and in optimization problems.
- Explain in broad terms the concept of the integral of a function of a real variable.

#### Course Contents

**Definite and Indefinite integrals: **The notions of definite and indefinite integrals. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

**Applications of the Definite Integral:** Areas between two curves, volumes by the methods of slices and cylindrical shells, and areas of surfaces of revolution.

**Techniques of Integration:** Method of u-substitution, Integration by Parts, partial fraction decomposition. Trigonometric integrals, inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions: their derivatives and integrals, integrals of powers of sines, cosines, tangents and secants by using reduction formulae, trigonometric substitutions.

**Introduction to Partial Derivatives and Double Integrals.**

**Series:** Infinite series, Power Series, Taylor and MacLaurin Series, tests of convergence.

**Polar Coordinates:** Polar coordinates and conversion of Cartesian to Polar coordinates. Areas in polar coordinates.

**An introduction to complex numbers:** Geometric interpretation, Polar form, Exponential form, powers and roots.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of definite and indefinite integrals, state and use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
- Solve simple definite and indefinite integrals of polynomials, functions involving rational powers of the variable, exponential, trigonometric, and rational functions.
- Solve more complicated integrals by using the methods of integration by parts, u-substitution, partial fraction decomposition, and trigonometric substitution.
- Explain the concept of functions of two variables, find partial derivatives,
- Explain the concept of infinite series, state Taylor’s and MacLaurin’s Theorems, and expand simple functions in such series.
- Explain the notion of complex numbers, evaluate simple expressions involving complex numbers, and express complex numbers in polar form.
- Apply definite integration in order to compute areas between curves, and volumes of solids of revolution by using the methods of slices and cylindrical shells.

#### Course Contents

**Vectors and Linear spaces.** Vector concept, operations with vectors, generalization to higher dimensions, Euclidean space, basis, orthogonal basis: linear dependence, Cartesian products, vector products, vector transformations, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, vector spaces and subspaces. Geometric examples.

**Matrices and Determinants.** Matrix concept, operations with matrices, Special matrices, definition of a determinant and its properties, determinant of a product, inverse matrix, properties and computation.

**Linear Transformations.** Definition of linear transformations, properties, elementary transformations, rank and determinants.

**Simultaneous Linear Equations.** Cramer’s rule, Gaussian elimination, Gauss-Jordan elimination, homogeneous linear equations, geometric interpretation.

**Quadratic forms and Eigenvalue Problem.** Quadratic forms, definitions, Normal form, eigenvalue problem, characteristic equation, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, singular value decomposition.

**MATLAB Applications.** Basic matrix algebra, the determinant of a matrix of n-order, solving simultaneous equations with n unknowns with a number of techniques, finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Elementary vector manipulation, finding linear dependence. Linear Transformations, plotting transforms on the x-y plane.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the notion of a matrix, including its transpose, identify the properties of special types of matrices and perform different matrix operations.
- Generate determinants of any order using minors, compute 2x2, 3x3 determinants directly and find the inverse of a matrix by employing its determinant and the transpose of the matrix of cofactors.
- Use Cramer’s Rule for solving square linear systems with the aid of determinants, employ Gaussian Elimination for solving systems of linear equations, perform elementary row matrix reduction to echelon form and back substitution to obtain the solution of the system, apply Gaussian Elimination to find the inverse of a square matrix using augmentation, execute Gauss-Jordan elimination and implement a readily available inverse of the matrix of coefficients to solve a square linear system.
- Explain the notion of multiplicity of roots of the characteristic equation, employ these concepts to various applications and compute eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of square matrices.
- Defend the notion of vectors in two, three and higher dimensions, perform operations with vectors including dot/Cartesian and vector products, outline the concept of an orthogonal basis of the Euclidean space as well as the geometric structure of linearly independent vectors, show vector linear transformations in concrete geometric examples and exploit the properties of vector spaces and subspaces.
- Define linear transformations, perform elementary transformations available, rank and determinants and apply these concepts to real-life examples identifying their geometric implications.
- Employ the computer programming language Matlab to solve different matrix operations and systems of linear equations, to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors, to execute elementary vector manipulation, to exhibit linear transformations and to construct plots.

#### Course Contents

**First Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification of differential equations. Separable, linear with integrating factor, exact, and homogeneous ordinary differential equations, Applications of First-Order Differential Equations.

**Second and nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equations:** Linear homogeneous with constant coefficients, nth-order linear homogeneous with constant coefficients. The method of reduction of order, the method of undetermined coefficients, and the method of variation of parameters. Initial value problems and applications of second order linear ordinary differential equations.

**Series of Solutions: **Definition and properties, convergence, and solution of linear differential equations with constant and non constant coefficients.

**Laplace Transform:** Definition and properties, partial fractions, Laplace transform and inverse Laplace transform. Solution of linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equations:** Basic concepts and classification. Introduction to separation of variables.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB: **Calculation of solutions with readily available codes and analysis of results.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and explain the concept of an ordinary differential equation, employ the appropriate method to solve Separable, Linear, Homogeneous, and Exact first-order differential.
- Define the concept of second order linear ordinary differential equations, describe the general method of their solution, and calculate the general solution of second-order homogeneous differential equations with constants coefficients.
- Describe the method of Reduction of Order in the solution of second order homogeneous differential equations, and employ the method to obtain the second linearly independent solution.
- Describe the Methods of Undetermined Coefficients, and Variation of Parameters, use these methods to find the general solution of second-order non-homogeneous differential equations, and compare the two methods identifying their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the concept of Power Series expansions as solutions of linear differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of non-homogeneous differential equations that arise in applied engineering problems, and compare the method with the methods of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.
- Identify the importance of the method of Laplace transform in the solution of differential equations, employ the method to obtain solutions of important differential equations, and compare the results with the ones given by previous methods wherever this is possible.
- Define partial differential equations, and apply the method of Separation of Variables on partial differential equations to deduce a system of ordinary differential equations.
- Use readily available Matlab codes to calculate solutions of differential equations that arise in Applied Engineering Problems, and compare the results with the analytic solutions obtained with the techniques learned in the course.

#### Course Contents

**Descriptive Statistics:** Introduction to Statistics, Data Collection, Describing and Summarizing Data, Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Skewness, Tables, Charts, Exploratory Data Analysis.

**Probability:** Sample Spaces and Events. Introduction to set theory and relations in set theory. Definitions of Probability and properties. Conditional probability.

**Discrete Random Variables:** Probability Distribution Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson.

**Continuous Random Variables:** Probability density Function and cumulative distribution function, Mathematical Expectation, Mean and Variance. Probability Distributions: Uniform, Normal Distribution. Approximations for Discrete Distributions.

**Sampling distributions:** Properties of sample distributions: Unbiasedness and minimum variance. The central limit theorem.

**Estimation: **Confidence Internal Estimation for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions. Sample size determination.

**Hypothesis** **Testing:** Hypothesis Testing for Mean, Proportion, Difference of Means, Difference of Proportions.

**Introduction to regression: **Simple Linear Regression and Correlation

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Use descriptive statistics to present data by constructing Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Histograms and Box Plots.
- Explain and apply measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode, measures of Dispersion such as Range, IQR, Variance and standard deviation and the coefficients of Variation and Skewness to different types of data.
- Describe the notion of sample space for an experiment, describe events as subsets of the sample space and construct events by using set theoretic operations and with the use of Venn diagrams.
- Construct the probability function on the space of events with its properties, define conditional probability and calculate probabilities of events in simple problems.
- Describe the concepts of discrete and continuous random variables as functions from the sample space to the set of real numbers and explain and use the probability distribution function and cumulative distribution function to calculate simple probabilities.
- Calculate the expected number, variance and standard deviation of a random variable and use discrete and continuous distributions in examples to calculate probabilities in real life problems.
- Calculate point estimators and construct confidence intervals for means and proportions of one and two populations.
- Test hypothesis for means, proportions and difference of means, apply hypothesis testing to real life problems and construct linear models for a given set of data using linear regression.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Use of mathematical modelling in engineering problem solving; Overview of modern engineering tools used in engineering practice (such as MATLAB); Approximations of errors.

**Roots of Equations:** Bracketing Methods(Graphical, Bisection and False Position Methods), Open Methods(Fixed-Point Iteration, Newton-Rapson and Secant Methods, Multiple Roots and Systems of Nonlinear Equations), Roots of Polynomials(Conventional, Muller’s, and Bairstow’ Methods).

**Curve Fitting:** Interpolation Methods, Least-Squares Regression.

**Numerical Integration:** Newton-Cotes Integration Formulas (Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules, Integration with unequally spaced data, Open Integration Formulas), Integration of Equations (Newton-Cotes Algorithms for Equations, Romberg Integration, Gauss Quadrature).

**Numerical Differentiation:** High-Accuracy Differentiation Formulas, Richardson Extrapolation, Derivatives of Unequally Spaced Data.

**Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:** Initial value problems, single and multiple step problems, convergence and stability. Boundary value problems, finite difference methods using simple routines. The Euler Method, the Runge-Kutta Methods, and Multi-step Methods.

**Numerical solution of field problems:** Finite difference methods, applications using simple routines.

**Applied Engineering Problems using MATLAB**

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the various methods for finding approximation of roots of nonlinear equations, employ these methods to solve applied engineering problems, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method through the solutions.
- Define the concept of interpolation and least squares for curve fitting, employ the two methods to obtain the interpolation polynomials for given data sets and various functions, and generate a set of criteria that allow the use of each method.
- Describe the concept of numerical integration, apply different techniques for the calculation of integral approximations, and identify when the relative errors become minimal.
- Explain the need for approximation of derivatives of any order, define the important approximation formulas and employ various methods to calculate approximate solutions of first and second order differential equations.
- Analyse approximate solutions and based on the analysis classify the different methods based on their order of approximation.
- Explain the concept of finite difference methods in two dimensions and relate to simple problems that arise in Engineering.
- Employ a computer programming language (Matlab) to solve applied engineering problems discussed throughout the course, and compare the approximate solutions with the ones obtained by hand.

#### Course Contents

**Kinematics in one dimension:** Motion along a straight line, motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, graphical representations, motion with constant deceleration, motions due to gravity (Free Fall, Fall with initial velocity, objects thrown upward).

**Dynamics:** Newton ’s Laws of motion, type of forces, free-body diagrams, adding forces graphically, static and kinetic friction, inclines.

**Work and energy:** Work done by a constant force, kinetic energy, work-energy principle, potential energy due to position and due to a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, dissipative forces.

**Linear Momentum:** Momentum and forces, conservation of linear momentum in one and two dimensions, elastic and inelastic collisions, impulse, energy and momentum in collisions.

**Oscillations:** Simple harmonic motion, conservation of mechanical energy, simple pendulum.

**Rigid Body:** Moments, equilibrium of a rigid body, kinematics of a rigid body (motion and rotation about a fixed axis), dynamics of a rigid body (torque, work, energy and power in rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum).

**Waves:** Wave motion, superposition, sound waves, speed of sound, Doppler effect).

**Ideal gas:** density, ideal gas law, temperature scales.

**Laboratory Work:** General Laboratory Instructions and Error Analysis-Error bars are initially covered. Small group experiments on: Measurement of the Acceleration of Gravity, Force of Equilibrium, Newton 's Second Law, Kinetic Friction, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Conservation of Linear Momentum, Collision – Impulse, and Simple Pendulum.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe with equations and graphically the motion along a straight line, the motion with constant acceleration and deceleration, and the motion due to gravity, distinguish and analyse motions to solve problems.
- Explain and apply the Newton’s Laws of motion to write the equations of motions, draw forces, solve problems by adding forces using free-body diagrams, and experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity, investigate the Newton’s Second Law, the factors effecting kinetic friction and force equilibrium.
- Define and apply the concepts of work by a constant force, the kinetic energy, the potential energy due to the position and a spring, the work-energy principle, to solve problems with conservation of mechanical energy with/out dissipative forces, and experimentally determine the spring constant and investigate the conservation of mechanical energy.
- Identify the concept of linear momentum and its relation to forces, define the concept of impulse, explain the circumstances under which momentum is a conserved quantity, distinguish elastic and inelastic collisions, solve problems that involve elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions using the conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and experimentally investigate the impulse and the conservation of linear momentum in elastic collisions.
- Describe simple harmonic motion, apply conservation of mechanical energy on problems with simple harmonic oscillators, determine under what circumstances a simple pendulum resembles simple harmonic motion, calculate and experimentally investigate its period and frequency.
- Define the concept of moments and the circumstances that a rigid body is in equilibrium, determine the rotation of a body about a fixed axis, calculate its torque, work, energy and power, and solve problems involving the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
- Describe with equations and graphically the wave motion, define the types of waves and the concept of superposition (overlapping waves), describe the characteristics of sound waves, define Doppler effect, use the abovementioned terms and concepts to solve associated problems.
- Describe the characteristics of ideal gas, determine under what circumstances the ideal gas law is valid, and solve associated problems using different temperature scales.

#### Course Contents

**Review: **Basic concepts of electricity, atomic structure.** **

**Electrostatics: **Coulomb’s Law, electric field intensity due to one or more point charges, electric potential, motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field.

**Further electrostatics: **Gauss Law and applications, capacitors and combination of capacitors, electrostatic energy of charged capacitors, dielectrics.

**Dynamic electricity: **Electric current, resistance and Ohm's Law, resistivity of conductors, combination of resistances.** **

**Direct Current Circuits: **Electromotive force (EMF), Kirchhoff’s rules, power, potential across resistors, RC circuits.

**Magnetism: **Definition of magnetic field, magnetic field at a point due to current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Ampere’s Law), magnetic forces on current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, motion of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field.

**Optics: **The nature of light, measurement of the speed light, Huygen's principle, reflection, refraction, and polarization.

**Geometrical Optics: **Convex and concave** **mirrors, thin lenses, optical instruments.

**Laboratory Work: **Small group experiments on: Electrostatic Charge, Ohm’s Law, Exploratory Study of Resistance, Resistances in Circuits, EMF, Kirchhoff's Rules, Resistor – Capacitor Network, Wheatstone Bridge, Law of Reflection, Law of Refraction.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Demonstrate graphically and calculate the forces experienced on a charged particle by other charged particles, the electric field intensity and the electric potential due to several point charges at a particular point, describe and solve problems of charged particles motion in a uniform electric field.
- Explain and apply the Gauss law to evaluate the electric field intensity in problems where spherical or cylindrical or translational symmetry exists
- Define the electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor with/out dielectrics, describe and experimentally investigate the resistance’s and the Ohm’s Law variables, explain and experimentally measure the electromotive force.
- Develop skills to solve problems with circuits including several capacitors, several resistors, and resistors-capacitors, experimentally investigate the equations in Wheatstone Bridge and RC circuits, and experimentally demonstrate the Kirchhoff's Rules in electrical circuits.
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic field at a point due to one or more current carrying wires (Biot-Savart Law) and closed loop wires (Amperes Law),
- Define, demonstrate graphically and calculate the magnetic forces on two current carrying parallel/antiparallel wires, and the path of a charged particle motion in a constant magnetic field.
- Describe and experimentally demonstrate the laws of reflection and refraction, show with appropriate drawings how these laws apply to light rays at plane and spherical surfaces (mirrors, thin lenses), and solve associated problems.

#### Course Contents

**Overview of the Construction Industry**

Who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.

‘Project-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to the main contracts and procurement methods emphasizing on the economic side.

Pre-contract project economics: preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, tender preparation, tender evaluation.

Post-contract project economics: estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.

Other project economic issues: development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.

**‘Company-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics**

Introduction to Accounting and Finance issues like: financial statements (the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement), financial ratios.

‘Industry-Level’ Engineering/Construction Economics

Introduction to micro- and macro-economics: micro-economics (supply, demand, equilibrium, elasticity), macro-economics (Governmental policies, unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define who the main players in the industry are, how they operate, how they interrelate, and their impact on each other and the industry.
- Review main ‘project-level’ economics issues like contract types and procurement methods with emphasis on their economic side.
- Carry out ‘pre-contract’ economic exercises like preliminary design costing, elemental cost analysis, detailed estimating, and evaluate tender preparation and tender evaluation methods.
- Carry out ‘post-contract’ economic exercises like estimation of variations, preparation of valuations for interim payments, calculation of fluctuations, cost/value reconciliation.
- Carry out other economic exercises like development appraisal, cash-flow comparison, maintenance studies, life-cycle costing.
- Prepare and analyse financial statements like the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account, the cash-flow statement and interpret them using financial ratios.
- Define micro-economic issues like demand, supply, equilibrium, and elasticity as well as and macro-economic issues like unemployment, inflation, economic growth, exchange rates.

#### Course Contents

__MODULE 1 (Introduction to Sustainable Development):__

· *Basic Concepts and Vocabulary (Definitions of Sustainability, Quantification Methods of Sustainability)*

· *Ethics and Sustainability*

· *Major Environmental and Resource Concerns*

· *Defining Sustainable Construction (The Green Building Movement)*

__MODULE 2 (Sustainable Sites):__

· *Site Selection*

· *Development Density & Community Connectivity*

· *Alternative Transportation: Public Transportation Access & facilities*

· *Site Development: Open Space 17*

· *Stormwater Design: Quantity & Quality Control*

__MODULE 3 (Water Efficiency):__

· *Water Efficient Landscaping*

· *Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation*

· *Innovative Wastewater Technologies*

· *Water Use Reduction*

__MODULE 4 (Energy & Atmosphere):__

· *Optimize Energy Performance*

· *On-Site Renewable Energy*

__MODULE 5 (Materials & Resources):__

· *Storage & Collection of Recyclables*

· *Building Reuse*

· *Construction Waste Management*

· *Materials Reuse*

· *Recycled Content*

· *Regional Materials*

__MODULE 6 (Indoor Environmental Quality):__

· *Minimum IAQ Performance*

· *Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control*

· *Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring*

· *Ventilation*

· *Construction IAQ Management Plan*

· *Low-Emitting Materials (e.g. Adhesives, Sealants, Paints, Coatings, Carpet Systems)*

· *Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control*

· *Controllability of Systems: Lighting & Thermal Comfort*

· *Daylight & Views*

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify major problems facing the planet earth and human society.
- Explain the concept of Sustainability, and how building green is good for Cyprus and the World.
- Describe primary components of a sustainable engineering system.
- Explain design and construction principles for developing green structures.
- List roles that a civil engineer has in implementing a sustainable construction/development project.
- Perform detail evaluation of new and existing buildings based on LEED standards.
- Classify various technologies aimed at achieving global sustainability.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Discuss the basic concepts of construction management. Present historic projects and explain the basic terms such as quality management, contracts, Tenders etc.

**Quality Management: **Quality Control and Inspection. Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management.

**Preparing of Bid Package:** Decision to Bid. Explain the general and supplementary conditions and define the importance of technical specifications. Describe the documents and material that has to be included in a bid.

**Construction Contracts:** Present the major construction contract types. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of competitively bid contracts, the unit-price contracts, the negotiated contracts, the design-build contracts and the construction management contracts. Identify the key issues upon the decision of using any of the above types of contracts.

**Time Planning/Control:** Explain the importance of timely execution of construction works. Describe the problems that are created from bad management of the works. Explain project time control, project planning, activity durations and critical path. Calculate early and late event times.

**Project Funding:** Explain the construction financing process. Present the different financing schemes including the mortgage loan commitment, the construction loan and owner financing using bonds.

**Construction Operations:** Plan and model construction operations. Develop building process models and the structure of construction operations.

**Estimating Process:** Define the importance of the accurate estimating of the works and explain the estimating construction cost the types of estimates the quantity takeoff the methods of detail and the cost determination.

**Cost Control:** Describe the cost related issues such as project cost control systems, cost accounts, project cost code structure, data collection from payroll, project indirect costs, fixed overhead.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the basic principles that characterise and define construction management.
- Identify critical path networks and resource allocation. Evaluate quality assurance. Identify the importance of health and safety and codes of practice and understand aspects of civil engineering management.
- Apply the knowledge of the above topics in carrying out associated analysis and planning.
- Analyze discipline-specific practical skills in using discounted cash flow techniques to assess the financial worth of construction projects.
- Evaluate basic planning methods used in construction.
- Create case study involving manipulation and interpretation of data; mathematical skills; project, time and resource management.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Basics of construction detailing. Identification of drawing equipment, construction lines, and line types. Presentation methods, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections. Undertaking and reading architectural and construction drawings. Work with drawing instruments.

**Staircases:** Different types of staircase parts, symbols, and structural details. Description of the geometric parameters including step width and height. Applications for the use of each type of staircase.

**Foundations and Retaining Walls:** Different types of foundation and retaining walls. Types of reinforcement and reinforcement sizes. Bar splicing and cover. Applications for the use of various types of foundations and retaining walls.

**Windows:** Different types of windows and demonstration of the use for each type of window. Symbols related to windows. Discussion on window elevations and sections. Drawing of parts of a window frame.

**Parapet Wall and Roof Details:** Types of parapet walls and their applications. Drawings of the symbols and parts of parapet walls. Discussion of the differences between flat and pitched roofs. Drawing of details for each type.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify drawing equipment, lines, drawing principles, plan-view, elevations and sections
- Present and relate to architectural and construction drawings
- Show basic drawing skills in the drafting of elements in plan view, elevation view and sections.
- Reproduce the three dimensional nature of objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Show different presentation methods for engineering drawings.
- Arrange drawing elements to create drawings for case studies of a building project.

#### Course Contents

**I****ntroduction:** Introduction of CAD systems and presentation of the basic principles of CAD drawings. Introduction to the Autocad environment (Title line, Menu line, Command line, Drawing Area, Selection of toolboxes).

**“Draw” tools: **Explanation of the “DRAW” toolbox and use of drawing commands in Autocad files. Understanding of the coordinate system. Application of facilities “SNAP”, “GRID”,”OSNAP”,”ORTHO”.

**“Modify” tools: **Explanation and use of the “MODIFY” toolbox. Application of commands to prepare simple drawings.

**Organisation of Work: **Explanation for creating and using “BLOCKS” and “LAYERS” to organize the work in the drawing file.

**View:** Application of commands “ZOOM” and “PAN” to view drawings.

**Dimensions and Text: D**ifferent

** **types of dimensions. Modification of dimension styles and insertion of dimensions in drawings. Use of various types of text. Modifications of text styles and insertion of text in drawings.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize AutoCAD layout, layers, various drawing commands, drawing layout, printing and plotting
- Manipulate AutoCAD drawings, apply corrections and modifications inside AutoCAD.
- Organise engineering drawings using suitable AutoCAD commands and facilities
- Apply drawing skills in drawing plans, elevations and sections.
- Reproduce three dimensional objects to two dimensional drawings and vice versa.
- Explain the advantages and disadvantages of computer aided design.
- Develop engineering drawings for building projects using AutoCAD.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Geology:** Earth Structure: Definition of Geology Science. Explanation of relevance to Civil Engineering projects. Presentation of Earth’s formation and origin. Description of Earth’s interior structure, including materials (core, mantle, crust) and zones (Mesosphere, Asthenosphere, Lithosphere). Geological History.

**Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes:** Definition of plate tectonics theory. Explanation of terms continental drift and ocean floor spreading. Description of different types and characteristics of plate boundaries (ridges, trenches and faults) and explanation on how these are related to earthquakes. Description of earthquake occurrence and effects on infrastructure. Definition of focus and epicentre, and description of scales of magnitude (Richter, Mercalli). Protection measures taken by civil engineers. Definition of Elastic Rebound theory.

**Earth Surface Processes:** Description of the major earth surface processes: weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition. Explanation on how these are related to the rock cycle. Definition of weathering and different types of weathering, namely physical (or mechanical), chemical and biological. Examples for all types of weathering and relevance to Cyprus. Definition of erosion and its effect on the natural environment. Description of erosion agents (rivers, sea, ice, wind). Description of transportation and deposition of sediments and their relation to formation of sedimentary rocks.

**Minerals and Rocks:** Definitions of minerals and mineralogy science. Presentation of different mineral groups and examples of common minerals. Description of mineral properties used for the identification of minerals. Moh’s scale of hardness. Definition of cleavage and symmetry of minerals. Description of primary classification and modes of formation of igneous rocks, extrusive and intrusive (major and minor). Description of primary classification and modes of formation of sedimentary rocks. Usage of sedimentary deposits in the construction industry. Definition of local and regional metamorphic rocks. Presentation of actual rock examples and explanation of the rock cycle. Identification of rocks. Presentation of Cyprus geological zones.

**Site Investigation and Groundwater:** Definition and purpose of a site investigation in civil engineering projects. Presentation and discussion of all main stages in a site investigation. Explanation of desk study and presentation of methods for sub-surface investigations, in-situ testing and laboratory testing. Importance of geotechnical reports and construction monitoring. Discussion of case studies from the instructor’s personal experience. Importance of groundwater conditions and hydrological cycle. Definition of groundwater table, saturated soils, porosity, aquifers and aquicludes. Fluctuations of groundwater level and their effects in structures.

**Geological hazards:** Description and identification of geological hazards. Description of different types of slope failure and landslides. Explanation of trigger mechanisms and protection measures (retaining walls etc.). Description of hazards like sand liquefaction and excessive settlements and explanation of methods of protection (piled foundations etc.). Description of other natural geological hazards such as volcanoes and earthquakes.

**Structural Geology: **Definition of structural geology and the three main types, namely faults, folds and joints. Description of the components of geological structures. Types of faults, folds and joints. Discussion on relevant examples in Cyprus.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the relevance of geology to civil engineering projects.
- Describe the interior structure of the Earth and distinguish between different forms of Earth’s surface processes.
- Define the theory of plate tectonics and relate to the effects of earthquakes on the built environment.
- Identify different types of soils and rocks and differentiate between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
- List the geological zones of Cyprus and describe the geological features and rock formations for each zone.
- Describe the main stages of a site investigation and recognize the importance of groundwater level in construction projects.
- Explain the main geological hazards present in Cyprus and describe measures for protection.

#### Course Contents

**Principles of Soil Behaviour and Soil Classification: **Introduction in Soil Mechanics. Definition of saturated soils, water content, specific gravity, dry and bulk densities. Phase relationships with numerical examples. Classification of soils. Sieve analysis and grading curve for granular soils. Plasticity of cohesive soils, Atterberg limits. Plasticity Index. Soil description by visual inspection using standard methods. Laboratory work for phase relationships, sieve analysis and measurement of Atterberg limits.

**Water in soil and Flownets: **Flow of groundwater in soils. Total head and water pressure. Soil permeability, hydraulic gradient and rate of flow. Creation of flownets with flowlines and equipotentials and seepage calculation for flowrate and water pressure. Several examples of flownet calculations solved in class. Measurement of soil permeability in the laboratory using the constant head test.

**Stresses in soils: **Concepts of total stress, pore water pressure and effective stress explained and demonstrated through examples. Importance of groundwater level in the calculation of stresses. Stress changes calculated below the centre and corner of foundations, based on Fadum’s chart and Boussinesq’s formulae. Examples solved in class. Stress changes under the centre of circular footings.

**Settlement and Consolidation:** One-dimensional compression theory of soils. Soil stiffness and settlement of soils. Calculation of settlement based on elastic theory. Consolidation of clays. Consolidation settlement and consolidation time calculated through examples. Oedometer test in the laboratory and consolidation measurement. Use of oedometer test data to calculate actual consolidation in clays and solution of practical examples for estimating foundation settlements.

**Site Improvement: **Methods of site improvement for different site conditions, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Chemical Stabilization, Surface and Dynamic Compaction. Compaction of earthfill for engineering projects. Importance of field compaction and on-site control. Measurement of maximum dry density and optimum water content from compaction tests.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Classify different types of soils by recognizing their physical behaviour, use various phase relationships and describe methods of visual soil classification.
- Apply principles of water flow in soils to sketch flownets and calculate water flowrate and water pressures for specific engineering problems.
- Compute soil stresses, pore water pressure and stress changes due to external loads.
- Calculate soil stiffness, soil settlement and consolidation settlement based on oedometer test data.
- Assess suitability of methods for site improvement for various ground conditions and compute optimum water content and maximum dry density in compaction tests.
- Solve various geotechnical problems by appropriately categorizing these into soil mechanics formulations.
- Develop skills for measuring soil index properties, permeability, consolidation and compaction parameters in the laboratory.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction**: review of material from Soil Mechanics I course.

**Soil strength**: inter-particle friction as source of soil strength, its dependence on effective stress and hence pore water pressure; inter-dependency of soil strength and density, concepts of dilation and critical state strengths; effect of permeability on volume change of saturated soils and undrained and drained behaviour; laboratory measurement of shear strength of soils using shear box and triaxial cell.

**Shallow foundations**: types of shallow foundations, derivation of bearing resistance equations and factors, verification of bearing resistance of example foundations.

**Retaining walls**: derivation of basic equations of active and passive earth pressure coefficients; verification of ultimate limits states of simple rc cantilever walls; types of retaining walls, their pros and cons and modes of failure.

**Piled foundations**: shaft friction and end bearing, negative shaft friction; types of piles and installation methods, pros and cons; situations where piled foundations are necessary.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the definition and nature of soil failure and identify examples of soil failure in the field.
- Perform a shear box test on dense and loose dry sand and derive internal friction angle.
- Explain the effect of pore water pressure on soil strength – use of effective stress, volume changes causing pore fluid flow and concept of drained and undrained behaviour.

#### Course Contents

** Introduction**: review of material from Soil Mechanics I and II courses.

** Site investigations**: In-situ testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters. Laboratory testing methods. Derivation of soil parameters.

** Design to Eurocode 7**: Introduction to Eurocode programme. Definitions. Partial factors, design approach.

** Spread foundation resistance**: Soil parameters needed for foundation design. Derivation of design values of actions, including inclined loads and moments. Bearing capacity equations and factors. Derivation of design resistance values and safety check.

** Settlement of foundations**: Immediate and consolidation settlement and their estimation. Derivation of settlement estimates from laboratory and in-situ tests. Shallow foundation types and their application.

** Deep foundation resistance**: Pile design in accordance with EC7 for vertical loads in clays and in sands. Derivation of design resistances and safety checks. Design principles and modes of failure for laterally loaded piles. Design of pile groups.

** Retaining walls**: Design of supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls according to EC7.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify methods of site investigation, foundation and retaining wall types and understand the geotechnical design process from site investigation, interpretation, design and monitoring.
- Apply design techniques for shallow foundations with complex loads, RC cantilever and gravity retaining walls.
- Analyze site investigation data for the selection of appropriate shallow and deep foundation types or retaining wall types and calculation of factors of safety on stability for complex cases.
- Evaluate degree of certainty and hence degree of conservatism, need for further investigation, need for monitoring.
- Create design calculations for shallow foundation with complex loads and soil conditions, supported and unsupported embedded retaining walls.

#### Course Contents

**Properties of Fluids:**** **Basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility. Relationships and interconnections between various concepts. Basic problem solving using fluids terms and concepts.

**Fluid Statics:**** **Atmospheric and Gage Pressure. Characteristics of pressure. Pascal’s Paradox. Variation of pressure. Equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack). Measurement of pressure. Barometers. Manometer (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers). Hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), Reservoir Dams. Piezometric Head. Archimedes Principle (buoyancy and stability).

**Fluid Motion: ** Motion of Fluids and the Bernoulli’s Equation. Fluid Flow Rates and the Continuity Equation. Variation of flow parameters in time and space. The Venturi meter and other closed systems with unknown velocities. Toricelli’s Theorem Flow due to a falling head

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts such as density, specific weight, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pressure, and compressibility.
- Differentiate among various basic fluid properties, atmospheric and gage pressure
- Describe the principles behind the measurement of pressure and the function of barometers
- Understand the theory governing the flow (motion of fluids) and Bernoulli’s Equation, and the variation of flow parameters in time and space
- Solve problems pertaining to the variation of pressure, the equilibrium of a fluid with constant density (hydraulic jack), manometer problems (U-tube, differential, well-type, and inclined well-type manometers), and numerical problems that make use of the Bernoulli Equation principles
- Calculate the hydrostatic thrust on submerged surfaces (horizontal flat, rectangular, and curved surfaces), reservoir dams
- Apply Archimedes principle of buoyancy and stability
- Use the Venturi meter and other closed systems to measure pressure under schemes of unknown velocities.

#### Course Contents

**Environmental Pollution and Public Health:**** **Basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering. Important issues that relate to environmental pollution. Important sources of environmental pollution. Relationship between pollutants and the corresponding contributing sources. Possible scenarios of public health manifestations of environmental pollution sources and events.

**Water Supply and Treatment:**** **Key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment. Key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water. The root causes of water supply issues that we are facing in Cyprus . Possible solutions to various potable water treatment scenarios. Conceptual design of a water treatment plant

**Wastewater Treatment: ** Key terms and concepts relating to wastewater production and treatment. Estimation of wastewater quantity production from municipal and industrial sources. Identify key wastewater characteristics (BOD, COD, TSS, TN, TP, etc.). Differentiation among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics. Conceptual design of an Activated Sludge wastewater treatment plant. Key elements of various unit processes (sedimentation / clarification, filtration, aeration, and disinfection) involved in the biological treatment of municipal wastewater. Different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Continuous flow, Sequencing Batch Reactors, Constructed Wetlands)

**Solid Waste Management:**** ** Key terms and concepts relating to municipal solid waste production, transport, selection and final disposal. Calculation of municipal solid waste quantities and characteristics. Key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Alternative final disposal methods for municipal solid waste (i.e. incineration, composting, recycling).

**Air Pollution:** Key terms and concepts relating to air pollution engineering (sources, characteristics, and control methods). Key global issues pertaining to air pollution (climate change, acid rain, photochemical smog). Air pollution control methods (i.e. cyclones, baghouse filters, wet scrubbers, etc.)

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define basic terms and concepts relating to Environmental pollution and engineering.
- Recognize key terms and concepts relating to water supply and potable water treatment, wastewater production and treatment
- Identify key unit processes (coagulation / flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection) involved in the treatment of potable water, key wastewater characteristics
- Differentiate among various wastewater streams based on their characteristics
- Associate different treatment methods with analogous wastewater streams / sources
- Describe the key features of a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill
- Argue for / against incineration and / or landfilling as final disposal options for municipal solid waste.

#### Course Contents

**Momentum Equation:**** **Forces due to fluids in motion. Momentum Equation. Force Equation.

**Open Channels:**** **Types of Open Channels. Laminar and Turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Uniform steady flow in open channels. Geometry and efficiency of typical open channels. Hydraulic jump.

**Dimensional Analysis:** Application of dimensional analysis in hydraulics and in other engineering problems

**Flow in Pipes:** Energy loss in pipes. Hazen-Williams equation. Darcy-Weisbach equation Major and Minor (friction) losses in pipes (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements).

**Pipe Networks:** Pipes in series. Pipes in parallel. Systems with two branches. Systems with three or more branches

**Hydraulic Systems:** Interconnected reservoirs. Quasi-steady flow. Pumps.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe relationships and interconnections between various concepts involved in the Momentum Equation that refers to forces due to fluids in motion
- Differentiate between the Force Equation and the Momentum Equation, laminar and turbulent flow and the concept of Reynolds number
- Solve problems that utilize the principles of the Momentum Equation, problems of systems with two branches and systems with three or more branches, numerical problems that calculate the hydraulic regime that describes interconnected reservoirs
- Understand the geometry and efficiency of typical open channels, how fluid energy is lost in pipes
- Apply dimensional analysis to solve hydraulic and other engineering problems
- Use the Hazen-Williams and the Darcy-Weisbach equations to calculate friction losses in pipes
- Calculate major and minor (exit and entrance losses, contractions, bends, sudden enlargements) friction losses in pipes, flow characteristics in pipes-in-series and in pipes-in-parallel networks
- Select appropriate pumps for specific hydraulic needs

#### Course Contents

· *Basic Hydrologic Principles*

o Hydrologic Cycle & Water Budgets

o Geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a watershed

o Precipitation

§ Formation & types

§ Rainfall measurement & analysis

§ Rainfall losses

o Evaporation & Transpiration

§ Mechanisms of evaporation & Estimation of evapotranspiration

o Soil Moisture & Infiltration

§ Characteristics & Mechanisms of soil infiltration

§ Infiltration survey & formulas

· *Groundwater and Well Hydraulics*

o Aquifer and groundwater

o Flow in saturated aquifers

o Steady & Unsteady well hydraulics

o Characteristics of aquifer and groundwater flow

· *Rainfall-Runoff Analysis*

o Time of concentration, Hydrograph analysis, Rational formula, Unit hydrograph, Synthetic unit hydrograph

· *Urban Hydrology*

o Characteristics of urban hydrology

*, *Sewer system hydraulics

*, *Method for quantity analysis

*, *Control options

· *Hydrology Statistics and Frequency Analysis*

o Theories of Hydrology Statistics & Frequency Analysis

o Choosing a suitable frequency distribution

· *Measurements in Hydrology*

o Rainfall, Water Level, Flow Velocity, Discharge

· *Design Issues in Hydrology*

o Design rainfall

o Small watershed design

o Detention pond design

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Appreciate the most significant hydrological issues for society and the role of hydrological knowledge in securing safe and sustainable water supplies
- Develop quantitative approaches for answering questions in engineering hydrology, as well as creative thinking and basic research skills through independent and team assignments and projects
- Understand the hazard associated with spatially / temporally uneven water inputs, in a wide range of environments where hydrology and water resources become important environmental issues, understand the hydrological processes and techniques applied to understanding the requirements for the provision of stable, high quality and sustainable water resources.
- Estimate flows for a variety of civil engineering design problems, including, 1) urban storm-water analysis, 2) floodplain mapping, and 3) groundwater aquifer characterization.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Strength of Materials **

Explain the importance and review the material related to the development of correct free body diagrams. Then define the terms stress and strain and differentiate between normal stress, shear stress and bending stress. Explain the mechanical properties and their role to the strength of materials. Introduce the philosophy behind design and each design approach and also the role and the importance of the safety factor. Finally explain thermal effects and strain energy.

**Tension, Compression and Shear**

Understand general concept on Strength of Materials (Tension, Compression). Explain in detail the concept of normal stress and strain. Define the term Linear Elasticity and discuss in detail the Stress-Strain curve. Present the Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and distinguish the Ductile and brittle materials. Define the Poisson’s ratio and explain its significance. Also present Shear Stress and Strain, Shear Stress and Strain Curve and the Shear modulus.

**Stress and Strain Analysis**

Analyse of Stresses and Strains in structures. Those include the Plane Stress, Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stresses. Present the Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress and the Hooke’s Law for Plane Stress. Finally present the concepts of Triaxial Stress and Plane Strain.

**Stresses in beams**

Get familiar with the method for analysing pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending. Present the Curvature of a Beam the Strains in Beams (Longitudinal, Normal , Shear) and also the Beams with Axial Loads.

**Torsion**

Know the definition of Torsional loads and determine the deformations of a Circular Bar. Present the Circular Bars of Linearly Elastic Materials, the Stresses and Strain in Pure Shear and also the Relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G.

**Buckling of Columns**

Understand the definition of Buckling and Stability for Columns with Pinned Ends and for Columns with different Support Conditions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concept of free body diagrams, describe notion of stress and strain.
- Analyse design considerations, explain thermal effects and introduce strain energy.
- Describe concepts of normal and shear stresses and strains, stress-strain curves, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus and shear modulus.
- Explain the difference of ductile and brittle materials, and introduce Poisson’s ratio.
- Analyse the problem of stresses and strains in structures, describe plane stresses, principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
- Explain Mohr’s Circle and Hooke’s Law for plane stress and introduce triaxial stress and plane strain.
- Understand the method for analysing pure bending and non-uniform bending, explain curvature of beams and strains in beams.
- Explain the definition of torsional loads, determine the deformations of a circular bar, explain relationship between Moduli of Elasticity E and G, and describe buckling and stability for columns.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Revise of essential material from course Construction Materials (CEM213).

**Recent Advances in Concrete Science:** Introduce special concretes and their applications. Explain the fundamental terminology related to mix design of concrete. Analyse the principles of mix design. Specify the most important properties of novel concretes. Provide the necessary quality assurance inspection. Analyse and develop solutions to everyday problems that are related to materials and mix proportioning.

**Modern Composite Construction Materials:** Analyse the importance of composite materials in construction industry. Explain the fundamental terminology of composite materials. Specify the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials. Provide examples and applications of composite construction materials.

**Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP): **Analyse the advantages of FRP composites. Explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix. Analyse the types of fibres used, specify their properties and explain the most common fibres classifications. Specify the matrix materials used, specify their properties and explain the most common matrices classifications. Explain the difference between thermoplastic and thermoset matrices and analyse the properties of each type. Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites. Describe the manufacturing techniques of FRP composites. Provide examples of applications of FRP composites in construction industry. Explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.

**High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCCs):** Identify the disadvantages of normal concrete and analyse the importance of dense microstructure in the behaviour of the material. Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites. Explain the properties and the role of silica fume and dispersing agents in HPFRCCs. Explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of HPFRCCs. Identify the role of the type of fibres, the volume fraction of fibres and the fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of HPFRCCs. Analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation. Identify the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of the most important HPFRCCs available. Describe the manufacturing techniques of HPFRCCs composites. Describe the constitutive model of HPFRCCs. Identify applications of HPFRCCs in construction industry.

**Modern Materials for Heat Insulation and Sound Isolation:** Identify the heat insulating and sound isolating materials and their properties. Analyse their importance and applications in construction industry. Describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures and identify artificial and natural noise barriers.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe special concretes and their applications, analyse the principles of mix design and specify the most important properties of novel concretes.
- Explain the concept of composite materials, describe the mechanical and durability advances of composite materials and list examples and applications of composite construction materials.
- Analyse the advantages of FRP composites, explain the role of fibres as reinforcement and polymers as matrix, analyse the types of fibres and matrices used, and explain their properties.
- Analyse the mechanical and durability properties of FRP composites, describe manufacturing techniques, list examples of their applications in construction industry and explain the fundamental principles of design with FRP composites.
- Analyse the parameters that can contribute to the achievement of enhanced microstructure in cementitious composites, explain the properties and role of silica fume and dispersing agents in UHPFRCCs, and explain the importance of high temperature curing conditions in the process of manufacture of UHPFRCCs.
- Explain the role of the type of fibres, their volume fraction and fibre aspect ratio in the behaviour of UHPFRCCs, analyse the bridging action of fibres and identify the importance of fibre distribution and orientation.
- Describe the basic characteristics, mechanical and durability properties of UHPFRCCs, describe manufacturing techniques, explain the constitutive model of UHPFRCCs and identify applications of UHPFRCCs in construction industry.
- Identify heat insulating and sound isolating composite materials and explain their properties, analyse their importance and applications in construction industry, describe methods of calculating heat insulation and sound isolation of materials and structures.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project where the students are allowed to choose a topic in the content of Civil Engineering and specifically in the area of Civil Engineering that they are interested in i.e. Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering etc. Normally the decision on the topic is decided after consultation of students with various faculties. In addition the student must form the supervisory committee for the project. The supervisory committee consists of a faculty advisor and also another two faculties.

With the Final Year Project proposal (CEP399) course, students must consult with the faculty advisor in order to specify the objectives, decide on the methodology to be followed and a tentative time plan for the successful completion of the project. The supervising committee participates in the assessment of the project.

The student, in consultation with his advisor/committee, should conduct the necessary background reading so as to obtain a deep understanding of the problem area and better appreciate the problems faced and goals set. Students should also investigate appropriate research methods where applicable.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department a project proposal report that includes the project proposal with the detailed objectives and contributions of the project, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology to be used, the expected results, and the planning for the implementation of the project. In this report, the students can include a description on the work already completed.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Develop management skills and ability to retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources.
- Analyze, synthesise, collect, interpret, understand, evaluate and assess information and employ logical thinking to solve an engineering problem.
- Work autonomously and manage available time.
- Acquire and summarize new knowledge, develop research skills and also demonstrate oral and written communication skills.

#### Course Contents

To satisfy the requirements of the program, students must successfully complete a Final Year Project in the content of Civil Engineering. This is achieved through a two-semester course sequence (CEP399 and CEP400) that students must complete during their senior year (last two semesters of their studies). This is an individual project which each student must complete with the supervision of a three member committee headed by the student faculty advisor. Each student is free to choose the topic of their project which has to be relevant to the area of Civil Engineering that the student is interested in. In addition the student must choose a faculty advisor and also two other faculties to serve on his supervisory committee.

With the Final Year Project (CEP400) course, students must implement the objectives specified in their project proposal in CEP399 according to the specified planning. In this second part of the project the students must perform the bulk of the project work. They have to create the required models, execute the analyses, conduct the necessary experiments, construct any experimental devices and complete the project.

By the end of the course, the student must submit to the Department of Civil Engineering a project report that includes the project objectives and contributions, a literature review on the topic of their project, the methodology used and the results achieved. Finally, the students must present their project work to their supervisory committee, other faculty members and their classmates.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify, formulate and solve civil engineering related problems, using established methods.
- Review, retrieve, analyse and evaluate information from different sources related to civil engineering applications, select and report important information related to the assigned project.
- Develop research skills to acquire new knowledge and demonstrate oral and written communication skills.
- Apply knowledge in practice and use the appropriate tools, methods and opportunities for problem solving.
- Assess, collect, interpret, order information and employ logical thinking to solve a problem.
- Formulate a time schedule for the project and plan its execution from start to finish.
- Conclude the project with a written report and defend the work in an oral presentation in front of peers and faculty.

#### Course Contents

**Civil engineering projects:** Main types of civil engineering projects in various industry sectors. Local examples of construction projects.

**Construction Project teams:** The role of civil engineer in typical construction projects. Pre-tender and post-tender duties and responsibilities. Roles of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor. Importance and variety of specialists in civil engineering with several examples in engineering projects.

**Legislation and Regulations:** Legislation about building and construction. Planning and construction licences. Regulations for building safety and protection of the environment. Professional organisations. Professionalism and Ethics. Importance of use of standards and codes in design, and employment of qualified personnel. Health and Safety regulations for construction. Health and Safety Co-ordinator.

**Basic principles of design:** SI unit system and conversion of units used in Civil Engineering. Different loading types, factor of safety and design codes including Eurocodes. Importance of different construction materials and explanation of the concepts of tension, compression and shear for structural members.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- List the main types of civil engineering projects and appreciate some local examples.
- Recognize the role of civil engineer in typical construction projects and define the role of other members under traditional procurement: client, contractor, sub-contractor.
- State the existence and outline importance of specialists in civil engineering with several examples.
- Describe the need for regulation for building safety and protection of the environment.
- Recognize the importance of use of standards in design and employment of qualified personnel.
- Recognize the importance of Health and Safety regulations for construction.
- Describe various load types, define factor of safety and relate to design codes.
- Identify different construction materials and define the concepts of tension, compression and shear.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Understand vectors and define the relation of vectors forces. Comprehend that the properties of the vectors can be used to model and manipulate forces. Define the different support types such as the free, the roller, the pin and the fixed support. Understand the physical meaning of each support and therefore reason the development of the reactions that are developed in each support.

**Equilibrium:** Present the Newton ’s laws, explain their physical meaning and how they are applied in engineering. Define particles and solve problems of equilibrium regarding particles using the equations for the summation of forces. Define rigid bodies and explain the concept of moment. Then solve equilibrium problems with rigid bodies including the equation for the moments.

**Beams:** Present “beams” in terms of their behaviour, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Show the different types of externally applied loads (concentrated loads, distributed loads) and relate to real scenarios. Explain the concept of determinate structures. Create determinate beam configurations, apply the external loads and analyze to calculate the reactions at the supports.

**Trusses:** Present “trusses” in terms of their element behaviour and interconnection, their response to the application of the loads and the presence of the supports. Discuss the different truss configurations (simple truss, compound truss, complex truss). Explain the importance of the connection between the elements and discuss tension and compression. Present the methods of truss analysis (method of joints and method of sections (Ritter)). Analyze trusses to calculate element forces and support reactions.

**Centroids (Center of Mass):** Calculate the centroids of different shapes and sections using first principles or alternatively when possible calculate the centroids of sections by dividing them into simpler subsections with known geometrical properties.

**Moment of Inertia:** Present the concept of moment of inertia and its importance in engineering. Define “strong” and “weak” axis. Calculate the moment of inertia from first principles. Introduce the parallel axis theorem. Calculate the moment of inertia for different sections and about different axes.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the basic concepts and methods for the analysis and composition of forces, of particle equilibrium, summation of forces and moments, loading configurations, the importance of the Free Body Diagram, how to handle distributed loads, beam equilibrium, joint equilibrium.
- Construct free body diagrams and develop equations of equilibrium for simple models.
- Apply the principles of mechanics to the equilibrium of particles and beams, trusses, mechanisms, concepts of centroids and second moments of areas to the determination of properties of sections.
- Analyze trusses and mechanisms using the method of joints and the method of sections.
- Create structural models to simulate the behaviour of simple structures
- Calculate centroids and evaluate moment of inertias for different shapes and sections.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Introduce the difference between the externally applied loads and the internal forces and also the difference between pressure and stress. Define the internal forces: Axial force, Shear force and bending moment and explain the mechanism that the internal loads are developed. Identify the different structural elements (truss, beam, frame, plate, shell etc) and their use in the different structural forms. Concentrate on the definition of beams and frames and define their properties and behaviour.

**Shear and Bending Moment Equations:** Explain the concept of shear and bending moment. Explain how they are developed, their importance and use in structural analysis. Define the sign convention for the shear and bending moment and explain its significance. Write equations for shear and bending moment for different segments of beams.

**Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams:** Define the designer’s sign convention and explain the rules to draw the shear and bending moment diagrams. Define the slope of the shear and bending moment diagrams at a point based on the values of the load and the shear at the particular point. Draw shear diagrams based on the load curves and bending moment diagrams based on the areas of the shear curves.

**Deflections:** Present the importance of deflection calculation in engineering and explain the necessity for the calculation. Present different methods for the calculation of deflections in structural systems. Calculate deflections in beams using geometric (integration) methods. Calculate deflections in trusses and beams using energy methods (virtual work).

**Shear and Bending Stresses:** Define the longitudinal stresses (axial and bending stresses), explain how they are developed and their importance and use for beam design. Define the transverse (shear) stresses, explain how they are developed and explain their importance and use for the design of beams. Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses for various beam loading configurations.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of shear force, bending moment, slope and deflection, and their use in structural design.
- Explain the importance of sign conventions in order to write equations to describe the distributions of shear-force and bending-moment across beam elements.
- Construct bending moment and shear force diagrams.
- Calculate longitudinal stresses and shear stresses due to bending moment and shear force, locate points of maximum stress and calculate slopes and deflection equations giving due regard to boundary conditions.
- Develop shear force and bending moment equations and use geometric and virtual work methods to calculate beam deformations from applied loads.
- Choose element sizes performing basic beam designs with regards to the applied external loads.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:** Define the term “Indeterminate structures” and differentiate between statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Determine the stability and determinacy of structures. Calculate the degree of indeterminacy and recognize the presence (if any) of geometrical instability. Also present the principle of superposition and its importance in the analysis of the indeterminate structures.

**Flexibility Method: **Present the concepts of the flexibility method and show the methodology for its use. Define the base structure as well as the redundant structures and draw their deflected shapes. Write compatibility equations in terms of the redundant forces, based on the support conditions and structural configuration using the principle of superposition. Define the influence of the presence of the elastic supports and how these affect the compatibility equations. Solve the compatibility equations to obtain the redundants and then use for the complete analysis of the structure. Present the Maxwell's reciprocal theorem, the definition of the flexibility coefficient and formulate the flexibility method in matrix form.

**Slope Deflection Method: **Present the concepts of the slope deflection method and identify the differences with the flexibility method. Show how to identify and sketch global degrees of freedom. Describe the methodology for the implementation of the slope deflection method. Develop the general slope deflection equations and also calculate the fixed end moments. Write equilibrium equations at joints and solve to calculate the global degrees of freedom. Based on the values of the degrees of freedom calculate element end moments, shears and eventually the reactions of the structure. Formulate the slope deflection y method in matrix form and emphasize on the importance of the displacement methods and their implementation in computer software.

**Moment Distribution:** Present the historical importance of the moment distribution and the general concept of the load distribution/redistribution in individual members. Calculate the element stiffness factors, the joint stiffness factors, the distribution factors and also the fixed end moments. Setup a table for the implementation of the moment distribution for continuous beams and frames with no sway and use the table to calculate element end moments. Extent the method to include sway and calculate the sway related force. Define the role of the sway force and calculate relevant fixed end forces. Setup a similar table to the one for the continuous frames and use to calculate additional moments related to sway. Finally calculate total element end moments, shears and external support reactions.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Define and apply the principle of superposition for linearly elastic structures and its importance.
- Classify determinate, indeterminate stable and unstable structures.
- Apply the concepts of flexibility and stiffness for the analysis of statically indeterminate linearly elastic structures.
- Analyze models of beams, frames and trusses using the force method, the moment distribution method and the slope deflection method.
- Compare different methods of analysis of indeterminate structures, develop the methods in matrix form and create small computer algorithms for their implementation.
- Apprize the suitability of various methods of analysis of indeterminate structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Basic Concepts:** Use of linear algebra for the solution of linear equations. Introduction to displacement methods and differentiation from the force methods. Introduction to structural modelling including element behaviour loads and supports.

**Stiffness by Definition:** Define dependent, independent displacements and rigid body motion. Define the structural degrees of freedom and explain their role in the analysis of structures. Setup the stiffness matrix, the externally applied load vector and the displacement vector for various structural configurations using equations of slope deflection. Define the “stiffness coefficient” and its physical meaning in structural analysis. Calculate the stiffness coefficients and setup the global stiffness matrix of various structural configurations using the equations of slope deflection. Present and discuss the properties of the global stiffness matrix and the physical meaning of each property as that is referred to the real structures.

**Direct Stiffness Method**: Present the conditions for the validity of any structural analysis method (equilibrium, compatibility, constitutive laws). Explain the element by element approach for the analysis of structures and present the sign convention. Define element (local) coordinate system and structure (global) coordinate system. Setup the element information in the local system including the element stiffness matrix and the degrees of freedom. Define the “transformation matrix” and explain how it relates the local and the global coordinate systems. Draw the displaced shapes, and calculate the transformation matrix in one step, for different structural configurations. Use the element by element approach to setup the stiffness matrices with the use of the transformation matrix and solve the equations for the calculation of displacements and element forces. Present the solution strategy of structural analysis software (automated direct stiffness) and explain how to obtain the transformation matrix in two steps. Discuss the “location vector” and present its implementation in the structural analysis software programs. Analyze structures using the automated direct stiffness with the aid of MATLAB, MATHCAD or EXCEL.

**Structural Modelling:** Present the concept of structural modelling and relate to real structures. Discuss the modelling of supports based on the physical construction. Present the load paths and explain the choice of elements for the analysis using the direct stiffness method. Create models and analyse them.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Present the concepts of stiffness methods, stiffness coefficients, transformation matrices, external load and structural modelling.
- Generalize the formation of stiffness equations including the use of matrix notation and matrix algebra to systemize the computations of the stiffness method.
- Compute the stiffness terms, formulate and develop the stiffness matrix of a real structure.
- Analyze real structures using the stiffness method for the determination of displacements and stresses.
- Create models of real structures for linearly elastic frame structures.
- Justify the use of the direct stiffness method for the analysis of structural systems over other methods of analysis.

#### Course Contents

**Analysis of Work Relationships: **Artisan–Master Vs. Professional Status. Characteristics of Professional Status. The growth and development of Professionalism. The founding societies

**Role of the Engineer: **The Engineer’s Responsibilities. Public Vs Client Obligations. Values and professional Practice.

**Codes of Professional Contact: **Discussion for the need of a Code of Contact. Analysis of the Cyprus American and UK Codes. Examples.

**Professionalism and Current Ethical Dilemmas: **Case Studies relating to Environment Vs Technology. Ethical Dilemmas.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Recognize the importance of active participation in professional societies and organizations in professional practice.
- Develop an awareness of the impact of technology and engineering on society, including life safety and environmental issues.
- Describe the societal context of the civil engineering profession.
- Assess the ethical responsibilities of practicing engineers.
- Develop skills for communicating and defending ideas effectively, including oral and written communication and technical report writing skills.

#### Course Contents

**Revision of Engineering Software:** Review the basics of structural engineering software and present the basic features of common commercial programs. Explain the different analyses options (linear vs nonlinear, static vs dynamic) and how are those implemented in the engineering software.

**Direct Stiffness Method:** Setup systems of linear equations and solve using Gauss elimination. Create stiffness matrices and external load vectors of structural systems and solve to obtain displacements. Use the displacements to calculate element forces and draw shear and bending moment diagrams.

**Computer Programming / Use of MATLAB:** Explain the important rules for the development of computer programs. State the importance of creating modular programs and use available MATLAB scripts that are applied to civil engineering applications. Take advantage of the MATLAB available commands and create simple script files and function files to solve specific problems.

**Introduction to Finite Elements:** Present the basics of the finite element method (discretization, meshing, assembly of equations, applied loads) and discuss the similarities and differences with the direct stiffness method. Explain the behaviour of the most common finite elements (membrane, plate, shell, solid) and discuss their application. Discuss the assessment of mesh correctness.

**Structural Modeling:** Explain the importance of creating correct structural models to predict the actual structural behaviour and present modelling techniques for various support conditions, applied loading, symmetry and antisymmetry. Discuss the behaviour of example structures, identify the appropriate elements and create structural models.

**Use of Available Software (SAP):** Explain the procedure followed by commercial structural analysis programs. Discuss structural modelling and explain the use of structural elements and supports. Use SAP to create models of structural systems and analyze. Assess the validity of the results based on hand calculations and enhance intuition.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe various structural systems and recognize the appropriate elements to be used for the analysis.
- Review the principles of the direct stiffness method as that applies to the analysis of structures and explain the similarities and differences with the finite element method.
- Construct structural models and use programming techniques to develop simple engineering algorithms to solve engineering problems.
- Investigate the advantages and disadvantages of engineering software and select the most appropriate for the application to civil engineering problems.
- Make use engineering software related to the analysis and design of structures including their foundations. Study the output and verify the results.
- Analyze models of real structures and validate the results.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction **

Introduce the principles of Codes of practice. Explain limit state design. Explain Characteristic Strengths of materials. Explain Characteristic loads. Explain Design Loads.

**Analysis of Structures **

Describe the process and methods of Analysis of structures at the Ultimate Limit State . Specify Favourable and Unfavourable Loading Effects. Explain Critical Load Combinations. Specify the importance of Moment Envelope Curves.

**Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Sections **

Explain states of stress and strain in reinforced concrete sections. Derive design equations.** **

**Serviceability** ** Limit State ** ** **

Specify the importance of Serviceability Limit State . Describe the problems of excessive deflection, cracking, vibration. Introduce the concept of span to depth ratios.

**Design of Rectangular Sections **

Introduce singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections. Analyse the principles and methods of design of beams and slabs for flexure. Explain the concept and process of design of sections for shear. Highlight the importance of punching shear.

**Design of Columns**

Describe Short and Slender Columns. Analyse the phenomenon of column buckling and biaxial bending of columns. Explain the procedure of design of columns.

** **

**Foundations and Retaining Walls **

Analyse the principles and methods of design of different kinds of foundations and retaining walls.

**Composite Construction **

Introduce the problem and of design of different kinds of composite structures.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the principles of codes of practice, Limit State Design, characteristic and design values of actions and materials strengths.
- Analyse the process and methods of analysis of sections and structures.
- Analyse the method of design of beams and slabs for flexure.
- Explain the importance of Serviceability Limit State of deflection.
- Describe the methods of analysis and design of two-way slabs for bending and shear.
- Analyse the principles and procedure of design of columns.
- Explain the principles and procedures of design of several types of foundations and retaining walls.
- Introduce the problem of design of composite structures.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction:**The sources of structural loads are identified and the relevant loads for the type of structure are presented according to the relevant codes. The codes and specifications relating to steel structural analysis and design are presented and identified. Identify the material properties of steel. Identify various shapes associated with steel members and their typical applications. List the various types of steel member connections. Identify design principles such as factor of safety, working stress and Ultimate Limit State Design. Identify basic principles for the performance of structural analysis of steel structures. Apply code provisions for global analysis and imperfections. Determine cross section classification according to code.**Tension Members:**Identify tension member behaviour. List cases for using tension members. List tension member modes of failure. Analyze and design tension members according to code provisions. Identify and list tension member connection types. Analyze and design tension member connections for shearing in bolts, bearing of bolts, tension strength of connection plates, shearing of welds, tension strength of welds etc.**Compression Members:**Define compression member behaviour and modes of failure such as buckling. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for axial compressive loads. Analyze and design compression members according to code provisions for combined axial compressive loads and uniaxial or biaxial bending.**Flexural Members:**Define flexural member behaviour and modes of failure. Identify stress distribution in flexural members at different loading stages. Differentiate between elastic and plastic analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze bending stresses in flexural members. Define section modulus. Calculate stresses due to biaxial bending in flexural members. Identify and draw shear stresses in elastic thin-walled open beam cross-sections. Define plastic analysis of beams. Identify the mechanisms of plastic hinge formation and identify possible collapse mechanisms due to plastic hinge formation in beams. Describe the procedure for the analysis and design of flexural members. Analyze and design flexural members according to code provisions for the ultimate limit state (axial, bending, and shear etc).**Beam Columns:**Define beam-column behaviour and modes of failure. Analyze beam-columns for bending and axial compression. Define biaxial bending in beam-columns. Verify capacity of beam-column under combined bending and axial compression according to code provisions.**Steel Connections:**List types of steel connections for steel structures. Identify bolt strength class, types of holes and spacing requirement according to code. Analyze and design bolted connections according to code requirements. Calculate number of bolts required for the connection. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded bolts in combined shear and tension. Identify types of joints and welds for steel connections. Identify weld symbols and dimensional requirements for welds. Calculate fillet, plug and slot weld strength. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear. Analyze and design eccentrically loaded welds in shear and tension. Analysis classification and modelling of steel connection.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Outline the principles and concepts of modern design codes appropriate for different applications of steel and relate to the analysis and design stages.
- Distinguish between working stress and Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) methods of analysis and design.
- Apply & use code provisions in the determination of loads, application of appropriate load factors in the analysis of structures and design code provisions for serviceability and ultimate limit states.
- Analyse and design beams, columns, and connections under various loading configurations.
- Prepare detail construction drawings and specifications for construction.
- Predict changes in the behaviour of the structure due to changes in usage and recommend course of action.

#### Course Contents

1. Single Degree of Freedom Systems, natural frequency, damping ratio, free response, impulse response, logarithmic decrement for evaluating damping.

2. Response to Harmonic Loading, resonance, frequency response function, dynamic amplification factor, transmissibility, sensors, beats, Fourier series.

3. Response to Impulsive Transient Loading, impulse and step response, convolution in time and frequency, shock spectra.

4. Application to SDOF Systems, Base Isolation, and Soil-Structure Interaction, Foundations for Vibrating Machinery.

5. Two Degree of Freedom System, tuned mass dampers.

6. Multiple Degree of Freedom Systems. matrix assembly; general eigen-value problem; mode shapes, orthogonality property, diagonalization, modal superposition.

7. Response Spectrum Method for Earthquake Response and application to earthquake Engineering.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Describe the underlying concepts of structural dynamics such as periods, modes and spectral values.
- Relate the general arrangement of structural configurations to their dynamic behaviour.
- Explain the effects of dynamic loads including earthquakes on civil engineering structures.
- Implement structural dynamics in the analysis and design of structures and their components.
- Demonstrate knowledge on the use and effects of modern mechanical devices on the dynamic behaviour of structures.
- Evaluate current methods of dynamics and explain their advantages and limitations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to special topics of Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering:**

Understand the role of the lithospheric plates and active tectonic faults on the creation of earthquakes.

Understand the role of the geological and soil conditions to the transmission of seismic waves and to the strong ground motion.

Estimate the Magnitude of the Earthquake by a recorded signal from a seismograph.

Distinguish the duration of the strong ground motion and the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) by a recorded signal from an accelerograph.

Understand the “Attenuation of PGA” and the influence of soil conditions to that.

Understand the main issue of the seismic hazard study and read the information given by a seismic map.

Understand the causes of seismicity and the Seismic Hazard of Cyprus.

**Seismic behaviour of structures:**

Understand the seismic response of the structures as dynamic response.

Write the differential equation of motion of SDOF and MDOF structures.

Understand the role of the mass, the damping ratio, the stiffness and the earthquake excitation to the response of the structures.

Determine the frequency and period of a SDOF system and planar MDOF frame structures.

Understand the elastic and inelastic behavior of materials and structural elements.

Distinguish the elastic and inelastic behaviour of structures.

Introduction to Duhamel’s Integral and determination of the response to earthquake excitation.

Draw the earthquake elastic response spectrum.

Understand this method as an equivalent static method to determine the maximum earthquake response of SDOF structures.

**Effects of Earthquakes to the soil and the existing structures – Intensity of Earthquakes:**

Know the possible effects of earthquakes to the soil and existing structures.

Distinguish the various types and the intensity of failure of structural elements and structures due to earthquake actions.

Use Modified Mercalli scale to describe the observed Intensity.

Draw the Intensity Map of an earthquake and the relation between the Intensity and the distance from the epicentre of the earthquake.

**History of Seismic Codes and Philosophy of Modern Seismic Codes:**

Distinguish the different between the Codes and Guidelines.

Know the history of the Seismic Codes.

Be familiar with the main scope of Modern Seismic Codes (protection of human life, limitation of damage, operation of important structures after earthquake).

Be able to apply the basic principles of conceptual design (structural simplicity, symmetry, redundancy, bi-directional and torsional resistance and stiffness, diaphragmatic behaviour, adequate foundation).

Distinguish the regular and irregular structures in plan and in elevation.

Distinguish the structural types of R/C structures.

Understand the philosophy of the ductility class and decide about that during the design.

Estimate the important factor (?i) the behaviour factor (q) and the allowed simplification according to the EC8.

**Estimation of Seismic Loading and Analysis of R/C Building structures according to the provisions of EC8:**

Evaluate the ground type, the seismic zone and design of Elastic Response Spectrum.

Estimate and draw the Design spectrum for elastic analysis.

Simulate the structure and find the fundamental periods.

Estimate the seismic actions and distribute them to the story levels.

Combination of seismic actions with other actions.

Take in the account the torsional effects.

Evaluate the numerical results from the structural analysis (2nd order effects, inter-story drift etc.)

**Detailing of structural elements (according to the provisions of EC2 & Ec8):**

Evaluate the results from the numerical analysis (axial and shear forces and bending moments).

Know the materials requirements related to the Ductility Class of the structure.

Understand the role of the transverse reinforcement in critical regions and the confinement of concrete core.

Estimate and draw the detailing of earthquake resistance elements (column, shear walls, beams and joints of beams and columns).

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify special topics on Engineering Seismology, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.
- Describe the effects of earthquakes to the civil engineering structures.
- Produce a preliminary study of Earthquake Resistance Design of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.
- Analyse and compare various structural systems to support earthquake loads.
- Explain the seismic behaviour of structures and the philosophy of modern Seismic Codes.
- Validate Earthquake Resistance Designs of R/C buildings according to the provisions of EC8.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction.**

Structural systems

** **

**Floor Systems**

Equivalent Frame Method

Design as per EN1992. EN1998 Considerations

Discretization and Finite Element analysis of Floor Systems.

** **

**Lateral Force Systems**

Design of Moment resisting frames as per EN1992 and EN1998 Considerations.

Design of Shear Walls.

** **

**Design Foundation Systems**

Various Foundation Systems

Loads on Foundation Systems.

Individual Footings to EN1998-5

Raft foundation design

Design of Retaining Walls

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Ability to integrate topics from various civil engineering disciplines in the design of buildings.
- Be Able to Design Structural Systems
- Understand the behaviour of structural systems in terms of stability and determinacy, load distribution and redistribution
- Have the required expertise to be able to carry out a computer-assisted analysis and be able to determine if values reported by a commercial program are good or invalid.
- Develop critical thinking skills necessary to handle open-ended design problems, including analyzing and assessing multiple building configurations.

#### Course Contents

**Introduction to Surveying and Accuracy of Measurements:**

Introduction to Land Surveying Science and the art of measurement. Understanding of the relevance of Surveying in Civil Engineering projects and description of the basic principles of surveying. Description of decimal places and significant numbers. Review of related mathematics and trigonometry commonly used in surveying calculations. Description of main types and sources of errors in surveying work. Accuracy and Precision of measurements.

**Distance Measurement:**

Introduction to distance measurement. Units of measurement and conversion of units. Drawing to scale. Offset and construction of angles using distance measurement. Distance measurement using pacing, chaining and taping. Field application of distance measurement methods for flat and sloping ground. Identification and correction of systematic errors occurring in distance measurement. Distance measurement when obstacles (rivers, lakes etc.) are present but points are visible. Production of drawings and plans based on related field work.

**Levelling Principles and Applications:**

Introduction to Height measurement and levelling. Definition of benchmarks and temporary benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles. Identification and corrections of common sources of errors in levelling. Collimation error and the two peg test. Operation of an optical level instrument for recording heights. Booking and reduction of levelling data, obtained from field work, using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods. Applications of levelling for construction setting out, the creation of longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measurement of headroom of bridges and slabs (reciprocal levelling).

**Modern Surveying equipment (EDM, GPS and Total Station):**

Introduction to modern surveying equipment. Basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and Global Positioning System (GPS). Solution of problems using field data obtained from EDM and GPS measurements. Description of the various uses of the GPS. Identification of the sources of errors in GPS measurements. Introduction and application of total station for measurement of distances and angles.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the use and importance of surveying in engineering and define basic principles of surveying.
- Define, understand and apply slope, scale conversions, decimal places and significant numbers in surveying work.
- Describe types and sources of errors in surveying work and distinguish between accuracy and precision of measurements.
- Understand and apply on the field various methods of distance measurement for flat and sloping ground.
- Understand the definition of benchmarks, setting out and basic levelling principles and identify common sources of errors in levelling.
- Book and reduce levelling data using both the rise and fall and the plane of collimation methods and produce plan, longitudinal and transverse road sections, sewer trench sections, contour formation and measuring headroom of bridges and slabs.
- Understand and apply the basic principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM), Global Positioning System (GPS) and operate the Total Station for angle and distance measurements.
- Solve problems for soil volume calculation for earthworks

#### Course Contents

**Highway Planning and Design:**Road Network and Hierarchy. Road Classes, Cross Sections and associated Road Capacity. The procedures and stages in the development of road schemes. The concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards.**Road Alignment Design:**-Design Speed / Sight Distance / Superelevation / transitions. Horizontal and Vertical alignment, Roundabout Design, Priority Junctions, Layouts of Grade Separated Junctions.**Highway Economics and Finance:**An introduction to the Economic evaluation of a road scheme. How the results of an economic evaluation are expressed. Cost Benefit Analysis.**Roadside Features / Road Safety:**Street furniture and fencing (traffic signs, guardrails, safety barriers, anti-dazzle fences, crash cushions) and associated road safety.**Highway Soil Engineering:**Methods of determining the subgrade strength for pavement design. Materials used for capping layer / backfilling / filter drains. Methods of subgrade stabilisation. Expansive clays in Cyprus and associated pavement failures. Safe cut / fill slopes and methods of stabilising cut surfaces.**Highway Drainage and Hydraulics:**How surface water is conveyed, diverted and removed from the highway corridor. Different types of drainage facilities / structures. Distinction between open channel and closed conduit drainage.**Flexible Pavement Design:**Methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement and relevant regulations.**Concrete Pavement Design:**The alternative to asphalt pavement. Its advantages and pitfalls**Pavement Maintenance:**The testing of the pavement and restoration techniques. Traffic Mgmt during construction / maintenance works.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Explain the concepts of Relaxations and Departures in road geometric design standards, justify the selection of an appropriate Road Class, Cross Section, and assess the Design Speed for a given road alignment.
- Determine suitable geometric design parameters including horizontal and vertical curvature, transition lengths, superelevation, for a given Design Speed.
- Summarise the available junction types, justify the selection of an appropriate Junction type for given traffic conditions / environment, justify the selection of an appropriate roundabout type and apply the normal roundabout design checks.
- List the available street furniture and fencing, explain the importance of the above features with regards to road safety, and apply appropriate clauses of a European Standard in order to select an appropriate safety fencing.
- Summarise the methods for determining the subgrade strength for road pavement design, list the methods of subgrade stabilisation and explain the effect of moisture changes in expansive clays encountered in Cyprus, and its importance with regards to pavement failures.
- Assess the sizing of closed storm sewers, gulley spacing and the sizing of cross drainage structures.
- Justify the selection of appropriate pavement materials, apply the methods and techniques behind the design of Flexible Pavement as per the DMRB requirements and compare them with the PWD Pavement Design Manual design requirements.
- Summarise the pavement testing and restoration techniques.

#### Course Contents

__This course is for 1st and 2nd year students only.__

This course is designed to provide students with the necessary knowledge and skills for a successful transition from high school or army to the University and to ensure a successful academic career. This course will equip students with skills, techniques and tools that will help them succeed and grow in their academic, professional and personal life.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

#### Course Contents

Introduction: Basic construction materials and their applications. Most common ways of materials loading. Basic units used in the material science.

Material Properties: Physical, mechanical and chemical properties of construction materials. Terms of Bearing Capacity, Density, Specific Gravity and Modulus of Elasticity. Principle of the probabilistic assessment of properties. Atomic structure of materials. Types of atomic bonds and special lattices. Terms of micro- and macro-structures.

Cements: Concept of Hydraulic Cements and give emphasis to Portland cement. Process of manufacture of Portland cement. Chemical composition of Portland cement. Process of hydration of cement. Structure of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP). Factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste.

Aggregates: Types of aggregates and the most common classification methods. Role of their shape and texture in the properties of a concrete mix. Evaluate their role as fillers. Terms of size gradation, sieve analysis and grading curves. Strength and durability of aggregates and most common tests.

Concrete: Concrete constituent materials. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete and most common tests. Chemical admixtures used in concrete technology. Principles of developing High Strength Concrete mixtures. Durability principles and durability properties of concrete. Testing procedures of fresh and hardened material on site. Concrete mix design. Concrete applications.

Metals: Types of metals used in construction industry. Properties of metals and most common tests of steel. Steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material. Durability issues of steel and maintenance methods. Aluminium properties and alloys, and their applications.

Timber: Types of timber and most common classification methods. Properties of timber and most common tests. Applications of timber as a structural material. Durability issues of timber and the required maintenance applications.

Masonry: Primary masonry materials used in construction. Properties of stone and the most common classification methods. Properties of bricks and the most common classification methods. Properties of concrete masonry units (CMU) and the most common classification methods. Advantages and disadvantages of masonry construction and the structural behaviour. Properties of masonry materials and the most common testing methods.

Bituminous: Constituent materials of bituminous mixes. Properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state. Durability issues of bituminous materials. Testing methods of fresh and hardened material. Methods of production and principles of mix design. Fundamental applications of bituminous materials.

Introduction to Modern Materials: Recent trends of research in construction materials. Applications of modern construction materials. Importance of the development and use of sustainable construction materials.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Identify the basic construction materials and their applications, describe the physical and mechanical properties of construction materials and analyse the atomic structure of materials.
- Describe the concept of Hydraulic Cements, give emphasis to Portland cement, and evaluate the factors that affect the strength of Hardened Cement Paste. Also describe the types of aggregates and the most common classification methods.
- Define concrete constituent materials, analyse the properties of fresh and hardened concrete, describe the most common tests, and evaluate the chemical admixtures used in concrete technology.
- Describe the types of metals used in construction industry, analyse the properties of metals and describe the most common tests of steel. Evaluate steel as concrete reinforcement and steel as a structural material, and describe aluminium properties and alloys, and analyse their applications.
- Describe the types of timber the most common classification methods, and explain the properties of timber and describe the most common tests.
- Describe the primary masonry materials used in construction, analyse the properties of stone, bricks and concrete masonry units, and the most common classification methods.
- Analyse the constituent materials of bituminous mixes, describe the properties of bituminous mixes in their fresh and hardened state, and describe the testing methods of fresh and hardened material.

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Sustainable development and construction

- Sustainable development fundamentals

- Sustainable construction fundamentals

- Management of sustainable construction

- EU directives and policies

- Sustainability of construction works CEN/TC 350 fundamentals

Module 2: Integrated Sustainability Assessment

- Sustainability assessment fundamentals

- Sustainable construction indicators

- Sustainability assessment tools

- Integrated sustainability assessment toolkit

Module 3: Sustainable Procurement

- Sustainable procurement fundamentals

- Impact of sustainable procurement on construction supply chain

- Whole life costing

- Sustainable procurement: EU initiatives

- Sustainable construction in practices

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts of sustainable development in construction.
- Be aware of the wider benefits of the environmental, social and economic benefits from sustainable construction to society.
- Identify sustainable procurement routes and sustainable construction standards (LEED, BREEAM, CEN/TC 350, CEEQUAL, etc.).
- Develop sustainable construction indicators and a sustainable construction index.
- Perform a holistic sustainability assessment, sustainable procurement, and innovation.
- Be able to contribute to the development of a sustainability assessment method (along the lines of BREEAM or LEED) that would better suit differing climates and cultures.

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Energy transfer principles

- Fundamentals of energy transfer mechanisms

- Parameters affecting energy transfer mechanisms from and to the building envelope

- Quantification of energy losses – worked examples

Module 2: Indoor thermal comfort

- Energy interaction between building user and building envelope

- The Fanger model – worked examples

- Quantification of thermal comfort indexes (PMV, PPD)

- The psychrometric chart – worked examples

Module 3: Building elements thermal behavior

- Definition of the overall heat transfer coefficient of building elements

- Calculation of energy losses from building elements consisting of several layers

- Definition of thermal bridges and calculation of energy losses

- Best practices in selection and application of buildings thermal insulation

- Minimum legislative requirements in buildings thermal insulation

Module 4: Buildings energy performance certification

- Fundamentals of calculation buildings heating and cooling loads

- Building services contribution to buildings energy consumption

- Definition of the operational and asset rating

- Energy classification rationale – the reference building

- Definition of buildings energy class – worked examples

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic principles that govern the energy transfer from and to the building envelope
- Identify the parameters that affect the indoor thermal comfort and calculate the relative indoor comfort indexes
- Be aware of the best practices in building’s thermal insulation
- Perform standard calculations for the overall heat transfer coefficient of building elements
- Quantify the building losses from vulnerable building elements such as the glazed areas and the thermal bridges
- Be aware of the principles related to the energy performance certification(EPCs) in process and be in position to issue EPCs

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Retrofit Fundamentals

- Terminology

- Earthquake resistant structures

- The goals and objectives of retrofit

- Identification of sources for structural damage

- Identification methods for accessing the damage level

- Codes and specifications for the strengthening/retrofitting of structures

Module 2: Structural Retrofit Philosophy

- Retrofit at the element level

- Retrofit at the structure level

- Selective techniques

Module 3: Seismic Retrofit of Existing Structures

- The steps for seismic retrofit

- Retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings

- Retrofit of steel buildings

- Retrofit of historical buildings

Module 4: Retrofitting and Energy Upgrades

- Energy upgrade of buildings shell

- Techniques, materials and practices in the energy upgrade of building

- Installation of renewable energy technologies into renovated buildings shell

- Decision making for buildings energy upgrade

- The role of building services into buildings energy upgrade

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts and familiarize the student with the terminology related to the retrofitting of structures
- Identify the sources of structural damage and present the methods for their assessment
- Present the overall philosophy of structural retrofitting and understand the various methods that are available
- Present the concept and the relevant codes for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings
- To provide all the required feedback to students to be in position of take a decision whether to renovate or not a building based on energy criteria

#### Course Contents

Overview of Civil Engineering materials: Revise of essential information related to Material properties, Material markets, Material flow, Embodied and process energies of materials, Impact on the Biosphere, Optimization of material use, Responsible sourcing.

Concept of Sustainability: Explain the fundamental terminology related Sustainability, analyse the most important definitions and impacts and finally explain building materials Life-Cycle concerns.

Sustainable Civil Engineering Design Practice: Analyse the existing policies on the role of the Engineer in Sustainability, present other guidelines for sustainable design and sustainability metrics for materials and explain what goes into our buildings.

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Green Materials: Introduction to life-cycle assessment and explain the principles of selection of building materials using LCA.

Material Specifications: Explain the components of a material specification, analyse the sustainability-based material specifications, highlight the required specifications for greener products and materials, and introduce the Product Transparency Movement

Greener Products and Materials: Explain the rules for selection of greener materials, explain LEED Credits for materials and resources, highlight the importance of Durability and Performance of buildings, thermal and moisture protection, appropriate selection of house fixtures, indoor environmental quality and present issues of debate for discussion in class.

Concrete, Masonry, Metals, Wood, Plastic, Composites: Explain how to minimise their environmental impact and present practices and processes of recycling and reusing and also potential applications.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Ability to understand the concept of sustainability in relation to the building materials and capacity to apply sustainability in civil engineering practice.
- Ability to understand the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and use the outcome of LCA for the selection of green construction materials.
- Capacity to identify, explain and evaluate materials specification for the development of a greener structure.
- Capacity to analyse and adopt rules for selection of greener materials.
- Ability to understand and apply methods for the minimisation of the environmental impact of most common building materials and also identify potential applications.

#### Course Contents

Module 1: Renewable energy technologies fundamentals

- Renewable energy technologies fundamentals

- Classification of renewable energy technologies

- National action plan for the penetration of renewable energy technologies in national energy mixture

- Licensing procedure for renewable energy projects

Module 2: On ground renewable energy structures

- PV tracker

o Single axis trackers

o Dual axis trackers

- Wind tower

o Consisting parts

o Guyed Tower

o Lattice tower

o Tubular tower

- Anaerobic digestion reactor

Module 3: Coastal renewable energy structures

- Tidal generator

o Concept and basic prototypes

- Off shore wind tower

o Bottom-mounted axial turbines

o A cable tethered turbine

Module 4: Underground renewable energy structures

- Drilling equipment, methods and technology, advanced drilling techniques, design of wells and casing programs, cementing techniques.

- Borehole geology and stratigraphy interpretation of drill cuttings and cores

- Cleaning and repair of production wells, well maintenance.

- Stress orientation and characterization, hydraulic fracturing.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts of renewable energy sources applications.
- Be aware of large structures deemed necessary for the proper operation of renewable energy sources power plants.
- Present and analyze the structures related to on ground renewable energy technologies applications (solar trackers, wind tower, anaerobic digestion reactor).
- Present and analyze the structures related to coastal renewable energy technologies applications (tidal turbines, off shore wind towers).
- Present and analyze the structures related to underground renewable energy technologies applications (geothermal heat exchanger).

#### Course Contents

**Module A - BasicConcepts**

- Basic concept ofEIA

- Elements of EIA

- Factorsaffecting EIA Impact evaluation and analysis

- Preparation ofBaseline studies

**Module B - Proceduresand Law **

- EnvironmentalImpact Assessment Process in the European / Cyprus Context

- Roles andResponsibilities of Groups Involved in the EIA System

- Laws and RegulatoryFrameworks for Environmental Impact Assessment

- European Union Directives
- National Laws and Standards

**Module C - TechnicalComponents of Environmental Impact Assessment**

- Impactprediction

- Assessment ofImpact significance

- Identificationand Incorporation of mitigation measures

**Module D - EIAMethodological Approaches**

- EIA Methodologies:introduction

- Criteria for theselection of EIA Methodology

- EIA Methods

- predictive methods
- environmental risk assessment
- economic methods

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand the basic concepts, methodological approaches, and technological components of an Environmental Impact Assessment.
- Identify all applicable European Norms, National Codes and Standards concerning the environment and sustainable development.
- Exhibit knowledge and understanding of the way that an EIA is conducted within the framework of the energy sector in Cyprus and in the EU.
- Coordinate an Environmental Impact Assessment, including team-building and scoping of a project.

#### Course Contents

Introduction: Description of general concepts related to transport engineering. Importance to systems that promote sustainability. Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities they serve. Transport systems have significant impacts on the environment, accounting for between 20% and 25% of world energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transport are increasing at a faster rate than any other energy using sector. Road transport is also a major contributor to local air pollution and smog.

Transport in society: Present the need of transport and also why public transport is needed. Explain modal split and several transport engineering concepts.

Physical components of transport: Infrastructure; terminal; of carriage and motive power; Characteristics of a transport system; Overview of major transportation systems.

Air Transport: Characteristics of air transport. Operational, meteorological, physical, environmental, economic factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport. Basic requirements of technical buildings. Factors affecting location, length and direction of runways. Parking, Importance of accessibility and connection with other means of transport. Describe different types of airport: centralized and decentralized. Fuel efficiency, emissions.

Data Collection: Different categories of road transport data for the planning, design and management of transport systems. Categories of data include: journey characteristics, traffic characteristics, parking studies, accidents studies. Methods for data collection for each category. Solution of home interview problems. Solution of problems of speed surveys and evaluation of results

Road Transport: Use of the forecasting model and solution of problems using: trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice, trip assignment methods using different algorithms. Factors affecting: (a) trip generation (income, household size), (b) trip distribution (distance between zones, socioeconomic factor), (c) mode choice (cost, time) and (d) trip assignment (traffic, distance, time, signals, type of road). Description of road network and classes of road with characteristics for each class. Types of junctions and advantages disadvantages for each one. Different types of pavement. Use of sustainable materials for pavement construction (recycled concrete etc). Fuel efficiency, emissions,

Traffic Signals: Definitions related to traffic signals (red time, phase, intergreen period, change interval, all red, cycle length, etc). Suitability of junctions for traffic signal. Solution of problems related to traffic signal design and evaluation of results

New types of transportation means: Describe new types of transportation systems, low pollution cars and transportation systems, energy efficient transportation systems.

#### Learning Outcomes of the course unit

By the end of the course, the students should be able to:

- Understand general concepts related to transport engineering.
- Describe factors affecting the selection of location and layout of an airport.
- Describe categories of terminal buildings of airports and factors affecting the decision making.
- Describe air pollution effects as a result of air transport.
- Understand sustainability air transport.
- Identify categories of road transport data and their importance for road planning, maintenance and management.
- Understand air pollution effects as a result of road transport.
- Solve problems of speed surveys and evaluate results.
- Solve forecasting model (trip generation, trip distribution, and mode choice and trip assignment) problems using different algorithms.
- Perform traffic signal design and evaluate results.
- Describe new systems for sustainability of road transport.
- Describe public transport for sustainability.

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